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Lesson 4: Lithuanian

Virginija Vasiliauskiene and Jonathan Slocum

After the Second World War, East Prussia fell to Russia. Practically no local inhabitants remained in this land. All the Lithuanian place names of this area were replaced with Russian place names. Such a pitiless historical fate befell the land in which the first Lithuanian book, Martýnas Mãzvydas' Catechism (1547), was published, where Daniel Klein's first Lithuanian grammar (1653) appeared, where Jõnas Bretkunas for the first time translated the Bible, where the chef-d'oeuvre of world fame, Metai 'The seasons' was written by Kristijõnas Doneláitis, where the first Lithuanian newspaper (1822) appeared, and where the first herald of the renaissance of the Lithuanian nation, the newspaper Ausrā 'Dawn' (1883-1886) was published.

Mãzvydas, Bretkunas, Doneláitis, etc. What do I know? Maybe I am their distant relative, said the author, Ievā Simonaitýte, whose mother boasted that she was a descendant of the Old Prussians.

As Výtautas Kubėlius, one of the most prominent scholars of the Lithuanian literature, says, Ievā Simonaitýte, writing her first novel The Fate of the Simoniai from the Village of Aukstujai (1935), felt it her duty as an artist (literally: 'with the artistic word') to encompass the picturesque aspect of Lithuania Minor, its historical memory, its spiritual substance. She was concerned with describing not only the obviously evident patriarchal way of life of the Prussian Lithuanians (lietųvninkai), but to look into remnants of the old beliefs and moral precepts in view of the German newcomers. She understood that the literature of a small nation would lose its roots if it did not consider the problems of national existence. Simonaitýte poeticized the way of life of the Prussian Lithuanians considering it essential for the endurance and survival of the people. Still she felt the illusory character of such poeticization in the whirlpools of the XXth century unifying civilization and the policy of denationalization carried out by the great empires -- a cruel fate, coming to East Prussia after the raging 1709 plague destroyed seven generations of honorable Prussian Lithuanians. German colonists began to move into lands that had been thinned out by the plague. Here they act(ed) like the real masters. All the heroes of the chronicle of this family are marked with the elegy of defeat. Simonaitýte feels that the time of this Lithuanian tribe is at an end. Only the old names recall many of their former habitats, and these old names will soon be changed. Simonaitýte wrote The fate of the Simoniai from the village of Aukstujai, keeping before her eyes the model of the novel-family chronicle that is popular in the German Heimatdichtung literature.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Here we give a selection from the first pages of Aukstuju Simoniu likėmas. In it, the castle tower of the family of Simonis the boyar, built on the bank of the river Isrā before the beginning of the raging plague of 1709, is described. This tower is the personified symbol of all of Lithuania Minor and its fate. Formerly it had been the tower of a strong Lithuanian castle that had protected Lithuanians from enemies. Now its protection is no longer needed, since the Lithuanians have long been in the power of foreigners. Yet the tower itself still doesn't understand how alone it is, neglected and comical, although it is still proud and retains in its memory the former Lithuanian power.

Simonaitýte spoke the Samogitian Lithuanian dialect of the Klaipeda region. In this excerpt, she uses the definite form of the pronoun ans, ansai 'that'; the particle mandėng, characteristic of this area, which means 'most likely, it seems to me'; the noun zizdrai, which means 'grains of sand, small particles of sand'; and the word ponyste, characteristic of old literature, which means 'kingdom, country'. Also, constructions with participles, gerunds and half-participles are abundantly used. This is one of the most characteristic features of the language of this area, e.g., pilies buta 'there was, it seems, a castle'; ámziams slenkant 'the centuries passing, in the course of centuries'; gáudydami víenas kėta 'chasing each other'; yrā uzmirses 'have forgotten', etc. Definite forms are frequent in her work, although in this excerpt there are only two: griuvancioji pilės 'the crumbling castle' and ansai prótevis 'that ancestor'. This excerpt reflects a somewhat different word order compared with contemporary standard Lithuanian, láisves kokiõs 'some kind of freedom'; tvėrtus sáu, sāvo vaikáms ir vaiku vaikáms namųs, literally 'a solid, for himself, his children and his children's children, house'.

Siandien jau niekam nebereikia tõ bóksto sargýbos.

  • siandien -- adverb; <siandien> today -- today
  • jau -- particle; <jau> already, just -- ...
  • niekam -- pronoun; dative singular of <niekas> no one, nobody, nothing -- nobody
  • nebereikia -- negative particle; <nebe> not any more + verb; 3rd person present of <reiketi, reikia, reikejo> need -- not need any more
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <tās, tā> this, that -- that
  • bóksto -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <bókstas> tower -- of tower
  • sargýbos -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <sargýba> guard, protection -- the protection

Siandien jõ plysiúotos síenos nč tám, kād lietųviai, ciā pasislepe, sáudytu sāvo strelemės i neātmusamus príesus, kuriu pulkai, nesuskaitomi kaip zizdrai prie juros, púola bajõru pėli.

  • siandien -- adverb; <siandien> today -- today
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- its
  • plysiúotos -- adjective; nominative plural feminine of <plysiúotas, plysiúota> fissured, cracked -- fissured
  • síenos -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <síena> wall -- walls
  • -- particle; <> no, not -- (are) not
  • tám -- adverb; <tám> thereto -- there for
  • kād -- conjunction; <kād> that -- that
  • lietųviai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <lietųvis> Lithuanian -- Lithuanians
  • ciā -- adverb; <ciā> here -- here
  • pasislepe -- verb; nominative plural masculine of preterit participle active reflexive of <pasislepti, pasėslepia, pasėslepe> hidden -- hidden
  • sáudytu -- verb; 3rd person subjunctive of <sáudyti, sáudo, sáude> shoot -- would shoot
  • sāvo -- pronoun; genitive of <sāvo> he, she -- their
  • strelemės -- noun, feminine; instrumental plural of <strele> arrow -- arrows
  • i -- preposition; <i> at, for, in, to -- at
  • neātmusamus -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; accusative plural masculine of present participle passive of <atmųsti, ātmusa, ātmuse> repulse, repel -- unstoppable
  • príesus -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <príesas> enemy -- enemies
  • kuriu -- conjunction; genitive plural masculine of <kurės, kurė> which, who -- whose
  • pulkai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <pulkas> regiment -- regiments
  • nesuskaitomi -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle passive of <suskaitýti, suskaito, suskaite> countless -- countless
  • kaip -- conjunction; <kaip> as, like -- as
  • zizdrai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <zėzdras> grain -- the grains (of sand)
  • prie -- preposition; <prie> at -- at
  • juros -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <jura> sea -- the seashore
  • púola -- verb; 3rd person present of <pųlti, púola, púole> attack -- attack
  • bajõru -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <bajõras> boyar -- the boyars'
  • pėli -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <pilės> castle -- castle

Taip, kitadõs ciā tikrõs pilies buta.

  • taip -- particle; <taip> so, therefore -- yes
  • kitadõs -- adverb; <kitadõs> once, sometime -- at one time
  • ciā -- adverb; <ciā> here -- here
  • tikrõs -- adjective; genitive singular feminine of <tėkras, tikrā> genuine -- real
  • pilies -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <pilės> castle -- a castle
  • buta -- verb; neuter of preterit participle passive of <buti, yrā, bųvo> be -- there was

Bčt, ámziams slenkant, ir griuvancioji pilės lėko bč prasmes.

  • bčt -- conjunction; <bčt> but -- but
  • ámziams -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <ámzius> century -- centuries
  • slenkant -- verb; present gerund(ive) of <slinkti, slenka, slinko> pass, slip -- slipping by
  • ir -- particle; <ir> and -- even
  • griuvancioji -- verb; nominative singular feminine of present definite participle active of <griuti, griuva, griųvo> crumble -- crumbling
  • pilės -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <pilės> castle -- the castle
  • lėko -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <lėkti, líeka, lėko> remain -- remained
  • -- preposition; <> before, without -- without
  • prasmes -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <prasme> sense, meaning -- meaning

Ir víenas sumanųs Simoniu próteviu pastãte cionai tvėrtus sáu, sāvo vaikáms ir vaiku vaikáms namųs, kuriuõs aplinkiniai burai rumais prāmine.

  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • víenas -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <víenas, vienā> alone, each -- one
  • sumanųs -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <sumanųs, sumanė> clever -- clever
  • Simoniu -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Simónis> Simonis -- from among Simonis'
  • próteviu -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <prótevis> ancestor -- ancestors
  • pastãte -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <pastatýti, pastãto, pastãte> build -- built
  • cionai -- adverb; <cionai> here -- here
  • tvėrtus -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <tvėrtas, tvirtā> solid, strong -- solid
  • sáu -- pronoun; dative of <saves> oneself, itself -- for himself
  • sāvo -- pronoun; genitive of <sāvo> he, she -- his
  • vaikáms -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <vaikas> child -- for children
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • vaiku -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <vaikas> child -- children's
  • vaikáms -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <vaikas> child -- for children
  • namųs -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <namai> house -- house
  • kuriuõs -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <kurės, kurė> which, who -- which
  • aplinkiniai -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <aplinkinis, aplinkine> neighboring -- neighboring
  • burai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <buras> peasant -- peasants
  • rumais -- noun, masculine; instrumental plural of <rumai> palace -- a palace
  • prāmine -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <praminti, prāmena, prāmine> call, name -- called

Visās nereikalėngas kampúotas síenas ansai prótevis nugrióve.

  • visās -- pronoun; accusative plural feminine of <vėsas, visā> all -- all
  • nereikalėngas -- negative particle; <ne> not + adjective; accusative plural feminine of <reikalėngas, reikalėnga> necessary -- unnecessary
  • kampúotas -- adjective; accusative plural feminine of <kampúotas, kampúota> awkward -- awkward
  • síenas -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <síena> wall -- the walls
  • ansai -- definite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <anās, anā> that -- that
  • prótevis -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <prótevis> ancestor -- ancestor
  • nugrióve -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <nugriáuti, nugriáuna, nugrióve> destroy -- destroyed

Tėk bókstas pasilėko, nórs jõ taip jau nebereikejo.

  • tėk -- particle; <tėk> only -- only
  • bókstas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <bókstas> tower -- the tower
  • pasilėko -- verb; 3rd person preterit reflexive of <pasilėkti, pasilieka, pasilėko> remain -- remained
  • nórs -- conjunction; <nórs> although -- although
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- it
  • taip jau -- adverb; <taip jau> also -- also
  • nebereikejo -- negative particle; <nebe> not any more + verb; 3rd person preterit of <reiketi, reikia, reikejo> need -- was unnecessary

Bčt bókstas ir siandien dár nezėno, kād jės nebereikalėngas.

  • bčt -- conjunction; <bčt> but -- but
  • bókstas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <bókstas> tower -- the tower
  • ir -- particle; <ir> and -- even
  • siandien -- adverb; <siandien> today -- today
  • dár -- adverb; <dár> even, still -- yet
  • nezėno -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; 3rd person present of <zinóti, zėno, zinójo> know -- doesn't realize
  • kād -- conjunction; <kād> that -- that
  • jės -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- it
  • nebereikalėngas -- negative particle; <nebe> not any more + adjective; nominative singular masculine of <reikalėngas, reikalėnga> necessary -- is not necessary

Jės dár, mandėng, nesupranta dabarties.

  • jės -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- it
  • dár -- adverb; <dár> even, still -- still
  • mandėng -- particle; <mandėng> seem -- (it) seems
  • nesupranta -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; 3rd person present of <suprāsti, supranta, suprãto> understand -- doesn't understand
  • dabarties -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <dabartės> present -- the present

Jės dár vis tebegyvena atsiminėmais ir kazi kõ lýg láukia.

  • jės -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- it
  • dár vis -- adverb; <dár vis> even, still -- even
  • tebegyvena -- verb; 3rd person present of <tebegyvénti, tebegyvena, tebegyveno> still live -- is still living
  • atsiminėmais -- noun, masculine; instrumental plural reflexive of <atsiminėmai> memories -- with memories
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • kazi kõ -- pronoun; genitive of <kazi kõ> something -- for something
  • lýg -- conjunction; <lýg> as, like -- as if
  • láukia -- verb; 3rd person present of <láukti, láukia, láuke> expect, wait -- is waiting

Nč láisves kokiõs.

  • -- particle; <> no, not -- not
  • láisves -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <láisve> freedom -- freedom
  • kokiõs -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <kóks, kokiā> any, some -- some kind of

Jės visái yrā uzmirses, kād paskutėne kadáise bųvusi kruvinā kovā baigesi lietųviu nenáudai, ir siandien jie gyvena svetimõj ponystej.

  • jės -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- it
  • visái -- adverb; <visái> completely, totally -- completely
  • yrā -- verb; 3rd person present of <buti, yrā, bųvo> be -- ...
  • uzmirses -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <uzmirsti, uzmirsta, uzmirso> forget -- has forgotten
  • kād -- conjunction; <kād> that -- that
  • paskutėne -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <paskutėnis, paskutėne> last, final -- last
  • kadáise -- adverb; <kadáise> once, sometime -- in the past
  • bųvusi -- verb; nominative singular feminine of preterit participle active of <buti, yrā, bųvo> be -- (which) took place
  • kruvinā -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <krųvinas, kruvinā> bloody -- bloody
  • kovā -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <kovā> battle, struggle -- the battle
  • baigesi -- verb; 3rd person preterit reflexive of <baigtis, baigiasi, baigesi> end -- ended
  • lietųviu -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <lietųvis> Lithuanian -- of the Lithuanians
  • nenáudai -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <nenaudā> disadvantage -- to the disadvantage
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • siandien -- adverb; <siandien> today -- now
  • jie -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- they
  • gyvena -- verb; 3rd person present of <gyvénti, gyvena, gyveno> live -- live
  • svetimõj -- adjective; locative singular feminine of <svetimas, svetimā> foreign -- foreign
  • ponystej -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <ponyste> kingdom, country -- in a country

Tiesā, jės daug kãro gaisru mãtes, daug kãro sauksmu girdejes, ir tõ jės neuzmirses.

  • tiesā -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <tiesā> truth -- true
  • jės -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- it
  • daug -- adverb; <daug> many, much -- many
  • kãro -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <kãras> war -- of war
  • gaisru -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <gaisras> conflagration, fire -- conflagrations
  • mãtes -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <matýti, mãto, mãte> see -- has seen
  • daug -- adverb; <daug> many, much -- many
  • kãro -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <kãras> war -- of war
  • sauksmu -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <sauksmas> call, cry -- calls
  • girdejes -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <girdeti, girdi, girdejo> hear -- has heard
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <tās, tā> this, that -- that
  • jės -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- it
  • neuzmirses -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <uzmirsti, uzmirsta, uzmirso> forget -- has not forgotten

Todel jės visadā dár pasirenges atmųsti kazkóki príesa, nórinti uzpųlti Líetuva.

  • todel -- adverb; <todel> therefore -- therefore
  • jės -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- it
  • visadā -- adverb; <visadā> always -- always
  • dár -- adverb; <dár> even, still -- still
  • pasirenges -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active reflexive of <pasirengti, pasirengia, pasėrenge> prepare -- is prepared
  • atmųsti -- verb; infinitive of <atmųsti, ātmusa, ātmuse> repulse, repel -- to repulse
  • kazkóki -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <kazkóks, kazkokiā> some -- whatever
  • príesa -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <príesas> enemy -- enemy
  • nórinti -- verb; accusative singular masculine of present participle active of <noreti, nóri, norejo> want -- (which)wants
  • uzpųlti -- verb; infinitive of <uzpųlti, uzpúola, uzpúole> attack -- to attack
  • Líetuva -- proper noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Lietuvā> Lithuania -- Lithuania

Juokėngas tās senis bókstas.

  • juokėngas -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <juokėngas, juokėnga> comical -- is comical
  • tās -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <tās, tā> this, that -- that
  • senis -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <senis> old man -- old man
  • bókstas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <bókstas> tower -- tower

Jės ne pāts nebezėno, kād tie plysiai, kur kitadõs lietųviu saudykles kýsojo, siandien nčt labai padideje.

  • jės -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- it
  • ne -- particle; <ne> even -- even
  • pāts -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <pāts, patė> itself -- itself
  • nebezėno -- negative particle; <nebe> not any more + verb; 3rd person present of <zinóti, zėno, zinójo> know -- doesn't know
  • kād -- conjunction; <kād> that -- that
  • tie -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <tās, tā> this, that -- those
  • plysiai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <plysys> fissure, cleft -- fissures
  • kur -- adverb; <kur> where -- where
  • kitadõs -- adverb; <kitadõs> once, sometime -- once
  • lietųviu -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <lietųvis> Lithuanian -- of Lithuanians
  • saudykles -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <saudykle> gun -- guns
  • kýsojo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <kýsoti, kýso, kýsojo> stick out -- stuck out
  • siandien -- adverb; <siandien> today -- today
  • nčt -- particle; <nčt> even -- even
  • labai -- adverb; <labai> very much -- much
  • padideje -- verb; nominative plural masculine of preterit participle active of <padideti, padideja, padidejo> increase -- have increased

Todel jės kartais atródo lýg bedantis senelis.

  • todel -- adverb; <todel> therefore -- therefore
  • jės -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- it
  • kartais -- adverb; <kartais> sometimes -- sometimes
  • atródo -- verb; 3rd person present of <atródyti, atródo, atróde> look -- looks
  • lýg -- conjunction; <lýg> as, like -- like
  • bedantis -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <bedantis, bedante> toothless -- toothless
  • senelis -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <senelis> old man -- an old man

Vejai svilpia ir ubauja prõ anuõs plysiųs, gaúdydami víenas kėta.

  • vejai -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <vejas> wind -- the winds
  • svilpia -- verb; 3rd person present of <svilpti, svilpia, svilpe> whistle -- whistle
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • ubauja -- verb; 3rd person present of <ubauti, ubauja, ubavo> hoot -- howl
  • prõ -- preposition; <prõ> through -- through
  • anuõs -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <anās, anā> that -- those
  • plysiųs -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <plysys> fissure, cleft -- fissures
  • gaúdydami -- verb; plural masculine of half participle of <gáudyti, gáudo, gáude> chase -- chasing
  • víenas -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <víenas, vienā> alone, each -- each
  • kėta -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <kėtas, kitā> other -- other

Õ tai girdisi lýg kād senis svepliótu.

  • õ -- conjunction; <õ> and, but -- but
  • tai -- pronoun; neuter of <tās, tā> this, that -- it
  • girdisi -- verb; 3rd person present reflexive of <girdetis, girdisi, girdejosi> be heard -- sounds
  • lýg -- conjunction; <lýg> as, like -- like
  • kād -- conjunction; <kād> that -- ...
  • senis -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <senis> old man -- an old man
  • svepliótu -- verb; 3rd person subjunctive of <sveplióti, svepliója, svepliójo> lisp -- would lisp

Lesson Text

Siandien jau niekam nebereikia tõ bóksto sargýbos. Siandien jõ plysiúotos síenos nč tám, kād lietųviai, ciā pasislepe, sáudytu sāvo strelemės i neātmusamus príesus, kuriu pulkai, nesuskaitomi kaip zizdrai prie juros, púola bajõru pėli. Taip, kitadõs ciā tikrõs pilies buta. Bčt, ámziams slenkant, ir griuvancioji pilės lėko bč prasmes. Ir víenas sumanųs Simoniu próteviu pastãte cionai tvėrtus sáu, sāvo vaikáms ir vaiku vaikáms namųs, kuriuõs aplinkiniai burai rumais prāmine. Visās nereikalėngas kampúotas síenas ansai prótevis nugrióve.

Tėk bókstas pasilėko, nórs jõ taip jau nebereikejo. Bčt bókstas ir siandien dár nezėno, kād jės nebereikalėngas. Jės dár, mandėng, nesupranta dabarties. Jės dár vis tebegyvena atsiminėmais ir kazi kõ lýg láukia. Nč láisves kokiõs. Jės visái yrā uzmirses, kād paskutėne kadáise bųvusi kruvinā kovā baigesi lietųviu nenáudai, ir siandien jie gyvena svetimõj ponystej. Tiesā, jės daug kãro gaisru mãtes, daug kãro sauksmu girdejes, ir tõ jės neuzmirses. Todel jės visadā dár pasirenges atmųsti kazkóki príesa, nórinti uzpųlti Líetuva.

Juokėngas tās senis bókstas. Jės ne pāts nebezėno, kād tie plysiai, kur kitadõs lietųviu saudykles kýsojo, siandien nčt labai padideje. Todel jės kartais atródo lýg bedantis senelis. Vejai svilpia ir ubauja prõ anuõs plysiųs, gaúdydami víenas kėta. Õ tai girdisi lýg kād senis svepliótu.

Translation

Today nobody needs the protection of that tower any more. Today its fissured walls are not there for Lithuanians, who, hidden here, could shoot their arrows at unstoppable enemies whose regiments, countless as the grains of sand at the seashore, attack the boyars' castle. Yes, at one time there was surely a real castle here. But in the course of centuries even the crumbling castle remained without meaning. And one clever person from among Simonis' ancestors built for himself, his children and his children's children a solid house, which the neighboring peasants called a palace. This ancestor destroyed all the unnecessary awkward walls.
Only the tower remained, although that was also unnecessary. But the tower even today doesn't realize that it is no longer necessary. It seems that it still doesn't understand the present. It is still living with its memories and seems to be waiting for something. Not some kind of freedom. It has completely forgotten that the last bloody battle ended to the disadvantage of the Lithuanians and now they live in a foreign country. True, it has seen many conflagrations of war, has heard the clamor of war and has not forgotten this. Therefore it is always prepared to repulse whatever enemy wants to attack Lithuania.
That senile old man tower is comical. It doesn't know itself that those fissures where Lithuanian guns once stuck out have become much bigger today. Therefore it sometimes looks like a toothless old man. Chasing each other the winds whistle and howl through these fissures. But it sounds like a lisping old man.

Grammar

16. The Accent Classes of the Nouns
16.1. The Third Accent Class

The third accent class comprises nouns that, in the dative plural, have their stress on the ending while in the accusative plural the stress may fall on any syllable of their stem. When the stress falls on the penultimate syllable, it is always acute; when the stress falls on any other syllable of the stem before penultimate, it may be acute, circumflex, or the syllable may be short, e.g., acc.sg. délna 'palm (of the hand)'; debesi 'cloud'; dóbila 'clover'; ųzdavini 'task'.

In trisyllabic and quadrisyllabic nouns, the play of stress is ordinarily between the initial syllable and the final syllable. If the stress on the initial syllable is the acute, these nouns are labelled 3a for trisyllabic and 34a for quadrisyllabic. If the stress on the initial syllable is circumflex or the syllable is short, they are labelled 3b and 34b respectively, e.g., acc.sg. kepala 3b 'loaf'; zėburi 3b; tráukini 3a; ãpdangala 34b 'cover'; láiskanesi 34a 'postman'; pėktadari 'malefactor' 34b.

Examples of the third accent class are given below:

Nom sg   délnas 'palm'   aikste 'square'   debesės 'cloud'
Gen sg   délno   aikstes   debesies
Dat sg   délnui   áikstei   debesiui
Acc sg   délna   áikste   debesi
Inst sg   délnu   áikste   debesimė
            debesim
Loc sg   delnč   aikstejč   debesyjč
        aikstej   debesy
Voc sg   délne   áikste   debesie
             
Nom pl   delnai   áikstes   debesys
Gen pl   delnu   aiksciu   debesu
Dat pl   delnáms   aikstems   debesėms
    delnám   aikstem   debesėm
Acc pl   délnus   áikstes   debesis
Inst pl   delnais   aikstemės   debesimės
        aikstem   debesim
Loc pl   delnuosč   aikstesč   debesysč
    delnuõs        
Voc pl   delnai   áikstes   debesys
16.2. The Fourth Accent Class

The fourth accent class comprises nouns that, in the dative and accusative plural, have their stress on the ending. In their paradigm the stress alternates between the ending and the penultimate syllable, which is either short or has the circumflex intonation. The fourth accent class seems to be a kind of combination of the second and third accent classes. In any particular case if the stress is required on the inflectional syllable by either the rules of the second or the third accent class, then the stress will be on the inflectional syllable. In other words the stress is on the case ending unless a stem stress is demanded for that same case in both the second and third accent classes. The paradigms for the nouns of the fourth accent class are given bellow. In this paradigm the noun virsųs 'top' is mostly used as singularia tantum and the noun pietus 'dinner', 'south' is pluralia tantum.

Nom sg   nãmas 'house'   pusės 'pine'   virsųs 'top'
Gen sg   nãmo   pusies   virsaus
Dat sg   nãmui   pųsiai   virsui
Acc sg   nãma   pųsi   virsu
Inst sg   namų   pusimė   virsumė
        pusim   virsum
Loc sg   namč   pusyjč   virsujč
        pusy   virsųj
Voc sg   nãme   pusie   virsau
             
Nom pl   namai   pųsys   pietus 'dinner', 'south'
Gen pl   namu   pusu   pietu
Dat pl   namáms   pusėms   pietųms
    namám   pusėm   pietųm
Acc pl   namųs   pusės   pietųs
Inst pl   namais   pusimės   pietumės
        pusim   pietum
Loc pl   namuosč   pusysč   pietuosč
    namuõs       pietuõs
Voc pl   namai   pųsys    
17. Numerals

Numerals are inflected for case, partly for gender and number. Some numerals are similar to nouns, others to adjectives. There are two main groups of numerals: cardinal and ordinal numerals. Cardinal numerals are subdivided into several groups: basic numerals, plural (pluralia tantum) numerals, collective numerals and fractions. According to their structure numerals are simple, derived, compound or composite (multiword) numerals.

17.1. Basic Numerals

The following numerals from one to nine are simple numerals:

    Masculine   Feminine
    víenas 'one'   vienā
    'two'   dvė
    trys 'three'   trys
    keturė 'four'   keturios
    penkė 'five'   penkios
    sesė 'six'   sesios
    septynė 'seven'   septýnios
    astuonė 'eight'   astúonios
    devynė 'nine'   devýnios

The number víenas is declined like a regular first declension adjective and agrees in case, number and gender with the noun which it modifies, e.g., Jės tųri tėk víena dvėrati 'He has only one bicycle'. The number trys is inflected for gender only in the locative, e.g., trijuosč viesbuciuose 'in three hotels' vs trijosč kavėnese 'in three cafes'.

    Masculine   Feminine   Masculine   Masculine   Feminine    
Nom   'two'   dvė   trys   'three'   keturė 'four'   keturios
Gen   dvieju   dvieju   triju   keturiu   keturiu    
Dat   dvíem   dvíem   trėms   keturíems   keturióms    
            trėm   keturíem   keturióm    
Acc     dvė   trės   keturis   keturias    
Inst   dviem   dviem   trimės   keturiais   keturiomės    
            trim       keturiõm    
Loc   dviejuosč   dviejosč   trijuosč   keturiuosč   keturiosč    
    dviejuõs           keturiuõs        
    Masculine   Feminine   Masculine   Feminine
Nom   penkė 'five'   penkios   septynė 'seven'   septýnios
Gen   penkiu   penkiu   septyniu   septyniu
Dat   penkíems   penkióms   septyníems   septynióms
    penkíem   penkióm   septyníem   septynióm
Acc   penkės   penkiās   septýnis   septýnias
Inst   penkiais   penkiomės   septyniais   septyniomės
        penkiõm       septyniõm
Loc   penkiuosč   penkiosč   septyniuosč   septyniosč
    penkiuõs       septyniuõs    

The declension of penkė and septynė differs from keturė only by virtue of the fact that they belong to different accent classes. Sesė is declined and accented like penkė, and astuonė and devynė like septynė.

The numerals from two to nine agree with the word they modify in case and gender:

  • Svarstymas bųvo atidetas keturióms dienóms
  • 'A discussion was delayed for four days'.

Desimtės 'ten'is declined like a regular third declension noun of accent class 3b, however, it is used rarely. The indeclinable form desimt 'ten' is used instead.

Numbers from eleven to nineteen are denoted by compound numerals. They are built by adding -lika (derived historically from the verb lėkti 'remain') to simple numerals from one to nine:

  • vienúolika 'eleven';
  • dvýlika 'twelve';
  • trýlika 'thirteen';
  • keturiólika 'fourteen';
  • penkiólika 'fifteen';
  • sesiólika 'sixteen;
  • septyniólika 'seventeen';
  • astuoniólika 'eighteen';
  • devyniólika 'nineteen'.

They are not inflected for gender, but they are declined like a regular second declension nouns of the first accent class (cf: síela, 'soul') except that the accusative is like the nominative: vienúolika.

Tens are indicated by compound numerals, the first constituent of which coincides with the accusative form of simple feminine numerals, e.g., dvi-, tris-, keturias-, etc. and the second constituent is the numeral desimt:

  • dvėdesimt 'twenty';
  • trėsdesimt 'thirty';
  • keturiasdesimt 'fourty';
  • penkiasdesimt 'fifty';
  • sesiasdesimt 'sixty';
  • septýniasdesimt 'seventy';
  • astúoniasdesimt 'eighty';
  • devýniasdesimt 'ninety'.

These numerals are declined like desimtės. However, uninflected forms are used more often, e.g.:

  • Bč dvėdesimt (or gen. dvidesimties) vadoveliu neissiversime
  • 'We cannot do without twenty text-books'.

Simtas 'hundred' is declined like a regular first declension noun of the fourth accent class (cf: na~mas 'house').

Tukstantis 'thousand' is declined like a regular first declension noun of the first accent class (cf: brólis 'brother').

Milijõnas 'million' is declined like a regular first declension noun of the second accent class (cf: pirstas 'finger').

Numerals from 10 to 19, numerals indicating tens (20-90), also simtas 'hundred', tukstantis 'thousand', milijõnas, 'million', milijárdas 'billion' require that the noun quantified be in the genitive plural. They are used as nouns, e.g.:

  • Sesiólika streliu 'sixteen arrows';
  • penkiasdesimt piliu 'fifty castles';
  • simtas vaiku 'a hundred children';
  • tukstantis príesu 'a thousand enemies';
  • milijõnai vabzdziu 'millions of insects';
  • milijárdas zvaigzdziu 'a billion stars'.

In declining multi-word numerals, we decline all the components except for the uninflected ones, e.g., nom. dų simtai penkiasdesimt devynė; gen. dvieju simtu penkiasdesimt devyniu; dat. dvíem simtáms penkiasdesimt devyníems, etc.

17.2. Plural Numerals

Those numerals which are reserved for use with nouns which have a plural form but a singular meaning are as follows:

    Masculine   Feminine
    vienerė metai 'one year'   víenerios dųrys 'one door'
    vienė metai 'one year'   víenos dųrys 'one door'
    dvejė pietus 'two dinners'   dvejos skyrýbos 'two divorces'
    trejė vartai 'three gates';   trejos rõges 'three sledges'
    ketverė akiniai 'four eye glasses'   ketverios zėrkles 'four pairs of scissors'
    penkerė rinkėmai 'five elections'   penkerios vestųves 'five weddings'
    seserė nestųvai 'six stretchers'   seserios láidotuves 'six funerals'
    septynerė kailiniai 'seven fur coats'   septýnerios kélnes 'seven pairs of trousers'
    astuonerė marskiniai 'eight shirts'   astúonerios imtynes 'eight wrestling matches'
    devynerė pakinktai 'nine harnesses'   devýnerios mustynes 'nine fights'

The plural number vienerė, vienerios 'one' is a new form in Lithuanian. Also the plural forms of the cardinal numbers vienė, víenos are used with pluralia tantum. These numerals are formed by adding the suffixes -eji, -ejos or -eri, -erios to a simple cardinal numerals.

Numerals of this group are declined like the adjectives of the second declension (cf: zãlias, zaliā 'green'):

    Masculine   Feminine   Masculine   Feminine
Nom   vienerė 'one'   víenerios   dvejė 'two'   dvejos
Gen   vieneriu   vieneriu   dveju   dveju
Dat   vieneríems   vienerióms   dvejíems   dvejóms
    vieneríem   vienerióm   dvejíem   dvejóm
Acc   víenerius   víenerias   dvejųs   dvejās
Inst   vieneriais   vieneriomės   dvejais   dvejomės
        vieneriõm       dvejõm
Loc   vieneriuosč   vieneriosč   dvejuosč   dvejosč
    vieneriuõs       dvejuõs    

Dvejė and trejė are accented like the ajectives of the fourth accent class, whereas all the others are accented like the adjectives of the third accent class.

17.3. Collective Numerals

There are eight collective numerals: dvejetas 'two', trejetas 'three', ketvertas 'four', penketas 'five', sesetas 'six', septýnetas 'seven', astúonetas 'eight', devýnetas 'nine'. They are formed by adding the suffixes -etas or -tas (ketvertas 'four') to a basic numeral or plural numerals. Víenetas 'one' does not denote number so it cannot be regarded as a collective numeral. It is used as a noun, e.g.:

  • Lėtas yrā Lietuvõs pinigėnis víenetas
  • 'The litas is the basic unit of currency in Lithuania'.

Other collective numerals (mostly their diminutive forms) can also be used as nouns:

  • Stártinis penketųkas jau bųvo pasiruõses zaisti
  • 'The starting line-up of five (players) was ready to play'.

These numerals belong to accent class one and are declined like regular first declension nouns (cf: výras).

The collective numerals show that the objects under consideration are to be taken as a group:

  • Uztrųksiu tik trejeta dienu 'I will be delayed only for three days'.
  • Sesetas výru megėno inčsti pianėna i vėdu '(A group of) six men were trying to bring a piano inside'.
  • Ligónis nesugebejo zengti ne ketverto zingsniu 'The patient was not able to take even four steps'.

The noun quantified by these collective numerals is always in the genitive plural.

18. Adjective Inflection
18.1. The Definite Adjectives

The forms of the definite adjective are mainly obtained by adding the appropriate case of the third person pronoun to the indefinite adjective:

  • naujas + jės 'new' + 'he' = naujāsis 'new';
  • naujā + 'new' + 'she' = naujóji 'new'.

But there are some changes in the vowels in their declension:

    Masculine   Feminine   Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   zaliāsis 'green'   zalióji   saldųsis 'sweet'   saldzióji
Gen sg   zãliojo   zaliõsios   sáldziojo   saldziõsios
Dat sg   zaliájam   zãliajai   saldziájam   sáldziajai
Acc sg   zãliaji   zãliaja   sálduji   sáldziaja
Inst sg   zaliúoju   zaliaja   saldziúoju   saldziaja
Loc sg   zaliãjam(e)   zaliõjoj(e)   saldziãjam(e)   saldziõjoj(e)
                 
Nom sg   zalíeji   zãliosios   saldíeji   sáldziosios
Gen sg   zaliuju   zaliuju   saldziuju   saldziuju
Dat sg   zalíesiem(s)   zaliósiom(s)   saldíesiem(s)   saldziósiom(s)
Acc sg   zaliúosius   zaliasias   saldziúosius   saldziasias
Inst sg   zaliaisiais   zaliõsiom(is)   saldziaisiais   saldziõsiom(is)
Loc sg   zaliuõsiuos(e)   zaliõsiose   saldziuõsiuos(e)   saldziõsiose

Definite forms are not formed from the third declension adjectives (e.g., auksėnis 'golden'), but they can be formed from comparative and superlative adjectives: naujesnysis, naujesnióji 'newer'; naujáusiasis, naujáusioji 'newest'.

Some pronouns and numerals and many participles also have definite forms, e.g., tasai bókstas 'that tower'; pirmóji kovā 'the first battle'; griuvancioji pilės 'the crumbling castle'.

The definite form of the adjective is used to point out some particular object in a group of similar objects:

  • Ant stãlo gųli keletas ivairiu spalvu piestųku. 'There are some pencils of different colors on the desk.'
  • Kuriõ tų noretum? 'Which one would you like?'
  • Padúok mán (tã) zãliaji. 'Give me the green one.'

In most cases the English adjective plus one construction could be the best rendered by the definite adjective in Lithuanian.

The definite form of the adjective may also impart a generic meaning of the noun, because it denotes a permanent characteristic. Thus pilkā zasės merely means 'a gray goose', whereas pilkóji zasės is the variety the gray goose (Latin Anser anser). These forms are common in various terms where they cannot be replaced in most cases with the indefinite forms, e.g., greitāsis traukinys 'the fast train' and greitas traukinys 'a fast train'.

Definite forms are used to form proper names:

  • Juodóji jura 'The Black sea';
  • Baltíeji rumai 'The White House';
  • Výtautas Didysis 'Vytautas the Great'.

In many cases the definite adjectives differ very little from the simple adjectives. The definite adjectives merely emphasize more the attributive characteristics of the nouns. Thus, their use can be subjective, e.g.:

  • Mán skauda desine (desiniaja) ãki
  • 'My right eye aches'.

Definite adjectives can be used as substantives of the sentence:

  • Zalíeji uztvere autostrãda 'The Greens blocked the highway'.
  • Uz vagyste jės pateko i sáltaja 'He was locked up in prison (lit. 'the cold one') for the theft'.
  • Desiniéji pralaimes rinkimųs 'The right-wingers will lose the election'.
18.2. Comparision of Adjectives

There are three basic degrees of comparision in Lithuanian just as in English: the positive, the comparative, and the superlative.

The positive adjectival forms do not refer to any difference in the degree of a quality.

The comparative degree is formed by dropping the endings (-(i)as, -us) of the masculine nominative singular of the adjective and adding -esnis (for masculine) or -esne (for feminine), e.g., zalčsnis 'greener', zalčsne; saldčsnis 'sweeter', saldčsne. There is practically no comparative degree with the adjectives of the third declension (auksėnis 'golden', vilnõnis 'woolen').

The comparative adjectives are declined as follows:

    Masculine   Feminine   Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   gilčsnis 'deeper'   gilčsne   didčsnis 'bigger'   didčsne
Gen sg   gilčsnio   gilesnes   didčsnio   didesnes
Dat sg   gilesniám   gilčsnei   didesniám   didčsnei
Acc sg   gilčsni   gilčsne   didčsni   didčsne
Inst sg   gilesnių   gilesnč   didesnių   didesnč
Loc sg   gilesniamč   gilčsneje   didesniamč   didčsneje
    gilesniam   gilčsnej   didesniam   didčsnej
                 
Nom pl   gilesnė   gilčsnes   didesnė   didčsnes
Gen pl   gilesniu   gilesniu   didesniu   didesniu
Dat pl   gilesníems   gilesnems   didesníems   didesnems
    gilesníem   gilesnem   didesníem   didesnem
Acc pl   gilesniųs   gilesnčs   didesniųs   didesnčs
Inst pl   gilesniais   gilesnemės   didesniais   didesnemės
        gilesnem       didesnem
Loc pl   gilesniuosč   gilesnesč   didesniuosč   didesnesč
    gilesniuõs       didesniuõs    

There are some positive adjectives which are also declined according to this paradigm, e.g., dėdelis 'big', dėdele; desinys 'right', desine; kairys 'left', kaire. In the adjective dėdelis 'big' -elis is dropped before the addition of the comparative or supperlative endings -esnis, -iausias, e.g., didčsnis 'bigger', didziáusias 'biggest'.

The comparative degree denotes that there is a greater degree of the quality in question in one object than in another. The concept "than" in most cases is expresed by negų, nei, with the following noun in the nominative case or ųz with the accusative case. Other expressions (kaip, nekaip) are rarer.

  • Tāvo masinā naujčsne negų māno (masinā) 'Your car is newer than my car'.
  • Juodā dúona sveikčsne ųz bálta (dúona) 'Brown bread is more healthy than white bread'.
  • Mōnikos výras turtingčsnis nei Sãros výras 'Monica's husband is richer than Sara's husband'.

The superlative degree is formed by dropping the -(i)as, -us of the masculine nominative singular of the adjective and adding -iausias, -iausia, e.g., zaliáusias, 'greenest' zaliáusia; saldziáusias 'sweetest', saldziáusia. If the stem ends in -d or -t these are replaced by -dz and -c respectively. They are declined like the adjectives of the first declension (cf: zãlias 'green'):

    Masculine   Feminine   Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   giliáusias 'deepest'   giliáusia   didziáusias 'biggest'   didziáusia
Gen sg   giliáusio   giliáusios   didziáusio   didziáusios
Dat sg   giliáusiam   giliáusiai   didziáusiam   didziáusiai
Acc sg   giliáusia   giliáusia   didziáusia   didziáusia
Inst sg   giliáusiu   giliáusia   didziáusiu   didziáusia
Loc sg   giliáusiam(e)   giliáusioj(e)   didziáusiam(e)   didziáusioj(e)
                 
Nom pl   giliáusi   giliáusios   didziáusi   didziáusios
Gen pl   giliáusiu   giliáusiu   didziáusiu   didziáusiu
Dat pl   giliáusiem(s)   giliáusiom(s)   didziáusiem(s)   didziáusiom(s)
Acc pl   giliaúsius   giliaúsias   didziáusius   didziáusias
Inst pl   giliáusiais   giliáusiom(is)   didziáusiais   didziáusiomis
Loc pl   giliáusiuos(e)   giliáusiose   didziáusiuos(e)   didziáusiose

The superlative degree denotes the highest or greatest existing degree of the quality expressed by the adjective:

  • Siuõ metų jės yrā svarbiáusias zmogųs ės visu 'Now he is the most important man of all (people)'.
  • Atvyksta jauniáusia dukte 'The youngest daughter is coming'.
  • Pérduok jíems māno nuosirdziáusius linkejimus 'Give them my warmest greetings'.

The neuter adjective has a comparative -iau and superlative -iausia, e.g., grazų 'beautiful', graziau , graziáusia; pėkta 'angry', pikciau, pikciáusia:

  • Siandien silciau nei vãkar 'Today is warmer than yesterday'.
  • Mán apmaudziáusia del tõ pralaimejimo 'I am mostly annoyed because of that defeat'.

There is a degree which is somewhat stronger than the positive and weaker than the comparative. It is formed with the suffixes -elesnis, -elesne, e.g., mazelčsnis 'a little smaller' mazelčsne. Some other transitional stages are expressed by the prefixes apy- and po- or the suffix -okas, e.g., apýsunkis 'pretty hard', apýsunke; apýnaujis 'pretty new' apýnauje; póminkstis 'pretty soft', póminkste; didókas 'rather big', didóka.

19. The Participles, Half-participles, and Gerunds

Participles in Lithuanian are similar to participles in English and other languages. They are a variety of adjectives derived from verbs. In Lithuanian they are declined like adjectives and they can denote the characteristic of an object. They can possess definite forms. But, since they are formed from verbs, they also have verbal characteristics: they can denote action and are inflected for tense and can be active and passive. The reflexive forms are also an important verbal characteristic of the participles.

Participles can be used in the following four cases: (a) as modifiers (adjectival use); (b) in compound tenses; (c) in participial phrases; (d) in indirect discourse.

The special adverbial participles (half-participles) denote an action which is simultaneous with the action of the main verb.

Four indeclinable forms of active participles are traditionally called gerunds. They are formed by adding the same suffixes to the same stems as any other active participle. The main difference is the absence of case endings.

19.1. The Present Active Participles and Half-participles

The present active participles are formed by replacing the 3rd person endings -a, -i, -o with (a) the masculine nominative singular endings -as, -is, -as or (b) the feminine nominative singular endings -anti, -inti, -anti, e.g.:

bega '(he) runs': begãs (in adjectival function begantis), beganti 'running';    
mýli   '(he) loves': mylis (in adjectival function mýlintis), mýlinti 'loving';
gýdo '(he) cures': gydãs (in adjectival function gýdantis), gýdanti 'curing'.    

The present active participles are declined as follows:

    Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   begãs 'running'   beganti
    begantis    
Gen sg   begancio   begancios
Dat sg   beganciam   beganciai
Acc sg   beganti   begancia
Inst sg   beganciu   begancia
Loc sg   beganciam(e)   begancioj(e)
         
Nom pl   begã   begancios
    begantys    
Gen pl   beganciu   beganciu
Dat pl   begantiem(s)   beganciom(s)
Acc pl   begancius   begancias
Inst pl   beganciais   beganciom(is)
Loc pl   beganciuos(e)   beganciose

The forms begantis 'running', begantys are used only in adjectival function, e.g., begantis ciáupas 'running tap', begantys ciáupai 'running taps'. Begãs ciáupas and begã ciáupai would be uncommon in Modern Lithuanian.

In the nominative singular and plural the present active participles have a special form which is used in adverbial function. It is called in Lithuanian as the half-participle. Half-participles are formed by adding -damas, -dama to the infinitival stem, e.g.,

  • beg-ti 'to run': sg. begdamas, begdamā;
  • myle-ti 'to love': sg. myledamas, myledama.

These forms are inflected for gender and number and they agree with the subject of the sentence in gender and number, e.g.:

  • Vaikas begdamas trenkesi i durės
  • 'The child struck the door while running'.
19.2. The Past Active Participle

The past active participle is formed by replacing the 3rd person simple preterit endings -o and -e with (a) the masculine nominative singular -es or (b) the feminine nominative singular -usi, e.g.,

  • bego '(he) ran': beges, begusi '(the one who) ran';
  • gýde '(he) cured': gýdes, gýdziusi '(the one who) cured'.

A paradigm of the declension for the past active participles is given below:

    Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   beges '(the one who) ran'   begusi
Gen sg   begusio   begusios
Dat sg   begusiam   begusiai
Acc sg   begusi   begusia
Inst sg   begusiu   begusia
Loc sg   begusiam(e)   gegusioj(e)
         
Nom pl   bege   begusios
Gen pl   begusiu   begusiu
Dat pl   begusiem(s)   begusiom(s)
Acc pl   begusius   begusias
Inst pl   begusiais   begusiomis
Loc pl   begusiuos(e)   begusiose
19.3. The Frequentative Past Active Participle

The frequentative past active participle is formed by removing the 3rd person ending of the frequentative past tense, i.e. -o and adding the same endings as those used for the past active participle (see above), e.g.:

  • begdavo '(he) used to run': begdaves, begdavusi;
  • gýdydavo '(he) used to cure': gýdydaves, gýdydavusi/.

This form is used rarely in Lithuanian. Examples are given below:

  • Vãsara jie vaziúodave prie juros 'In summer they used to go to the sea'.
  • Ās prisėmenu gerai zmõgu, váiksciodavusi ciā kasdien 'I remember well the man who used to walk here every day'.

It is declined like the past active participle.

19.4. The Future Active Participle

The future active participle is formed by adding the same endings as those used for the present active participle (i.e. -as, -anti) to the future stem of the 2nd person singular, e.g.:

  • 2nd sg.fut. begsi 'you will run': begsias, begsianti;
  • 2nd sg.fut. mylesi 'you will love': mylesias, mylesianti.

Since all of the present active participle endings begin with a vowel, the -si- denotes here merely palatalized -s-.

Future active participles are not used frequently in Lithuanian:

  • Rytój jie vyksiantys namõ
  • 'Tomorrow they (maybe) will go home'.

These participles are declined like the present active participles.

19.5. The Gerunds

The gerunds are formed from the active participles by dropping the final -i of the feminine nominative singular forms, e.g.:

  • beganti: begant;
  • begusi: begus;
  • begdavusi: begdavus;
  • begsianti: begsiant.

They denote an action or situation which is accessory or incidental to the action of the main verb. Such forms are used rather than the adverbial participle or the past active participle to show that the subject of the concomitant action is not the same as that of the main verb, e.g.:

  • Bčt, ámziams slenkant, ir griuvancioji pilės lėko bč prasmes 'But in the course of centuries even the crumbling castle remained without meaning'.
  • Isvýdus tóki vaizda, jiems plaukai pasisiáuse 'Having seen such a sight, their hair stood on end'.

The gerund can have not only an object (e.g., vaizda 'sight'), but a subject too. Such a subject is put in the dative case (e.g., ámziams 'centuries') and than we have what is known as a dative absolute construction.

20. Some Impersonal Constructions

Impersonal constructions can be formed with impersonal (subjectless) verbs. The impersonal verbs usually denote natural phenomena, e.g., témti 'to get dark', lynóti 'to drizzle', or person's physical or mental state, e.g., mausti 'to ache', atródyti 'to seem'. These verbs cannot be combined with a subject expressed in nominative case. Such constructions may consist of a predicate alone or a predicate and other dependents (e.g., oblique cases, adverbials, infinitives):

  • Idienójo 'It was broad daylight'.
  • Vaika pykina 'The child feels sick'.
  • Jám pasėseke laimeti 'He succeeded in winning'.
  • Siandien jau niekam nebereikia tõ bóksto sargýbos 'Today nobody needs the protection of that tower any more'.

The logical subject of the verb nebereikia is in the dative case (niekam) and the logical object is in the genitive case (sargýbos).

Some of impersonal verbs denoting natural phenomena can take a tautological or cognate subject, e.g.:

  • Lietųs lyja
  • (literally) 'Rain is raining'.

The neuter forms are commonly used with the verb buti 'to be' in certain impersonal constructions:

  • Búvo kársta 'It was hot'.
  • Mán baisiai pėkta 'I feel extremely angry'.
  • Ligóniui sunkų sedeti 'It is difficult for the patient to sit'.
  • Tōmui gaila sāvo draugo 'Tomas is sorry for his friend'.

The present tense form of buti 'to be' is usually omitted.

These forms may also be used with an infinitive of a verb occurring as a subject of certain constructions, e.g.:

  • Píena sveika gérti 'It is healthy to drink milk'.
  • Nãma sunkų statýti 'It is difficult to build a house'.

Another type of such a construction is also possible with the neuter adjective, although such a construction is to be considered an exception rather than the general rule. In such constructions the logical object of the infinitive is in the nominative case, e.g.:

  • Píenas sveika gérti 'Milk is healthy to drink'.
  • Nãmas sunkų statýti 'The house is difficult to built'.