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Lesson 4: Lithuanian

Virginija Vasiliauskiene and Jonathan Slocum

After the Second World War, East Prussia fell to Russia. Practically no local inhabitants remained in this land. All the Lithuanian place names of this area were replaced with Russian place names. Such a pitiless historical fate befell the land in which the first Lithuanian book, Martýnas Mãžvydas' Catechism (1547), was published, where Daniel Klein's first Lithuanian grammar (1653) appeared, where Jõnas Bretkū́nas for the first time translated the Bible, where the chef-d'oeuvre of world fame, Mẽtai 'The seasons' was written by Kristijõnas Doneláitis, where the first Lithuanian newspaper (1822) appeared, and where the first herald of the renaissance of the Lithuanian nation, the newspaper Aušrà 'Dawn' (1883-1886) was published.

Mãžvydas, Bretkū́nas, Doneláitis, etc. What do I know? Maybe I am their distant relative, said the author, Ievà Simonaitýtė, whose mother boasted that she was a descendant of the Old Prussians.

As Výtautas Kubìlius, one of the most prominent scholars of the Lithuanian literature, says, Ievà Simonaitýtė, writing her first novel The Fate of the Simoniai from the Village of Aukstujai (1935), felt it her duty as an artist (literally: 'with the artistic word') to encompass the picturesque aspect of Lithuania Minor, its historical memory, its spiritual substance. She was concerned with describing not only the obviously evident patriarchal way of life of the Prussian Lithuanians (lietùvninkai), but to look into remnants of the old beliefs and moral precepts in view of the German newcomers. She understood that the literature of a small nation would lose its roots if it did not consider the problems of national existence. Simonaitýtė poeticized the way of life of the Prussian Lithuanians considering it essential for the endurance and survival of the people. Still she felt the illusory character of such poeticization in the whirlpools of the XXth century unifying civilization and the policy of denationalization carried out by the great empires -- a cruel fate, coming to East Prussia after the raging 1709 plague destroyed seven generations of honorable Prussian Lithuanians. German colonists began to move into lands that had been thinned out by the plague. Here they act(ed) like the real masters. All the heroes of the chronicle of this family are marked with the elegy of defeat. Simonaitýtė feels that the time of this Lithuanian tribe is at an end. Only the old names recall many of their former habitats, and these old names will soon be changed. Simonaitýtė wrote The fate of the Simoniai from the village of Aukstujai, keeping before her eyes the model of the novel-family chronicle that is popular in the German Heimatdichtung literature.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Here we give a selection from the first pages of Aukstujũ Šimonių̃ likìmas. In it, the castle tower of the family of Simonis the boyar, built on the bank of the river Įsrà before the beginning of the raging plague of 1709, is described. This tower is the personified symbol of all of Lithuania Minor and its fate. Formerly it had been the tower of a strong Lithuanian castle that had protected Lithuanians from enemies. Now its protection is no longer needed, since the Lithuanians have long been in the power of foreigners. Yet the tower itself still doesn't understand how alone it is, neglected and comical, although it is still proud and retains in its memory the former Lithuanian power.

Simonaitýtė spoke the Samogitian Lithuanian dialect of the Klaĩpėda region. In this excerpt, she uses the definite form of the pronoun añs, ansaĩ 'that'; the particle mandìng, characteristic of this area, which means 'most likely, it seems to me'; the noun žizdraĩ, which means 'grains of sand, small particles of sand'; and the word ponỹstė, characteristic of old literature, which means 'kingdom, country'. Also, constructions with participles, gerunds and half-participles are abundantly used. This is one of the most characteristic features of the language of this area, e.g., piliẽs bū́ta 'there was, it seems, a castle'; ámžiams sleñkant 'the centuries passing, in the course of centuries'; gáudydami víenas kìtą 'chasing each other'; yrà užmir̃šęs 'have forgotten', etc. Definite forms are frequent in her work, although in this excerpt there are only two: griū̃vancioji pilìs 'the crumbling castle' and ansaĩ prótėvis 'that ancestor'. This excerpt reflects a somewhat different word order compared with contemporary standard Lithuanian, láisvės kokiõs 'some kind of freedom'; tvìrtus sáu, sàvo vaikáms ir̃ vaikų̃ vaikáms namùs, literally 'a solid, for himself, his children and his children's children, house'.

Šiañdien jaũ niẽkam nebereĩkia tõ bókšto sargýbos.

  • šiañdien -- adverb; <šiañdien> today -- today
  • jaũ -- particle; <jaũ> already, just -- ...
  • niẽkam -- pronoun; dative singular of <niẽkas> no one, nobody, nothing -- nobody
  • nebereĩkia -- negative particle; <nebe> not any more + verb; 3rd person present of <reikė́ti, reĩkia, reikė́jo> need -- not need any more
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <tàs, tà> this, that -- that
  • bókšto -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <bókštas> tower -- of tower
  • sargýbos -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <sargýba> guard, protection -- the protection

Šiañdien jõ plyšiúotos síenos nè tám, kàd lietùviai, čià pasislė̃pę, šáudytų sàvo strėlėmìs į̃ neàtmušamus príešus, kurių̃ pulkaĩ, nesuskaĩtomi kaĩp žizdraĩ priẽ jū́ros, púola bajõrų pìlį.

  • šiañdien -- adverb; <šiañdien> today -- today
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- its
  • plyšiúotos -- adjective; nominative plural feminine of <plyšiúotas, plyšiúota> fissured, cracked -- fissured
  • síenos -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <síena> wall -- walls
  • -- particle; <> no, not -- (are) not
  • tám -- adverb; <tám> thereto -- there for
  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- that
  • lietùviai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <lietùvis> Lithuanian -- Lithuanians
  • čià -- adverb; <čià> here -- here
  • pasislė̃ -- verb; nominative plural masculine of preterit participle active reflexive of <pasislė̃pti, pasìslepia, pasìslėpė> hidden -- hidden
  • šáudytų -- verb; 3rd person subjunctive of <šáudyti, šáudo, šáudė> shoot -- would shoot
  • sàvo -- pronoun; genitive of <sàvo> he, she -- their
  • strėlėmìs -- noun, feminine; instrumental plural of <strėlė̃> arrow -- arrows
  • į̃ -- preposition; <į̃> at, for, in, to -- at
  • neàtmušamus -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; accusative plural masculine of present participle passive of <atmùšti, àtmuša, àtmušė> repulse, repel -- unstoppable
  • príešus -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <príešas> enemy -- enemies
  • kurių̃ -- conjunction; genitive plural masculine of <kurìs, kurì> which, who -- whose
  • pulkaĩ -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <pul̃kas> regiment -- regiments
  • nesuskaĩtomi -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle passive of <suskaitýti, suskaĩto, suskaĩtė> countless -- countless
  • kaĩp -- conjunction; <kaĩp> as, like -- as
  • žizdraĩ -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <žìzdras> grain -- the grains (of sand)
  • priẽ -- preposition; <priẽ> at -- at
  • ́ros -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <́ra> sea -- the seashore
  • púola -- verb; 3rd person present of <pùlti, púola, púolė> attack -- attack
  • bajõrų -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <bajõras> boyar -- the boyars'
  • pìlį -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <pilìs> castle -- castle

Taĩp, kitadõs čià tikrõs piliẽs bū́ta.

  • taĩp -- particle; <taĩp> so, therefore -- yes
  • kitadõs -- adverb; <kitadõs> once, sometime -- at one time
  • čià -- adverb; <čià> here -- here
  • tikrõs -- adjective; genitive singular feminine of <tìkras, tikrà> genuine -- real
  • piliẽs -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <pilìs> castle -- a castle
  • ́ta -- verb; neuter of preterit participle passive of <́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- there was

Bèt, ámžiams sleñkant, ir̃ griū̃vančioji pilìs lìko bè prasmė̃s.

  • bèt -- conjunction; <bèt> but -- but
  • ámžiams -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <ámžius> century -- centuries
  • sleñkant -- verb; present gerund(ive) of <sliñkti, sleñka, sliñko> pass, slip -- slipping by
  • ir̃ -- particle; <ir̃> and -- even
  • griū̃vančioji -- verb; nominative singular feminine of present definite participle active of <griū́ti, griū̃va, griùvo> crumble -- crumbling
  • pilìs -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <pilìs> castle -- the castle
  • lìko -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <lìkti, líeka, lìko> remain -- remained
  • -- preposition; <> before, without -- without
  • prasmė̃s -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <prasmė̃> sense, meaning -- meaning

Ir̃ víenas sumanùs Šimoniũ prótėvių pastãtė čionaĩ tvìrtus sáu, sàvo vaikáms ir̃ vaikũ vaikáms namùs, kuriuõs apliñkiniai bū̃rai rū́mais pràminė.

  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • víenas -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <víenas, vienà> alone, each -- one
  • sumanùs -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <sumanùs, sumanì> clever -- clever
  • Šimoniũ -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Šimónis> Simonis -- from among Simonis'
  • prótėvių -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <prótėvis> ancestor -- ancestors
  • pastãtė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <pastatýti, pastãto, pastãtė> build -- built
  • čionaĩ -- adverb; <čionaĩ> here -- here
  • tvìrtus -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <tvìrtas, tvirtà> solid, strong -- solid
  • sáu -- pronoun; dative of <savę̃s> oneself, itself -- for himself
  • sàvo -- pronoun; genitive of <sàvo> he, she -- his
  • vaikáms -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <vaĩkas> child -- for children
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • vaikũ -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <vaĩkas> child -- children's
  • vaikáms -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <vaĩkas> child -- for children
  • namùs -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <namaĩ> house -- house
  • kuriuõs -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <kurìs, kurì> which, who -- which
  • apliñkiniai -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <apliñkinis, apliñkinė> neighboring -- neighboring
  • ̃rai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <̃ras> peasant -- peasants
  • ́mais -- noun, masculine; instrumental plural of <́mai> palace -- a palace
  • pràminė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <pramiñti, pràmena, pràminė> call, name -- called

Visàs nereikalìngas kampúotas síenas ansaĩ prótėvis nugrióvė.

  • visàs -- pronoun; accusative plural feminine of <vìsas, visà> all -- all
  • nereikalìngas -- negative particle; <ne> not + adjective; accusative plural feminine of <reikalìngas, reikalìnga> necessary -- unnecessary
  • kampúotas -- adjective; accusative plural feminine of <kampúotas, kampúota> awkward -- awkward
  • síenas -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <síena> wall -- the walls
  • ansaĩ -- definite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <anàs, anà> that -- that
  • prótėvis -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <prótėvis> ancestor -- ancestor
  • nugrióvė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <nugriáuti, nugriáuna, nugrióvė> destroy -- destroyed

Tìk bókštas pasilìko, nórs jõ taip jaũ nebereikė́jo.

  • tìk -- particle; <tìk> only -- only
  • bókštas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <bókštas> tower -- the tower
  • pasilìko -- verb; 3rd person preterit reflexive of <pasilìkti, pasiliẽka, pasilìko> remain -- remained
  • nórs -- conjunction; <nórs> although -- although
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- it
  • taip jaũ -- adverb; <taip jaũ> also -- also
  • nebereikė́jo -- negative particle; <nebe> not any more + verb; 3rd person preterit of <reikė́ti, reĩkia, reikė́jo> need -- was unnecessary

Bèt bókštas ir̃ šiañdien dár nežìno, kàd jìs nebereikalìngas.

  • bèt -- conjunction; <bèt> but -- but
  • bókštas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <bókštas> tower -- the tower
  • ir̃ -- particle; <ir̃> and -- even
  • šiañdien -- adverb; <šiañdien> today -- today
  • dár -- adverb; <dár> even, still -- yet
  • nežìno -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; 3rd person present of <žinóti, žìno, žinójo> know -- doesn't realize
  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- that
  • jìs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- it
  • nebereikalìngas -- negative particle; <nebe> not any more + adjective; nominative singular masculine of <reikalìngas, reikalìnga> necessary -- is not necessary

Jìs dár, mandìng, nesuprañta dabartiẽs.

  • jìs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- it
  • dár -- adverb; <dár> even, still -- still
  • mandìng -- particle; <mandìng> seem -- (it) seems
  • nesuprañta -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; 3rd person present of <supràsti, suprañta, suprãto> understand -- doesn't understand
  • dabartiẽs -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <dabartìs> present -- the present

Jìs dár vis tebegyvẽna atsiminìmais ir̃ kaži kõ lýg láukia.

  • jìs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- it
  • dár vis -- adverb; <dár vis> even, still -- even
  • tebegyvẽna -- verb; 3rd person present of <tebegyvénti, tebegyvẽna, tebegyvẽno> still live -- is still living
  • atsiminìmais -- noun, masculine; instrumental plural reflexive of <atsiminìmai> memories -- with memories
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • kaži kõ -- pronoun; genitive of <kaži kõ> something -- for something
  • lýg -- conjunction; <lýg> as, like -- as if
  • láukia -- verb; 3rd person present of <láukti, láukia, láukė> expect, wait -- is waiting

Nè láisvės kokiõs.

  • -- particle; <> no, not -- not
  • láisvės -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <láisvė> freedom -- freedom
  • kokiõs -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <kóks, kokià> any, some -- some kind of

Jìs visái yrà užmir̃šęs, kàd paskutìnė kadáise bùvusi kruvinà kovà baĩgėsi lietùvių nenáudai, ir̃ šiañdien jiẽ gyvẽna svetimõj ponỹstėj.

  • jìs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- it
  • visái -- adverb; <visái> completely, totally -- completely
  • yrà -- verb; 3rd person present of <́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- ...
  • užmir̃šęs -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <užmir̃šti, užmir̃šta, užmir̃šo> forget -- has forgotten
  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- that
  • paskutìnė -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <paskutìnis, paskutìnė> last, final -- last
  • kadáise -- adverb; <kadáise> once, sometime -- in the past
  • bùvusi -- verb; nominative singular feminine of preterit participle active of <́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- (which) took place
  • kruvinà -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <krùvinas, kruvinà> bloody -- bloody
  • kovà -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <kovà> battle, struggle -- the battle
  • baĩgėsi -- verb; 3rd person preterit reflexive of <baĩgtis, baĩgiasi, baĩgėsi> end -- ended
  • lietùvių -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <lietùvis> Lithuanian -- of the Lithuanians
  • nenáudai -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <nenaudà> disadvantage -- to the disadvantage
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • šiañdien -- adverb; <šiañdien> today -- now
  • jiẽ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- they
  • gyvẽna -- verb; 3rd person present of <gyvénti, gyvẽna, gyvẽno> live -- live
  • svetimõj -- adjective; locative singular feminine of <svẽtimas, svetimà> foreign -- foreign
  • ponỹstėj -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <ponỹstė> kingdom, country -- in a country

Tiesà, jìs daũg kãro gaisrų̃ mãtęs, daũg kãro šauksmų̃ girdė́jęs, ir̃ tõ jìs neužmir̃šęs.

  • tiesà -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <tiesà> truth -- true
  • jìs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- it
  • daũg -- adverb; <daũg> many, much -- many
  • kãro -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <kãras> war -- of war
  • gaisrų̃ -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <gaĩsras> conflagration, fire -- conflagrations
  • mãtęs -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <matýti, mãto, mãtė> see -- has seen
  • daũg -- adverb; <daũg> many, much -- many
  • kãro -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <kãras> war -- of war
  • šauksmų̃ -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <šaũksmas> call, cry -- calls
  • girdė́jęs -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <girdė́ti, gir̃di, girdė́jo> hear -- has heard
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <tàs, tà> this, that -- that
  • jìs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- it
  • neužmir̃šęs -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <užmir̃šti, užmir̃šta, užmir̃šo> forget -- has not forgotten

Todė̃l jìs visadà dár pasireñgęs atmùšti kažkókį príešą, nórintį užpùlti Líetuvą.

  • todė̃l -- adverb; <todė̃l> therefore -- therefore
  • jìs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- it
  • visadà -- adverb; <visadà> always -- always
  • dár -- adverb; <dár> even, still -- still
  • pasireñgęs -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active reflexive of <pasireñgti, pasireñgia, pasìrengė> prepare -- is prepared
  • atmùšti -- verb; infinitive of <atmùšti, àtmuša, àtmušė> repulse, repel -- to repulse
  • kažkókį -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <kažkóks, kažkokià> some -- whatever
  • príešą -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <príešas> enemy -- enemy
  • nórintį -- verb; accusative singular masculine of present participle active of <norė́ti, nóri, norė́jo> want -- (which)wants
  • užpùlti -- verb; infinitive of <užpùlti, užpúola, užpúolė> attack -- to attack
  • Líetuvą -- proper noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Lietuvà> Lithuania -- Lithuania

Juokìngas tàs sẽnis bókštas.

  • juokìngas -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <juokìngas, juokìnga> comical -- is comical
  • tàs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <tàs, tà> this, that -- that
  • sẽnis -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <sẽnis> old man -- old man
  • bókštas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <bókštas> tower -- tower

Jìs nė̃ pàts nebežìno, kàd tiẽ plyšiaĩ, kur̃ kitadõs lietùvių šaudỹklės kýšojo, šiañdien nèt labaĩ padidė́ję.

  • jìs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- it
  • ̃ -- particle; <̃> even -- even
  • pàts -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <pàts, patì> itself -- itself
  • nebežìno -- negative particle; <nebe> not any more + verb; 3rd person present of <žinóti, žìno, žinójo> know -- doesn't know
  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- that
  • tiẽ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <tàs, tà> this, that -- those
  • plyšiaĩ -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <plyšỹs> fissure, cleft -- fissures
  • kur̃ -- adverb; <kur̃> where -- where
  • kitadõs -- adverb; <kitadõs> once, sometime -- once
  • lietùvių -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <lietùvis> Lithuanian -- of Lithuanians
  • šaudỹklės -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <šaudỹklė> gun -- guns
  • kýšojo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <kýšoti, kýšo, kýšojo> stick out -- stuck out
  • šiañdien -- adverb; <šiañdien> today -- today
  • nèt -- particle; <nèt> even -- even
  • labaĩ -- adverb; <labaĩ> very much -- much
  • padidė́ -- verb; nominative plural masculine of preterit participle active of <padidė́ti, padidė́ja, padidė́jo> increase -- have increased

Todė̃l jìs kar̃tais atródo lýg bedañtis senẽlis.

  • todė̃l -- adverb; <todė̃l> therefore -- therefore
  • jìs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- it
  • kar̃tais -- adverb; <kar̃tais> sometimes -- sometimes
  • atródo -- verb; 3rd person present of <atródyti, atródo, atródė> look -- looks
  • lýg -- conjunction; <lýg> as, like -- like
  • bedañtis -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <bedañtis, bedañtė> toothless -- toothless
  • senẽlis -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <senẽlis> old man -- an old man

́jai švil̃pia ir̃ ū́bauja prõ anuõs plyšiùs, gaúdydami víenas kìtą.

  • ́jai -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <́jas> wind -- the winds
  • švil̃pia -- verb; 3rd person present of <švil̃pti, švil̃pia, švil̃> whistle -- whistle
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • ū́bauja -- verb; 3rd person present of <ū́bauti, ū́bauja, ū́bavo> hoot -- howl
  • prõ -- preposition; <prõ> through -- through
  • anuõs -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <anàs, anà> that -- those
  • plyšiùs -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <plyšỹs> fissure, cleft -- fissures
  • gaúdydami -- verb; plural masculine of half participle of <gáudyti, gáudo, gáudė> chase -- chasing
  • víenas -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <víenas, vienà> alone, each -- each
  • kìtą -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <kìtas, kità> other -- other

Õ taĩ gir̃disi lýg kàd sẽnis švepliótų.

  • õ -- conjunction; <õ> and, but -- but
  • taĩ -- pronoun; neuter of <tàs, tà> this, that -- it
  • gir̃disi -- verb; 3rd person present reflexive of <girdė́tis, gir̃disi, girdė́josi> be heard -- sounds
  • lýg -- conjunction; <lýg> as, like -- like
  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- ...
  • sẽnis -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <sẽnis> old man -- an old man
  • švepliótų -- verb; 3rd person subjunctive of <šveplióti, švepliója, švepliójo> lisp -- would lisp

Lesson Text

Šiañdien jaũ niẽkam nebereĩkia tõ bókšto sargýbos. Šiañdien jõ plyšiúotos síenos nè tám, kàd lietùviai, čià pasislė̃pę, šáudytų sàvo strėlėmìs į̃ neàtmušamus príešus, kurių̃ pulkaĩ, nesuskaĩtomi kaĩp žizdraĩ priẽ jū́ros, púola bajõrų pìlį. Taĩp, kitadõs čià tikrõs piliẽs bū́ta. Bèt, ámžiams sleñkant, ir̃ griū̃vančioji pilìs lìko bè prasmė̃s. Ir̃ víenas sumanùs Šimoniũ prótėvių pastãtė čionaĩ tvìrtus sáu, sàvo vaikáms ir̃ vaikũ vaikáms namùs, kuriuõs apliñkiniai bū̃rai rū́mais pràminė. Visàs nereikalìngas kampúotas síenas ansaĩ prótėvis nugrióvė.

Tìk bókštas pasilìko, nórs jõ taip jaũ nebereikė́jo. Bèt bókštas ir̃ šiañdien dár nežìno, kàd jìs nebereikalìngas. Jìs dár, mandìng, nesuprañta dabartiẽs. Jìs dár vis tebegyvẽna atsiminìmais ir̃ kaži kõ lýg láukia. Nè láisvės kokiõs. Jìs visái yrà užmir̃šęs, kàd paskutìnė kadáise bùvusi kruvinà kovà baĩgėsi lietùvių nenáudai, ir̃ šiañdien jiẽ gyvẽna svetimõj ponỹstėj. Tiesà, jìs daũg kãro gaisrų̃ mãtęs, daũg kãro šauksmų̃ girdė́jęs, ir̃ tõ jìs neužmir̃šęs. Todė̃l jìs visadà dár pasireñgęs atmùšti kažkókį príešą, nórintį užpùlti Líetuvą.

Juokìngas tàs sẽnis bókštas. Jìs nė̃ pàts nebežìno, kàd tiẽ plyšiaĩ, kur̃ kitadõs lietùvių šaudỹklės kýšojo, šiañdien nèt labaĩ padidė́ję. Todė̃l jìs kar̃tais atródo lýg bedañtis senẽlis. ́jai švil̃pia ir̃ ū́bauja prõ anuõs plyšiùs, gaúdydami víenas kìtą. Õ taĩ gir̃disi lýg kàd sẽnis švepliótų.

Translation

Today nobody needs the protection of that tower any more. Today its fissured walls are not there for Lithuanians, who, hidden here, could shoot their arrows at unstoppable enemies whose regiments, countless as the grains of sand at the seashore, attack the boyars' castle. Yes, at one time there was surely a real castle here. But in the course of centuries even the crumbling castle remained without meaning. And one clever person from among Simonis' ancestors built for himself, his children and his children's children a solid house, which the neighboring peasants called a palace. This ancestor destroyed all the unnecessary awkward walls.
Only the tower remained, although that was also unnecessary. But the tower even today doesn't realize that it is no longer necessary. It seems that it still doesn't understand the present. It is still living with its memories and seems to be waiting for something. Not some kind of freedom. It has completely forgotten that the last bloody battle ended to the disadvantage of the Lithuanians and now they live in a foreign country. True, it has seen many conflagrations of war, has heard the clamor of war and has not forgotten this. Therefore it is always prepared to repulse whatever enemy wants to attack Lithuania.
That senile old man tower is comical. It doesn't know itself that those fissures where Lithuanian guns once stuck out have become much bigger today. Therefore it sometimes looks like a toothless old man. Chasing each other the winds whistle and howl through these fissures. But it sounds like a lisping old man.

Grammar

16. The Accent Classes of the Nouns
16.1. The Third Accent Class

The third accent class comprises nouns that, in the dative plural, have their stress on the ending while in the accusative plural the stress may fall on any syllable of their stem. When the stress falls on the penultimate syllable, it is always acute; when the stress falls on any other syllable of the stem before penultimate, it may be acute, circumflex, or the syllable may be short, e.g., acc.sg. délną 'palm (of the hand)'; dẽbesį 'cloud'; dóbilą 'clover'; ùždavinį 'task'.

In trisyllabic and quadrisyllabic nouns, the play of stress is ordinarily between the initial syllable and the final syllable. If the stress on the initial syllable is the acute, these nouns are labelled 3a for trisyllabic and 34a for quadrisyllabic. If the stress on the initial syllable is circumflex or the syllable is short, they are labelled 3b and 34b respectively, e.g., acc.sg. kẽpalą 3b 'loaf'; žìburį 3b; tráukinį 3a; ãpdangalą 34b 'cover'; láiškanešį 34a 'postman'; pìktadarį 'malefactor' 34b.

Examples of the third accent class are given below:

Nom sg   délnas 'palm'   aikštė̃ 'square'   debesìs 'cloud'
Gen sg   délno   aikštė̃s   debesiẽs
Dat sg   délnui   áikštei   dẽbesiui
Acc sg   délną   áikštę   dẽbesį
Inst sg   délnu   áikšte   debesimì
            debesim̃
Loc sg   delnè   aikštėjè   debesyjè
        aikštė̃j   debesỹ
Voc sg   délne   áikšte   debesiẽ
             
Nom pl   delnaĩ   áikštės   dẽbesys
Gen pl   delnų̃   aikščių̃   debesų̃
Dat pl   delnáms   aikštė́ms   debesìms
    delnám   aikštė́m   debesìm
Acc pl   délnus   áikštes   dẽbesis
Inst pl   delnaĩs   aikštėmìs   debesimìs
        aikštė̃m   debesim̃
Loc pl   delnuosè   aikštėsè   debesysè
    delnuõs        
Voc pl   delnaĩ   áikštės   dẽbesys
16.2. The Fourth Accent Class

The fourth accent class comprises nouns that, in the dative and accusative plural, have their stress on the ending. In their paradigm the stress alternates between the ending and the penultimate syllable, which is either short or has the circumflex intonation. The fourth accent class seems to be a kind of combination of the second and third accent classes. In any particular case if the stress is required on the inflectional syllable by either the rules of the second or the third accent class, then the stress will be on the inflectional syllable. In other words the stress is on the case ending unless a stem stress is demanded for that same case in both the second and third accent classes. The paradigms for the nouns of the fourth accent class are given bellow. In this paradigm the noun viršùs 'top' is mostly used as singularia tantum and the noun piẽtūs 'dinner', 'south' is pluralia tantum.

Nom sg   nãmas 'house'   pušìs 'pine'   viršùs 'top'
Gen sg   nãmo   pušiẽs   viršaũs
Dat sg   nãmui   pùšiai   vir̃šui
Acc sg   nãmą   pùšį   vir̃šų
Inst sg   namù   pušimì   viršumì
        pušim̃   viršum̃
Loc sg   namè   pušyjè   viršujè
        pušỹ   viršùj
Voc sg   nãme   pušiẽ   viršaũ
             
Nom pl   namaĩ   pùšys   piẽtūs 'dinner', 'south'
Gen pl   namų̃   pušų̃   pietų̃
Dat pl   namáms   pušìms   pietùms
    namám   pušìm   pietùm
Acc pl   namùs   pušìs   pietùs
Inst pl   namaĩs   pušimìs   pietumìs
        pušim̃   pietum̃
Loc pl   namuosè   pušysè   pietuosè
    namuõs       pietuõs
Voc pl   namaĩ   pùšys    
17. Numerals

Numerals are inflected for case, partly for gender and number. Some numerals are similar to nouns, others to adjectives. There are two main groups of numerals: cardinal and ordinal numerals. Cardinal numerals are subdivided into several groups: basic numerals, plural (pluralia tantum) numerals, collective numerals and fractions. According to their structure numerals are simple, derived, compound or composite (multiword) numerals.

17.1. Basic Numerals

The following numerals from one to nine are simple numerals:

    Masculine   Feminine
    víenas 'one'   vienà
    'two'   dvì
    trỹs 'three'   trỹs
    keturì 'four'   kẽturios
    penkì 'five'   peñkios
    šešì 'six'   šẽšios
    septynì 'seven'   septýnios
    aštuonì 'eight'   aštúonios
    devynì 'nine'   devýnios

The number víenas is declined like a regular first declension adjective and agrees in case, number and gender with the noun which it modifies, e.g., Jìs tùri tìk víeną dvìratį 'He has only one bicycle'. The number trỹs is inflected for gender only in the locative, e.g., trijuosè viẽšbučiuose 'in three hotels' vs trijosè kavìnėse 'in three cafes'.

    Masculine   Feminine   Masculine   Masculine   Feminine    
Nom   'two'   dvì   trỹs   'three'   keturì 'four'   kẽturios
Gen   dviejũ*   dviejũ*   trijų̃   keturių̃   keturių̃    
Dat   dvíem   dvíem   trìms   keturíems   keturióms    
            trìm   keturíem   keturióm    
Acc     dvì   trìs   kẽturis   kẽturias    
Inst   dviẽm   dviẽm   trimìs   keturiaĩs   keturiomìs    
            trim̃       keturiõm    
Loc   dviejuosè   dviejosè   trijuosè   keturiuosè   keturiosè    
    dviejuõs           keturiuõs        
    Masculine   Feminine   Masculine   Feminine
Nom   penkì 'five'   peñkios   septynì 'seven'   septýnios
Gen   penkių̃   penkių̃   septynių̃   septynių̃
Dat   penkíems   penkióms   septyníems   septynióms
    penkíem   penkióm   septyníem   septynióm
Acc   penkìs   penkiàs   septýnis   septýnias
Inst   penkiaĩs   penkiomìs   septyniaĩs   septyniomìs
        penkiõm       septyniõm
Loc   penkiuosè   penkiosè   septyniuosè   septyniosè
    penkiuõs       septyniuõs    

The declension of penkì and septynì differs from keturì only by virtue of the fact that they belong to different accent classes. Šešì is declined and accented like penkì, and aštuonì and devynì like septynì.

The numerals from two to nine agree with the word they modify in case and gender:

  • Svar̃stymas bùvo atidė́tas keturióms dienóms
  • 'A discussion was delayed for four days'.

Dešimtìs 'ten'is declined like a regular third declension noun of accent class 3b, however, it is used rarely. The indeclinable form dẽšimt 'ten' is used instead.

Numbers from eleven to nineteen are denoted by compound numerals. They are built by adding -lika (derived historically from the verb lìkti 'remain') to simple numerals from one to nine:

  • vienúolika 'eleven';
  • dvýlika 'twelve';
  • trýlika 'thirteen';
  • keturiólika 'fourteen';
  • penkiólika 'fifteen';
  • šešiólika 'sixteen;
  • septyniólika 'seventeen';
  • aštuoniólika 'eighteen';
  • devyniólika 'nineteen'.

They are not inflected for gender, but they are declined like a regular second declension nouns of the first accent class (cf: síela, 'soul') except that the accusative is like the nominative: vienúolika.

Tens are indicated by compound numerals, the first constituent of which coincides with the accusative form of simple feminine numerals, e.g., dvi-, tris-, keturias-, etc. and the second constituent is the numeral dešimt:

  • dvìdešimt 'twenty';
  • trìsdešimt 'thirty';
  • kẽturiasdešimt 'fourty';
  • peñkiasdešimt 'fifty';
  • šẽšiasdešimt 'sixty';
  • septýniasdešimt 'seventy';
  • aštúoniasdešimt 'eighty';
  • devýniasdešimt 'ninety'.

These numerals are declined like dešimtìs. However, uninflected forms are used more often, e.g.:

  • Bè dvìdešimt (or gen. dvidešimtiẽs) vadovė̃lių neišsiver̃sime
  • 'We cannot do without twenty text-books'.

Šim̃tas 'hundred' is declined like a regular first declension noun of the fourth accent class (cf: na~mas 'house').

́kstantis 'thousand' is declined like a regular first declension noun of the first accent class (cf: brólis 'brother').

Milijõnas 'million' is declined like a regular first declension noun of the second accent class (cf: pir̃štas 'finger').

Numerals from 10 to 19, numerals indicating tens (20-90), also šim̃tas 'hundred', ́kstantis 'thousand', milijõnas, 'million', milijárdas 'billion' require that the noun quantified be in the genitive plural. They are used as nouns, e.g.:

  • Šešiólika strėlių̃ 'sixteen arrows';
  • peñkiasdešimt pilių̃ 'fifty castles';
  • šim̃tas vaikų̃ 'a hundred children';
  • ́kstantis príešų 'a thousand enemies';
  • milijõnai vabzdžių̃ 'millions of insects';
  • milijárdas žvaigždžių̃ 'a billion stars'.

In declining multi-word numerals, we decline all the components except for the uninflected ones, e.g., nom. dù šimtaĩ peñkiasdešimt devynì; gen. dviejų̃ šimtų̃ peñkiasdešimt devynių̃; dat. dvíem šimtáms peñkiasdešimt devyníems, etc.

17.2. Plural Numerals

Those numerals which are reserved for use with nouns which have a plural form but a singular meaning are as follows:

    Masculine   Feminine
    vienerì mẽtai 'one year'   víenerios dùrys 'one door'
    vienì mẽtai 'one year'   víenos dùrys 'one door'
    dvejì piẽtūs 'two dinners'   dvẽjos skyrýbos 'two divorces'
    trejì var̃tai 'three gates';   trẽjos rõgės 'three sledges'
    ketverì akiniaĩ 'four eye glasses'   kẽtverios žìrklės 'four pairs of scissors'
    penkerì rinkìmai 'five elections'   peñkerios vestùvės 'five weddings'
    šešerì neštùvai 'six stretchers'   šẽšerios láidotuvės 'six funerals'
    septynerì kailiniaĩ 'seven fur coats'   septýnerios kélnės 'seven pairs of trousers'
    aštuonerì marškiniaĩ 'eight shirts'   aštúonerios imtỹnės 'eight wrestling matches'
    devynerì pakiñktai 'nine harnesses'   devýnerios muštỹnės 'nine fights'

The plural number vienerì, vienerios 'one' is a new form in Lithuanian. Also the plural forms of the cardinal numbers vienì, víenos are used with pluralia tantum. These numerals are formed by adding the suffixes -eji, -ejos or -eri, -erios to a simple cardinal numerals.

Numerals of this group are declined like the adjectives of the second declension (cf: žãlias, žalià 'green'):

    Masculine   Feminine   Masculine   Feminine
Nom   vienerì 'one'   víenerios   dvejì 'two'   dvẽjos
Gen   vienerių̃   vienerių̃   dvejų̃   dvejų̃
Dat   vieneríems   vienerióms   dvejíems   dvejóms
    vieneríem   vienerióm   dvejíem   dvejóm
Acc   víenerius   víenerias   dvejùs   dvejàs
Inst   vieneriaĩs   vieneriomìs   dvejaĩs   dvejomìs
        vieneriõm       dvejõm
Loc   vieneriuosè   vieneriosè   dvejuosè   dvejosè
    vieneriuõs       dvejuõs    

Dvejì and trejì are accented like the ajectives of the fourth accent class, whereas all the others are accented like the adjectives of the third accent class.

17.3. Collective Numerals

There are eight collective numerals: dvẽjetas 'two', trẽjetas 'three', kẽtvertas 'four', peñketas 'five', šẽšetas 'six', septýnetas 'seven', aštúonetas 'eight', devýnetas 'nine'. They are formed by adding the suffixes -etas or -tas (kẽtvertas 'four') to a basic numeral or plural numerals. Víenetas 'one' does not denote number so it cannot be regarded as a collective numeral. It is used as a noun, e.g.:

  • Lìtas yrà Lietuvõs pinigìnis víenetas
  • 'The litas is the basic unit of currency in Lithuania'.

Other collective numerals (mostly their diminutive forms) can also be used as nouns:

  • Stártinis penketùkas jaũ bùvo pasiruõšęs žaĩsti
  • 'The starting line-up of five (players) was ready to play'.

These numerals belong to accent class one and are declined like regular first declension nouns (cf: výras).

The collective numerals show that the objects under consideration are to be taken as a group:

  • Užtrùksiu tik trẽjetą dienų̃ 'I will be delayed only for three days'.
  • Šẽšetas výrų mėgìno įnèšti pianìną į̃ vìdų '(A group of) six men were trying to bring a piano inside'.
  • Ligónis nesugebė́jo žeñgti nė̃ kẽtverto žiñgsnių 'The patient was not able to take even four steps'.

The noun quantified by these collective numerals is always in the genitive plural.

18. Adjective Inflection
18.1. The Definite Adjectives

The forms of the definite adjective are mainly obtained by adding the appropriate case of the third person pronoun to the indefinite adjective:

  • naũjas + jìs 'new' + 'he' = naujàsis 'new';
  • naujà + 'new' + 'she' = naujóji 'new'.

But there are some changes in the vowels in their declension:

    Masculine   Feminine   Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   žaliàsis 'green'   žalióji   saldùsis 'sweet'   saldžióji
Gen sg   žãliojo   žaliõsios   sáldžiojo   saldžiõsios
Dat sg   žaliájam   žãliajai   saldžiájam   sáldžiajai
Acc sg   žãliąjį   žãliąją   sáldųjį   sáldžiąją
Inst sg   žaliúoju   žalią́ja   saldžiúoju   saldžią́ja
Loc sg   žaliãjam(e)   žaliõjoj(e)   saldžiãjam(e)   saldžiõjoj(e)
                 
Nom sg   žalíeji   žãliosios   saldíeji   sáldžiosios
Gen sg   žalių̃jų   žalių̃jų   saldžių̃jų   saldžių̃jų
Dat sg   žalíesiem(s)   žaliósiom(s)   saldíesiem(s)   saldžiósiom(s)
Acc sg   žaliúosius   žalią́sias   saldžiúosius   saldžią́sias
Inst sg   žaliaĩsiais   žaliõsiom(is)   saldžiaĩsiais   saldžiõsiom(is)
Loc sg   žaliuõsiuos(e)   žaliõsiose   saldžiuõsiuos(e)   saldžiõsiose

Definite forms are not formed from the third declension adjectives (e.g., auksìnis 'golden'), but they can be formed from comparative and superlative adjectives: naujesnỹsis, naujesnióji 'newer'; naujáusiasis, naujáusioji 'newest'.

Some pronouns and numerals and many participles also have definite forms, e.g., tasaĩ bókštas 'that tower'; pirmóji kovà 'the first battle'; griū̃vančioji pilìs 'the crumbling castle'.

The definite form of the adjective is used to point out some particular object in a group of similar objects:

  • Añt stãlo gùli kẽletas įvairių̃ spalvų̃ pieštùkų. 'There are some pencils of different colors on the desk.'
  • Kuriõ tù norė́tum? 'Which one would you like?'
  • Padúok mán (tą̃) žãliąjį. 'Give me the green one.'

In most cases the English adjective plus one construction could be the best rendered by the definite adjective in Lithuanian.

The definite form of the adjective may also impart a generic meaning of the noun, because it denotes a permanent characteristic. Thus pilkà žąsìs merely means 'a gray goose', whereas pilkóji žąsìs is the variety the gray goose (Latin Anser anser). These forms are common in various terms where they cannot be replaced in most cases with the indefinite forms, e.g., greitàsis traukinỹs 'the fast train' and greĩtas traukinỹs 'a fast train'.

Definite forms are used to form proper names:

  • Juodóji jū́ra 'The Black sea';
  • Baltíeji rū́mai 'The White House';
  • Výtautas Didỹsis 'Vytautas the Great'.

In many cases the definite adjectives differ very little from the simple adjectives. The definite adjectives merely emphasize more the attributive characteristics of the nouns. Thus, their use can be subjective, e.g.:

  • Mán skaũda dẽšinę (dešinią́ją) ãkį
  • 'My right eye aches'.

Definite adjectives can be used as substantives of the sentence:

  • Žalíeji užtvė́rė autostrãdą 'The Greens blocked the highway'.
  • Už vagỹstę jìs patẽko į̃ šáltąją 'He was locked up in prison (lit. 'the cold one') for the theft'.
  • Dešiniéji pralaimė̃s rinkimùs 'The right-wingers will lose the election'.
18.2. Comparision of Adjectives

There are three basic degrees of comparision in Lithuanian just as in English: the positive, the comparative, and the superlative.

The positive adjectival forms do not refer to any difference in the degree of a quality.

The comparative degree is formed by dropping the endings (-(i)as, -us) of the masculine nominative singular of the adjective and adding -esnis (for masculine) or -esnė (for feminine), e.g., žalèsnis 'greener', žalèsnė; saldèsnis 'sweeter', saldèsnė. There is practically no comparative degree with the adjectives of the third declension (auksìnis 'golden', vilnõnis 'woolen').

The comparative adjectives are declined as follows:

    Masculine   Feminine   Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   gilèsnis 'deeper'   gilèsnė   didèsnis 'bigger'   didèsnė
Gen sg   gilèsnio   gilesnė̃s   didèsnio   didesnė̃s
Dat sg   gilesniám   gilèsnei   didesniám   didèsnei
Acc sg   gilèsnį   gilèsnę   didèsnį   didèsnę
Inst sg   gilesniù   gilesnè   didesniù   didesnè
Loc sg   gilesniamè   gilèsnėje   didesniamè   didèsnėje
    gilesniam̃   gilèsnėj   didesniam̃   didèsnėj
                 
Nom pl   gilesnì   gilèsnės   didesnì   didèsnės
Gen pl   gilesnių̃   gilesnių̃   didesnių̃   didesnių̃
Dat pl   gilesníems   gilesnė́ms   didesníems   didesnė́ms
    gilesníem   gilesnė́m   didesníem   didesnė́m
Acc pl   gilesniùs   gilesnès   didesniùs   didesnès
Inst pl   gilesniaĩs   gilesnėmìs   didesniaĩs   didesnėmìs
        gilesnė̃m       didesnė̃m
Loc pl   gilesniuosè   gilesnėsè   didesniuosè   didesnėsè
    gilesniuõs       didesniuõs    

There are some positive adjectives which are also declined according to this paradigm, e.g., dìdelis 'big', dìdelė; dešinỹs 'right', dešinė̃; kairỹs 'left', kairė̃. In the adjective dìdelis 'big' -elis is dropped before the addition of the comparative or supperlative endings -esnis, -iausias, e.g., didèsnis 'bigger', didžiáusias 'biggest'.

The comparative degree denotes that there is a greater degree of the quality in question in one object than in another. The concept "than" in most cases is expresed by negù, neĩ, with the following noun in the nominative case or ùž with the accusative case. Other expressions (kaĩp, nekaĩp) are rarer.

  • Tàvo mašinà naujèsnė negù màno (mašinà) 'Your car is newer than my car'.
  • Juodà dúona sveikèsnė ùž báltą (dúoną) 'Brown bread is more healthy than white bread'.
  • Mònikos výras turtingèsnis neĩ Sãros výras 'Monica's husband is richer than Sara's husband'.

The superlative degree is formed by dropping the -(i)as, -us of the masculine nominative singular of the adjective and adding -iausias, -iausia, e.g., žaliáusias, 'greenest' žaliáusia; saldžiáusias 'sweetest', saldžiáusia. If the stem ends in -d or -t these are replaced by - and -č respectively. They are declined like the adjectives of the first declension (cf: žãlias 'green'):

    Masculine   Feminine   Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   giliáusias 'deepest'   giliáusia   didžiáusias 'biggest'   didžiáusia
Gen sg   giliáusio   giliáusios   didžiáusio   didžiáusios
Dat sg   giliáusiam   giliáusiai   didžiáusiam   didžiáusiai
Acc sg   giliáusią   giliáusią   didžiáusią   didžiáusią
Inst sg   giliáusiu   giliáusia   didžiáusiu   didžiáusia
Loc sg   giliáusiam(e)   giliáusioj(e)   didžiáusiam(e)   didžiáusioj(e)
                 
Nom pl   giliáusi   giliáusios   didžiáusi   didžiáusios
Gen pl   giliáusių   giliáusių   didžiáusių   didžiáusių
Dat pl   giliáusiem(s)   giliáusiom(s)   didžiáusiem(s)   didžiáusiom(s)
Acc pl   giliaúsius   giliaúsias   didžiáusius   didžiáusias
Inst pl   giliáusiais   giliáusiom(is)   didžiáusiais   didžiáusiomis
Loc pl   giliáusiuos(e)   giliáusiose   didžiáusiuos(e)   didžiáusiose

The superlative degree denotes the highest or greatest existing degree of the quality expressed by the adjective:

  • Šiuõ metù jìs yrà svarbiáusias žmogùs ìš visų̃ 'Now he is the most important man of all (people)'.
  • Atvỹksta jauniáusia duktė̃ 'The youngest daughter is coming'.
  • Pérduok jíems màno nuoširdžiáusius linkė́jimus 'Give them my warmest greetings'.

The neuter adjective has a comparative -iau and superlative -iausia, e.g., gražù 'beautiful', gražiaũ , gražiáusia; pìkta 'angry', pikčiaũ, pikčiáusia:

  • Šiañdien šilčiaũ neĩ vãkar 'Today is warmer than yesterday'.
  • Mán apmaudžiáusia dė̃l tõ pralaimė́jimo 'I am mostly annoyed because of that defeat'.

There is a degree which is somewhat stronger than the positive and weaker than the comparative. It is formed with the suffixes -ėlesnis, -ėlesnė, e.g., mažėlèsnis 'a little smaller' mažėlèsnė. Some other transitional stages are expressed by the prefixes apy- and po- or the suffix -okas, e.g., apýsunkis 'pretty hard', apýsunkė; apýnaujis` 'pretty new' apýnaujė; póminkštis 'pretty soft', póminkštė; didókas 'rather big', didóka.

19. The Participles, Half-participles, and Gerunds

Participles in Lithuanian are similar to participles in English and other languages. They are a variety of adjectives derived from verbs. In Lithuanian they are declined like adjectives and they can denote the characteristic of an object. They can possess definite forms. But, since they are formed from verbs, they also have verbal characteristics: they can denote action and are inflected for tense and can be active and passive. The reflexive forms are also an important verbal characteristic of the participles.

Participles can be used in the following four cases: (a) as modifiers (adjectival use); (b) in compound tenses; (c) in participial phrases; (d) in indirect discourse.

The special adverbial participles (half-participles) denote an action which is simultaneous with the action of the main verb.

Four indeclinable forms of active participles are traditionally called gerunds. They are formed by adding the same suffixes to the same stems as any other active participle. The main difference is the absence of case endings.

19.1. The Present Active Participles and Half-participles

The present active participles are formed by replacing the 3rd person endings -a, -i, -o with (a) the masculine nominative singular endings -ąs, -įs, -ąs or (b) the feminine nominative singular endings -anti, -inti, -anti, e.g.:

́ga '(he) runs': bėgã*s (in adjectival function ́gantis), ́ganti 'running';    
mýli   '(he) loves': mylį̃s (in adjectival function mýlintis), mýlinti 'loving';
gýdo '(he) cures': gydą̃s (in adjectival function gýdantis), gýdanti 'curing'.    

The present active participles are declined as follows:

    Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   bėgą̃s 'running'   ́ganti
    ́gantis    
Gen sg   ́gančio   ́gančios
Dat sg   ́gančiam   ́gančiai
Acc sg   ́gantį   ́gančią
Inst sg   ́gančiu   ́gančia
Loc sg   ́gančiam(e)   ́gančioj(e)
         
Nom pl   bėgą̃   ́gančios
    ́gantys    
Gen pl   ́gančių   ́gančių
Dat pl   ́gantiem(s)   ́gančiom(s)
Acc pl   ́gančius   ́gančias
Inst pl   ́gančiais   ́gančiom(is)
Loc pl   ́gančiuos(e)   ́gančiose

The forms ́gantis 'running', ́gantys are used only in adjectival function, e.g., ́gantis čiáupas 'running tap', ́gantys čiáupai 'running taps'. Bėgą̃s čiáupas and bėgą̃ čiáupai would be uncommon in Modern Lithuanian.

In the nominative singular and plural the present active participles have a special form which is used in adverbial function. It is called in Lithuanian as the half-participle. Half-participles are formed by adding -damas, -dama to the infinitival stem, e.g.,

  • ́g-ti 'to run': sg. ́gdamas, bėgdamà;
  • mylė́-ti 'to love': sg. mylė́damas, mylė́dama.

These forms are inflected for gender and number and they agree with the subject of the sentence in gender and number, e.g.:

  • Vaĩkas bė́gdamas treñkėsi į̃ durìs
  • 'The child struck the door while running'.
19.2. The Past Active Participle

The past active participle is formed by replacing the 3rd person simple preterit endings -o and -ė with (a) the masculine nominative singular -ęs or (b) the feminine nominative singular -usi, e.g.,

  • ́go '(he) ran': ́gęs, ́gusi '(the one who) ran';
  • gýdė '(he) cured': gýdęs, gýdžiusi '(the one who) cured'.

A paradigm of the declension for the past active participles is given below:

    Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   ́gęs '(the one who) ran'   ́gusi
Gen sg   ́gusio   ́gusios
Dat sg   ́gusiam   ́gusiai
Acc sg   ́gusį   ́gusią
Inst sg   ́gusiu   ́gusia
Loc sg   ́gusiam(e)   ́gusioj(e)
         
Nom pl   ́   ́gusios
Gen pl   ́gusių   ́gusių
Dat pl   ́gusiem(s)   ́gusiom(s)
Acc pl   ́gusius   ́gusias
Inst pl   ́gusiais   ́gusiomis
Loc pl   ́gusiuos(e)   ́gusiose
19.3. The Frequentative Past Active Participle

The frequentative past active participle is formed by removing the 3rd person ending of the frequentative past tense, i.e. -o and adding the same endings as those used for the past active participle (see above), e.g.:

  • ́gdavo '(he) used to run': ́gdavęs, ́gdavusi;
  • gýdydavo '(he) used to cure': gýdydavęs, gýdydavusi/.

This form is used rarely in Lithuanian. Examples are given below:

  • Vãsarą jiẽ važiúodavę priẽ jū́ros 'In summer they used to go to the sea'.
  • Àš prisìmenu geraĩ žmõgų, váikščiodavusį čià kasdiẽn 'I remember well the man who used to walk here every day'.

It is declined like the past active participle.

19.4. The Future Active Participle

The future active participle is formed by adding the same endings as those used for the present active participle (i.e. -ąs, -anti) to the future stem of the 2nd person singular, e.g.:

  • 2nd sg.fut. ́gsi 'you will run': ́gsiąs, ́gsianti;
  • 2nd sg.fut. mylė́si 'you will love': mylė́siąs, mylė́sianti.

Since all of the present active participle endings begin with a vowel, the -si- denotes here merely palatalized -s-.

Future active participles are not used frequently in Lithuanian:

  • Rytój jiẽ vỹksiantys namõ
  • 'Tomorrow they (maybe) will go home'.

These participles are declined like the present active participles.

19.5. The Gerunds

The gerunds are formed from the active participles by dropping the final -i of the feminine nominative singular forms, e.g.:

  • ́ganti: ́gant;
  • ́gusi: ́gus;
  • ́gdavusi: ́gdavus;
  • ́gsianti: ́gsiant.

They denote an action or situation which is accessory or incidental to the action of the main verb. Such forms are used rather than the adverbial participle or the past active participle to show that the subject of the concomitant action is not the same as that of the main verb, e.g.:

  • Bèt, ámžiams sleñkant, ir̃ griū̃vančioji pilìs lìko bè prasmė̃s 'But in the course of centuries even the crumbling castle remained without meaning'.
  • Išvýdus tókį vaĩzdą, jiems plaukaĩ pasišiáušė 'Having seen such a sight, their hair stood on end'.

The gerund can have not only an object (e.g., vaizdą 'sight'), but a subject too. Such a subject is put in the dative case (e.g., ámžiams 'centuries') and than we have what is known as a dative absolute construction.

20. Some Impersonal Constructions

Impersonal constructions can be formed with impersonal (subjectless) verbs. The impersonal verbs usually denote natural phenomena, e.g., témti 'to get dark', lynóti 'to drizzle', or person's physical or mental state, e.g., maũsti 'to ache', atródyti 'to seem'. These verbs cannot be combined with a subject expressed in nominative case. Such constructions may consist of a predicate alone or a predicate and other dependents (e.g., oblique cases, adverbials, infinitives):

  • Įdienójo 'It was broad daylight'.
  • Vaĩką pỹkina 'The child feels sick'.
  • Jám pasìsekė laimė́ti 'He succeeded in winning'.
  • Šiañdien jaũ niẽkam nebereĩkia tõ bókšto sargýbos 'Today nobody needs the protection of that tower any more'.

The logical subject of the verb nebereĩkia is in the dative case (niẽkam) and the logical object is in the genitive case (sargýbos).

Some of impersonal verbs denoting natural phenomena can take a tautological or cognate subject, e.g.:

  • Lietùs lỹja
  • (literally) 'Rain is raining'.

The neuter forms are commonly used with the verb ́ti 'to be' in certain impersonal constructions:

  • Búvo káršta 'It was hot'.
  • Mán baĩsiai pìkta 'I feel extremely angry'.
  • Ligóniui sunkù sėdė́ti 'It is difficult for the patient to sit'.
  • Tòmui gaĩla sàvo draũgo 'Tomas is sorry for his friend'.

The present tense form of ́ti 'to be' is usually omitted.

These forms may also be used with an infinitive of a verb occurring as a subject of certain constructions, e.g.:

  • Píeną sveĩka gérti 'It is healthy to drink milk'.
  • Nãmą sunkù statýti 'It is difficult to build a house'.

Another type of such a construction is also possible with the neuter adjective, although such a construction is to be considered an exception rather than the general rule. In such constructions the logical object of the infinitive is in the nominative case, e.g.:

  • Píenas sveĩka gérti 'Milk is healthy to drink'.
  • Nãmas sunkù statýti 'The house is difficult to built'.