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Baltic Online

Lesson 5: Lithuanian

Virginija Vasiliauskiene and Jonathan Slocum

Juozas Tumas (1869-1933), known as Vaizgantas, was a well-known activist of the Catholic wing of the Lithuanian revival; he advocated the ideas of Lithuanian unity on the basis of Catholicism. This Lithuanian prose author, historian, and critic of literature took part in the founding and publication of several newspapers of national and Catholic orientation of that epoch. Almost every new work of a Lithuanian author was the object of his attention as a critic and reviewer. Vaizgantas had very strict requirements of artistry and language. He was more lenient with younger authors, trying to discern their emerging talent; therefore he is sometimes called 'the diamond hunter.' Although Vaizgantas' native Eastern Aukshtaitish dialect differed most of all from all other Lithuanian dialects, he tried to set an example for other people and to speak and write in the standard Lithuanian language, which was beginning to take root. However, in his literary works he did not avoid borrowings if they seemed to him to be more expressive than the Lithuanian words. In addition he used many dialect words and loved to create neologisms.

Vaizgantas' most popular work is his psychological tale Uncles and Aunts (i.e., wives of uncles). In it the author describes the way of life of the Lithuanian village. He reveals the rich and poetic internal world of the simple village man. 'Uncles' is a term denoting not only relatives, but also a person of a certain social class of the end of the XIXth and beginning of the XXth century in Lithuania. Brothers and sisters, recognizing the seniority of the oldest son to run the farm, remained unmarried and worked without recompense on the brother's farm. Their position was intermediate between that of a family member and a hired hand. Such are the basic protagonists of the story, viz. Mykolas and Severija, because of their gracious demeanor and poetic soul called by the diminutives Mykoliukas and Severiute. In the story their drama of love is described with great artistic force. Love for Severiute is the only real ray of light in the life of Mykoliukas, but being passive by nature and lacking will and ambition, he loses his beloved girl and makes peace with his fate. Distinguished by a firmer character and more energetic strength, his neighbor Rapolas Geise is successful in attracting Severija to his side and he marries her. At Severija's wedding Mykoliukas for the last time plays the little violin he has made until its strings break. In this story scenes of nature, which accompany all the experiences of the protagonists, are extremely important.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The selection given below from Uncles and Aunts tells of the meeting between Mykoliukas and Severiute in a blooming meadow near a marsh. Catching sight of the approaching Severiute, Mykoliukas stops pouring out the longing of his love with his home-made violin. They don't need any words to express their feelings. They both come together with the nature that surrounds them and speaks for them. The eloquent silence of their love is interrupted by the sudden, unexpected appearance of Geise.

In the excerpt we encounter the dual number of several pronouns jíemdviem, júodu, abųdu sedinciu and one participle abųdu sedinciu. Here we also encounter some relatively rarely used future gerunds, which form complicated constructions characteristic of the older language and which in modern Lithuanian are replaced by subordinate clauses: pajųto siandie kitaip busiant; nelaúukiama ilisiant. In one subordinate clause the indirect mood is used: kad myli vienas antra. The excerpt is full of adverbs, e.g., artė, staciai, kazėn_kaip, daugiau, etc., reflexive verbs, e.g. emes, nusėjuoke, kecias, nusiraskyti, etc. Of the more rare words worthy of mention are sabasėnis (festive, unhurried'; this is a suffixed derivative from the word sãbas).

Nuõ pāt kálno, lėgi tėk jã isvýdo, Mykoliųkas jã imtč emes i savč, artino sáu Sevčrija, rýdamas erdve, ir kai priejo visái artė, nebenuléido sāvo akiu, tėk didelem didelem, pilnõm bekrãscio dziaugsmo ir pasigerejimo, ziurejo staciai jái i akelčs.

  • nuõ -- preposition; <nuõ> from -- from
  • pāt -- particle; <pāt> very -- very
  • kálno -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <kálnas> hill -- hill
  • lėgi tėk -- conjunction; <lėgi tik> as soon as -- as soon as
  • -- pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- her
  • isvýdo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <isvýsti, isvýsta, isvýdo> see, witness -- he caught sight of
  • Mykoliųkas -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Mykoliųkas> Mykoliukas -- Mykoliukas
  • -- pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- her
  • imtč -- second infinitive; <imtč> taking -- ...
  • emes -- verb; 3rd person preterit reflexive of <imtis, ėmasi, emesi> take -- took (her)
  • i -- preposition; <i> at, for, in, to -- into
  • savč -- pronoun; accusative of <saves> oneself, itself -- himself
  • artino -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <artinti, artina, artino> bring near -- (he) brought near
  • sáu -- pronoun; dative of <saves> oneself, itself -- to himself
  • Sevčrija -- proper noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Sevčrija> Severija -- Severija
  • rýdamas -- verb; singular masculine of half participle of <rýti, ryja, rėjo> devour -- devouring
  • erdve -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <erdve> space -- the space
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> when -- when
  • priejo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <prieiti, prieina, priejo> come, get -- (she) got
  • visái -- adverb; <visái> completely, totally -- very
  • artė -- adverb; <artė> near -- near
  • nebenuléido -- negative particle; <nebe> not any more + verb; 3rd person preterit of <nuléisti, nuléidzia, nuléido> lower -- he did not lower
  • sāvo -- pronoun; genitive of <sāvo> he, she -- his
  • akiu -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <akės> eye -- eyes
  • tėk -- particle; <tėk> only -- but
  • didelem -- adjective; instrumental plural feminine of <dėdelis, dėdele> great, large -- with large (eyes)
  • didelem -- adjective; instrumental plural feminine of <dėdelis, dėdele> great, large -- ...
  • pilnõm -- adjective; instrumental plural feminine of <pėlnas, pilnā> full -- full
  • bekrãscio -- adjective; genitive singular masculine of <bekrãstis, bekrãste> boundless -- limitless
  • dziaugsmo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <dziaugsmas> joy -- of joy
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • pasigerejimo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular reflexive of <pasigerejimas> enjoyment, pleasure -- of pleasure
  • ziurejo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <ziureti, ziuri, ziurejo> look -- looked
  • staciai -- adverb; <staciai> straight -- straight
  • jái -- pronoun; dative singular feminine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- her
  • i -- preposition; <i> at, for, in, to -- in
  • akelčs -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <akeles> eye -- the eyes

Nusėjuoke Mykoliųkas, sustódamas gríezes; nč balsų, tėk kazin kaip sāvo vėduriu.

  • nusėjuoke -- verb; 3rd person preterit reflexive of <nusijuõkti, nusijuõkia, nusėjuoke> laugh -- laughed
  • Mykoliųkas -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Mykoliųkas> Mykoliukas -- Mykoliukas
  • sustódamas -- verb; singular masculine of half participle of <sustóti, sustója, sustójo> stop -- stopping
  • gríezes -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <gríezti, gríezia, gríeze> play -- playing
  • -- particle; <> no, not -- not
  • balsų -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <balsas> voice -- with voice
  • tėk -- particle; <tėk> only -- but
  • kazin kaip -- adverb; <kazin kaip> somehow -- somehow
  • sāvo -- pronoun; genitive of <sāvo> he, she -- his
  • vėduriu -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <vidurys> inside -- with insides

Ir daugiau nebčgrieze.

  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • daugiau -- adverb; comparative of <daug> many, much -- more
  • nebčgrieze -- negative particle; <nebe> not any more + verb; 3rd person preterit of <gríezti, gríezia, gríeze> play -- (he) did not play

Kám begries, kād dabar jõ krutėneje, visamč jamč bųvo tokiā mųzika, kuriõs jės nčgi isreiks menkų sāvo grieztuvelių...

  • kám -- adverb; <kám> why -- why
  • begries -- verb; 3rd person future of <begríezti, begríezia, begríeze> play -- will he play
  • kād -- conjunction; <kād> that -- when
  • dabar -- adverb; <dabar> now -- now
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- his
  • krutėneje -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <krutėne> breast -- in the breast
  • visamč -- pronoun; locative singular masculine of <vėsas, visā> all -- all (of)
  • jamč -- pronoun; locative singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- in him
  • bųvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <buti, yrā, bųvo> be -- there was
  • tokiā -- pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <tóks, tokiā> such -- such
  • mųzika -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <mųzika> music -- music
  • kuriõs -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <kurės, kurė> which, who -- which
  • jės -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- he
  • nčgi -- particle; <nčgi> never -- never
  • isreiks -- verb; 3rd person future of <isréiksti, isréiskia, isréiske> express -- could express
  • menkų -- adjective; instrumental singular masculine of <menkas, menkā> poor -- poor
  • sāvo -- pronoun; genitive of <sāvo> he, she -- his
  • grieztuvelių -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <grieztuvelis> instrument -- with the instrument

Sedejo abųdu ir nieko daugiau nebekalbejo.

  • sedejo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <sedeti, sedi, sedejo> sit -- sat
  • abųdu -- pronoun; nominative dual masculine of <abųdu, abėdvi> both -- both
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • nieko -- pronoun; genitive singular of <niekas> no one, nobody, nothing -- nothing
  • daugiau -- adverb; comparative of <daug> many, much -- more
  • nebekalbejo -- negative particle; <nebe> not any more + verb; 3rd person preterit of <kalbeti, kalba, kalbejo> speak -- did not speak

Jíem bųvo gera.

  • jíem -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- for them
  • bųvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <buti, yrā, bųvo> be -- (it) was
  • gera -- adjective; neuter of <geras, gerā> good, well -- nice

Taip gera, kaip pėlnu zíedu prazýdusiems zolýnams.

  • taip -- adverb; <taip> so, therefore -- just as
  • gera -- adjective; neuter of <geras, gerā> good, well -- (it was) nice
  • kaip -- conjunction; <kaip> as, like -- as
  • pėlnu -- adjective; instrumental singular masculine of <pėlnas, pilnā> full -- full
  • zíedu -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <zíedas> blossom, flower -- in bloom
  • prazýdusiems -- verb; dative plural masculine of preterit participle active of <prazýsti, prazýsta, prazýdo> blossom -- blossoming
  • zolýnams -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <zolýnas> greenery -- for greenery

Jie tarpsta, kvepia, lapeliai kecias i salės, ės sunkųmo lepsta.

  • jie -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- they
  • tarpsta -- verb; 3rd person present of <tarpti, tarpsta, tarpo> grow luxuriantly -- grow luxuriantly
  • kvepia -- verb; 3rd person present of <kvepeti, kvepia, kvepejo> smell good -- smell good
  • lapeliai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <lapelis> leaf -- the leaves
  • kecias -- verb; 3rd person present reflexive of <kestis, keciasi, ketesi> spread out -- spread out
  • i -- preposition; <i> at, for, in, to -- to
  • salės -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <salės> side -- the sides
  • ės -- preposition; <ės> from -- from
  • sunkųmo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <sunkųmas> heaviness, weight -- heaviness
  • lepsta -- verb; 3rd person present of <lepti, lepsta, lepo> droop -- droop

Jie grãzina píeva, tráukia i savč bet kuriõ gývio akės.

  • jie -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- they
  • grãzina -- verb; 3rd person present of <grãzinti, grãzina, grãzino> adorn -- adorn
  • píeva -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <píeva> meadow -- meadow
  • tráukia -- verb; 3rd person present of <tráukti, tráukia, tráuke> attract -- attract
  • i -- preposition; <i> at, for, in, to -- to
  • savč -- pronoun; accusative of <saves> oneself, itself -- themselves
  • bet kuriõ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <bet kurės> any -- any
  • gývio -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <gývis> living being -- of living being
  • akės -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <akės> eye -- the eyes

Ir ne víenas vabzdys neaplenkia ju nepabuciãves, ant ju nepasilsejes.

  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • ne víenas -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <ne víenas, ne vienā> not one -- not a single
  • vabzdys -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <vabzdys> insect -- insect
  • neaplenkia -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; 3rd person present of <aplenkti, aplenkia, āplenke> pass by -- passes by
  • ju -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- them
  • nepabuciãves -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <pabuciúoti, pabuciúoja, pabuciãvo> kiss -- not kissing
  • ant -- preposition; <ant> in, on -- on
  • ju -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- them
  • nepasilsejes -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <pasilseti, pasėlsi, pasilsejo> rest -- not resting

Tėk víenas nedõrelis zmogųs tuõj síekia jõ - nusiraskýti ir, pavarcius pavarcius, numčsti, kād bč laiko nuvýstu, jau ųzmirstas.

  • tėk -- particle; <tėk> only -- only
  • víenas -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <víenas, vienā> alone, each -- one
  • nedõrelis -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <nedõrelis> dishonorable -- dishonorable
  • zmogųs -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <zmogųs> human being, person -- human being
  • tuõj -- adverb; <tuõj> immediately -- immediately
  • síekia -- verb; 3rd person present of <síekti, síekia, síeke> try to get, reach -- reaches
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- for it
  • nusiraskýti -- verb; infinitive reflexive of <nusiraskýti, nusirãsko, nusirãske> tear off -- to tear (it) off
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • pavarcius -- verb; preterit gerund(ive) of <pavartýti, pavarto, pavarte> turn over -- having turned (it) over
  • pavarcius -- verb; preterit gerund(ive) of <pavartýti, pavarto, pavarte> turn over -- having turned (it) over
  • numčsti -- verb; infinitive of <numčsti, nųmeta, nųmete> throw away -- to throw (it) away
  • kād -- conjunction; <kād> that -- so that
  • -- preposition; <> before, without -- before
  • laiko -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <laikas> time -- (its) time
  • nuvýstu -- verb; 3rd person subjunctive of <nuvýsti, nuvýsta, nuvýto> fade -- (it) would fade
  • jau -- particle; <jau> already, just -- already
  • ųzmirstas -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle passive of <uzmirsti, uzmirsta, uzmirso> forget -- forgotten

Kã jie galejo víenas antrám pasisakýti?

  • -- pronoun; accusative of <kās> which, what -- what
  • jie -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- they
  • galejo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <galeti, gãli, galejo> can -- could
  • víenas -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <víenas, vienā> alone, each -- ...
  • antrám -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <antras, antrā> other -- to each other
  • pasisakýti -- verb; infinitive reflexive of <pasisakýti, pasisãko, pasisãke> say, tell -- to say

Kād mýli víenas antra, kād jíemdviem gera draugejč?

  • kād -- conjunction; <kād> that -- that
  • mýli -- verb; 3rd person present of <myleti, mýli, mylejo> love -- (they) love
  • víenas -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <víenas, vienā> alone, each -- ...
  • antra -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <antras, antrā> other -- each other
  • kād -- conjunction; <kād> that -- that
  • jíemdviem -- pronoun; dative dual masculine of <juõdu, jiedvi> they both -- they both
  • gera -- adjective; neuter of <geras, gerā> good, well -- (feel) good
  • draugejč -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <drauge> company -- together

Jųk tai ir bč zõdziu áisku.

  • jųk -- particle; <jųk> but -- but
  • tai -- pronoun; neuter of <tās, tā> this, that -- that
  • ir -- particle; <ir> and -- even
  • -- preposition; <> before, without -- without
  • zõdziu -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <zõdis> word -- words
  • áisku -- adjective; neuter of <áiskus, áiski> clear -- (is) clear

Dár pilniau.

  • dár -- adverb; <dár> even, still -- even
  • pilniau -- adverb; comparative of <pilnai> exhaustively -- more exhaustively

Zõdziai arbā nč vėska tepasãko, arbā per daug pasãko ir atvesėna vėdu.

  • zõdziai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <zõdis> word -- words
  • arbā -- conjunction; <arbā> either, or -- either...
  • -- particle; <> no, not -- do not
  • vėska -- pronoun; accusative of <vėskas> everything -- everything
  • tepasãko -- verb; 3rd person present of <tepasakýti, tepasãko, tepasãke> say, tell -- say
  • arbā -- conjunction; <arbā> either, or -- or
  • per daug -- adverb; <per daug> too much -- too much
  • pasãko -- verb; 3rd person present of <pasakýti, pasãko, pasãke> say, tell -- (they) say
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • atvesėna -- verb; 3rd person present of <atvesėnti, atvesėna, atvesėno> cool off -- cool off
  • vėdu -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <vidųs> inside -- the insides

Zõdziai - gãras: issisnypscia ir nebčkecia vidaus.

  • zõdziai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <zõdis> word -- words
  • gãras -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <gãras> steam -- (are) steam
  • issisnypscia -- verb; 3rd person present reflexive of <issisnypsti, issisnypscia, issėsnypste> hiss -- (they) are hissed out
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • nebčkecia -- negative particle; <nebe> not any more + verb; 3rd person present of <kesti, kecia, kete> reach -- don't reach
  • vidaus -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <vidųs> inside -- the insides

Abųdu sedinciu staigā pamãte ės raisto issinerusi ju sventvakariu bendra, del kuriõ jíemdviem siaipjau bųvo nei silta, nei sálta.

  • abųdu -- pronoun; nominative dual masculine of <abųdu, abėdvi> both -- they both
  • sedinciu -- verb; nominative dual masculine of present participle active of <sedeti, sedi, sedejo> sit -- while were sitting
  • staigā -- adverb; <staigā> suddenly -- suddenly
  • pamãte -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <pamatýti, pamãto, pamãte> see -- saw
  • ės -- preposition; <ės> from -- from
  • raisto -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <raistas> marsh -- the marsh
  • issinerusi -- verb; accusative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <issinérti, issėneria, issinere> come out, arise -- arising
  • ju -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine <jės, jė> he, she, it -- their
  • sventvakariu -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <sventvakaris> holiday evening -- of the holiday evenings
  • bendra -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <bendras> friend, participant -- a participant
  • del -- preposition; <del> because, for -- because of
  • kuriõ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <kurės, kurė> which, who -- whom
  • jíemdviem -- pronoun; dative dual masculine of <jiedu, jiedvi> they both -- they both
  • siaipjau -- adverb; <siaipjau> in general, on the whole -- on the whole
  • bųvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <buti, yrā, bųvo> be -- were
  • nei -- conjunction; <nei> neither, nor -- neither
  • silta -- adjective; neuter of <siltas, siltā> warm -- warm
  • nei -- conjunction; <nei> neither, nor -- nor
  • sálta -- adjective; neuter of <sáltas, saltā> cold -- cold

Pasérgejo ir pagreitinta jõ zingsni, nč tóki sabasėni kaip kitomės póilsio dienomės.

  • pasérgejo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <pasérgeti, pasérgi, pasérgejo> watch, notice -- (they) watched
  • ir -- particle; <ir> and -- also
  • pagreitinta -- verb; accusative singular masculine of preterit participle passive of <pagreitinti, pagreitina, pagreitino> accelerate -- accelerated
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- his
  • zingsni -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <zingsnis> step, pace -- pace
  • -- particle; <> no, not -- (which was) not
  • tóki -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <tóks, tokiā> such -- so
  • sabasėni -- adjective; accusative singular masculine <sabasėnis, sabasėne> festive -- festive
  • kaip -- conjunction; <kaip> as, like -- as
  • kitomės -- pronoun; instrumental plural feminine of <kėtas, kitā> other -- on other
  • póilsio -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <póilsis> rest -- of rest
  • dienomės -- noun, feminine; instrumental plural of <dienā> day -- days

Pasérgeje zingsniúojant tiesiai i juõdu, pajųto siandie kitaip busiant, neláukiama ilisiant i tã óra, kuri tėk ka bųvo susidãre pãtys sáu, sáu vieníem, kuriõ pavydų bųvo, kād kitė kvepúotu; ilis ir sudrums uzkereta ju méiles srėti.

  • pasérgeje -- verb; nominative plural masculine of preterit participle active of <pasérgeti, pasérgi, pasérgejo> watch, notice -- watching
  • zingsniúojant -- verb; present gerund(ive) of <zingsniúoti, zingsniúoja, zingsniãvo> walk, pace -- (him) walking
  • tiesiai -- adverb; <tiesiai> directly -- directly
  • i -- preposition; <i> at, for, in, to -- to
  • juõdu -- pronoun; nominative dual masculine of <juõdu, jiedvi> they both -- them both
  • pajųto -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <pajųsti, pajunta, pajųto> feel -- (they) felt
  • siandie -- adverb; <siandie> today -- today
  • kitaip -- adverb; <kitaip> differently -- differently
  • busiant -- verb; future gerund(ive) of <buti, yrā, bųvo> be -- would be
  • neláukiama -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; accusative singular masculine of present participle passive of <láukti, láukia, láuke> expect, wait -- (him) unexpected
  • ilisiant -- verb; future gerund(ive) of <ilisti, ilenda, ilindo> get in -- would get in
  • i -- preposition; <i> at, for, in, to -- in
  • -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <tās, tā> this, that -- that
  • óra -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <óras> atmosphere -- atmosphere
  • kuri -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <kurės, kurė> which, who -- which
  • tėk ka -- adverb; <tėk ka> just, just now -- just
  • bųvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <buti, yrā, bųvo> be -- had
  • susidãre -- verb; nominative plural masculine of preterit participle active reflexive of <susidarýti, susidãro, susidãre> create -- created
  • pãtys -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <pāts, patė> themselves -- (they) themselves
  • sáu -- pronoun; dative of <saves> oneself, itself -- for themselves
  • sáu -- pronoun; dative of <saves> oneself, itself -- for themselves
  • vieníem -- adjective; dative plural masculine of <víenas, vienā> alone, each -- alone
  • kuriõ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <kurės, kurė> which, who -- of which
  • pavydų -- adjective; neuter of <pavydųs, pavydė> jealous -- jealous
  • bųvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <buti, yrā, bųvo> be -- (they) were
  • kād -- conjunction; <kād> that -- that
  • kitė -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <kėtas, kitā> other -- other
  • kvepúotu -- verb; 3rd person subjunctive of <kvepúoti, kvepúoja, kvepãvo> breathe -- would breathe (it)
  • ilis -- verb; 3rd person future of <ilisti, ilenda, ilindo> get in -- (he) will get in
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • sudrums -- verb; 3rd person future of <sudrumsti, sudrumscia, sųdrumste> disturb -- will disturb
  • uzkereta -- verb; accusative singular feminine of preterit participle passive of <uzkereti, ųzkeri, uzkerejo> charmed -- charmed
  • ju -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- their
  • méiles -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <méile> love -- of love
  • srėti -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <sritės> field, area -- the area

Lesson Text

Nuõ pāt kálno, lėgi tėk jã isvýdo, Mykoliųkas jã imtč emes i savč, artino sáu Sevčrija, rýdamas erdve, ir kai priejo visái artė, nebenuléido sāvo akiu, tėk didelem didelem, pilnõm bekrãscio dziaugsmo ir pasigerejimo, ziurejo staciai jái i akelčs.

Nusėjuoke Mykoliųkas, sustódamas gríezes; nč balsų, tėk kazin kaip sāvo vėduriu. Ir daugiau nebčgrieze. Kám begries, kād dabar jõ krutėneje, visamč jamč bųvo tokiā mųzika, kuriõs jės nčgi isreiks menkų sāvo grieztuvelių...

Sedejo abųdu ir nieko daugiau nebekalbejo. Jíem bųvo gera. Taip gera, kaip pėlnu zíedu prazýdusiems zolýnams. Jie tarpsta, kvepia, lapeliai kecias i salės, ės sunkųmo lepsta. Jie grãzina píeva, tráukia i savč bet kuriõ gývio akės. Ir ne víenas vabzdys neaplenkia ju nepabuciãves, ant ju nepasilsejes. Tėk víenas nedõrelis zmogųs tuõj síekia jõ - nusiraskýti ir, pavarcius pavarcius, numčsti, kād bč laiko nuvýstu, jau ųzmirstas.

Kã jie galejo víenas antrám pasisakýti? Kād mýli víenas antra, kād jíemdviem gera draugejč? Jųk tai ir bč zõdziu áisku. Dár pilniau. Zõdziai arbā nč vėska tepasãko, arbā per daug pasãko ir atvesėna vėdu. Zõdziai - gãras: issisnypscia ir nebčkecia vidaus.

Abųdu sedinciu staigā pamãte ės raisto issinerusi ju sventvakariu bendra, del kuriõ jíemdviem siaipjau bųvo nei silta, nei sálta. Pasérgejo ir pagreitinta jõ zingsni, nč tóki sabasėni kaip kitomės póilsio dienomės. Pasérgeje zingsniúojant tiesiai i juõdu, pajųto siandie kitaip busiant, neláukiama ilisiant i tã óra, kuri tėk ka bųvo susidãre pãtys sáu, sáu vieníem, kuriõ pavydų bųvo, kād kitė kvepúotu; ilis ir sudrums uzkereta ju méiles srėti.

Translation

From that very hill, as soon as he caught sight of her, he took her into himself, he brought Severija near to himself, eagerly devouring the space and when she got very near, he no longer lowered his gaze, but with great eyes full of limitless joy and pleasure looked her straight in the eyes.
Stopping his playing Mykoliukas laughed, not with his voice, but somehow or other with his insides. And played no more. Why would he play, when now in his breast, in all of him, there was such music, which he could never express with his insignificant little instrument.
They both sat and said nothing more. It was nice for both of them. It was just as nice as for blossoming greenery in full bloom. They grow luxuriantly, they smell good, the leaves spread out to the sides, grow limp from heaviness. They adorn the meadow and attract to themselves the eyes of any living thing. And not a single insect passes them by without kissing (them) and without resting on them. Only the human being (dishonorable as he is known to be) reaches for it immediately - to tear it off for himself and having turned it over, to throw it away so that it would fade before its time, already forgotten.
What could they say to each other? That they love each other, that they like being together? But that is clear without words. Or even more. Words either don't say everything or they say too much and make the insides cold. Words are steam. They make a noise, but they don't reach the insides.
While both of them were sitting there, they saw arising from the marsh a participant in the holiday evenings someone about whom both were indifferent. They watched his accelerated pace, which was not so festive and unhurried as on other days of rest. Watching him walking directly to them, they felt that today would be different, unexpectedly forcing its way into that atmosphere which they had just created for themselves only, the two of them alone, of which they were jealous, that other people might breathe it. It will force its way in and disturb the charmed dimension of their love.

Grammar

21. Numerals
21.1. The Ordinal Numerals

Ordinal numerals are mostly derived from the corresponding cardinal numerals by adding the suffix -tas,-ta. The formation of pėrmas 'first', antras 'second' and trecias 'third' differs from that of other ordinal numerals. These numerals denote place in a series. They are declined like regular adjectives (cf: pėktas, piktā 'angry') and agree with the word they modify in case, number and gender. The following ordinal numerals are used most frequently:

    Masculine   Feminine
    pėrmas 'first'   pirmā
    antras 'second'   antrā
    trecias 'third'   treciā
    ketvirtas 'fourth'   ketvirtā
    penktas 'fifth'   penktā
    sestas 'sixth'   sestā
    septintas 'seventh'   septintā
    astuntas 'eighth'   astuntā
    devintas 'ninth'   devintā
    desimtas 'tenth'   desimtā
    vienúoliktas 'eleventh'   vienúolikta
    dvýliktas 'twelfth'   dvýlikta
    trýliktas 'thirteenth'   trýlikta
    keturióliktas 'fourteenth'   keturiólikta
    penkióliktas 'fifteenth'   penkiólikta
    sesióliktas 'sixteenth'   sesiólikta
    septynióliktas 'seventeenth'   septyniólikta
    astuonióliktas 'eighteenth'   astuoniólikta
    devynióliktas 'nineteenth'   devyniólikta
    dvidesimtas 'twentieth'   dvidesimtā
    trisdesimtas 'thirtieth'   trisdesimtā
    keturiasdesimtas 'fortieth'   keturiasdesimtā
    penkiasdesimtas 'fiftieth'   penkiasdesimtā
    sesiasdesimtas 'sixtieth'   sesiasdesimtā
    septyniasdesimtas 'seventieth'   septyniasdesimtā
    astuoniasdesimtas 'eightieth'   astuoniasdesimtā
    devyniasdesimtas 'ninetieth'   devyniasdesimtā

Ordinal numerals possess definite forms which are similar to the adjectives of the first declension (cf: naujas 'new', naujā), e.g., pirmāsis 'the first', pirmóji; antrāsis 'the second', antróji; treciāsis 'the third', trecióji, etc.:

  • Paulius bųvo treciāsis vaikas māno brólio seimojč
  • 'Paulius was the third child in my brother's family'.
  • Rytój Violetā svencia sāvo sesióliktaji gimtãdieni
  • 'Tomorrow Violeta is celebrating her sixteenth birthday'.

Definite ordinal numerals are used to designate dates, e.g.:

  • Tai ivyko tukstantis penkė simtai keturiasdesimt septintaisiais
  • 'That happened in one thousand five hundred and forty-seven'.

In a compound ordinal number only the final element has the form of an ordinal numeral and is declined. The other elements remain in the nominative case, e.g.:

Nom.   penkė simtai trėsdesimt ketvirtas tãskas 'the five hundred thirty fourth point.'
Gen.   penkė simtai trėsdesimt ketvirto tãsko
Dat.   penkė simtai trėsdesimt ketvirtám tãskui
Acc.   penkė simtai trėsdesimt ketvirta tãska, etc.

They also have a neuter form, e.g., pėrmas 'first': pėrma; antras 'second': antra; penktas 'fifth': penkta, etc.:

Pėrma, butina atsikélti astunta vãlanda rýto; antra, paskambinti i aeroúosta; trecia, susikráuti lagamėna... 'First, it is necessary to get up at eight in the morning; second, to call the airport; third, to pack the suitcase...'

21.2. Fractions

In mathematics such forms as vienā antróji 'one-half', dvė treciosios 'two-thirds', trys penktosios 'three fifths' are used. The numerator is a feminine cardinal number and the denominator is a feminine ordinal number in the definite form. The denominator always agrees with dalės 'part' in gender, although the word dalės does not appear in any fraction. When the numerator is a numeral from 1 to 9 the denominator agrees with the numerator in gender, number and case, e.g., Padalėnk ės dvieju treciuju 'Divide by two-thirds'. When the numerator is any other numeral (except from 1 to 9), the denominator is always in the genitive plural, e.g., Vienúolikos dvidesimtuju neimãnoma suprãstinti 'It is impossible to simplify eleven-twentieths'.

Parts of things are most often indicated by compound numerals. Their first component is the root of an ordinal numeral, and the second component is the noun dalės 'part'. They are listed below:

trecdalis 'one third': trecdalis pasáulio 'one-third of the world'; ketvirtãdalis 'one fourth': ketvirtãdalis valandõs 'one-fourth of an hour'; penktãdalis 'one fifth': penktãdalis studentu 'one-fifth of the students'; sestãdalis 'one sixth': sestãdalis augalu 'one-sixth of the plants'; septintãdalis 'one seventh': septintãdalis ligóniu 'one-seventh of the patients'; astuntãdalis 'one eighth': astuntãdalis gãtviu 'one-eighth of the streets'; devintãdalis 'one ninth': devintãdalis Eurōpos 'one-ninth of Europe'; desimtãdalis 'one tenth': desimtãdalis paskolõs 'one-tenth of a loan'.

All these numerals are declined like the nouns of the first declension (cf: brólis). Fractions vienā antróji 'one-half' and vienā ketvirtóji are often replaced by the feminine noun pųse 'half' and the masculine noun ketvirtis 'quarter' respectively, e.g.:

  • Láukiau taves pųse valandõs 'I was waiting for you a half an hour'.
  • Mes prarãdome ketvirti milijõno 'We have lost a quarter of a million'.

There is a group of numerals the first component of which is the root of the noun pųse 'half' and the second component of which is an ordinal numeral in the genitive, e.g.:

    Masc. sing.   Fem. sing.   Plural
    pusantro 'one and a half'   pusantrõs   pusantru
    pustrecio 'two and a half'   pustreciõs   pustreciu
    pusketvirto 'three and a half'   pusketvirtõs   pusketvirtu
    puspenkto 'four and a half'   puspenktõs   puspenktu
    pussesto 'five and a half'   pussestõs   pussestu
    pusseptinto 'six and a half'   pusseptintõs   pusseptintu
    pusastunto 'seven and a half'   pusastuntõs   pusastuntu
    pusdevinto 'eight and a half'   pusdevintõs   pusdevintu
    pusdesimto 'nine and a half'   pusdesimtõs   pusdesimtu
  • Zadų nusipirkti pustreciõs tōnos kvieciu 'I intend to buy two and a half tons of wheat'.
  • Kur tų buvai pusantrõs saváites? 'Where were you for a week and a half?'
22. Reflexive Verbs and Verbal Prefixes
22.1. The Reflexive Verbs

The reflexive verbs in Lithuanian can be divided into two groups: simple reflexive verbs where the reflexive particle -si or -s is added at the end and compound reflexive verbs where the reflexive particle -si is inserted between the prefix and the verb proper. To this group also belong all reflexive verbs in their negative forms. The negative particle ne is treated in such cases as a prefix, e.g., jis kartójasi 'he repeats himself', jės nesikartója 'he does not repeat himself'. In the latter group, the conjugation of the basic verb does not change at all, only the -si- is inserted.

It is a little more difficult to learn the simple reflexive verbs. Certain changes occur both in the endings of these verbs and the reflexive particle -si:

    Present   Preterit   Preterit Frequentative
1st sg   gailiúosi 'I regret'   gailejausi 'I regretted'   gailedavausi 'I used to regret'
2nd sg   gailíesi   gailejaisi   gailedavaisi
3rd sg   gailisi   gailejosi   gailedavosi
             
1st pl   gailimes   gailejomes   gailedavomes
2nd pl   gailites   gailejotes   gailedavotes
3rd pl   gailisi   gailejosi   gailedavosi
             
    Future   Subjunctive   Imperative
1st sg   gailesiuosi 'I will regret'   gaileciausi 'I would regret'    
2nd sg   gailesiesi   gailetumeisi   gailekis 'regret'
3rd sg   gailesis   gailetusi    
             
1st pl   gailesimes   gailetu(me)mes   gailekimes
2nd pl   gailesites   gailetumetes   gailekites
3rd pl   gailesis   gailetusi    

In present and future the first person singular endings -u and -iu are replaced by -uo- and -iuo- respectively and the second person singular ending -i is replaced by -ie-. In the first and second plural, instead of -si, only -s is added, and the short final -e of these forms is replaced by -e. The third person future has the shortened variant of the reflexive particle. Also there is an -i- inserted after the consonant s. In the imperative the longer suffix -ki is retained.

The stress pattern is the same as in the non-reflexive verbs.

The reflexive particle may change the verbal meaning in a variety of ways, cf:

  • Vakarč ismáudziau vaikųs, po to issimaudziau pats 'In the evening I bathed the children, later I took a bath myself'.
  • Vėskas pasėkeite jíems cia apsigyvenus. Butč jie pākeite visųs senųs baldųs 'Everything changed when they moved here. They changed all the old furniture in the apartment'.
  • Jám visadā sunkų valdýti sāvo emōcijas, taciau vãkar jės vis delto pājege susivalýti 'It is always difficult for him to control his emotions, but yesterday he was nevertheless able to control himself'.
  • Ciā jės saukia gýdytoja, ciā saukiasi Dievo malónes Sometimes he calls for a doctor, sometimes he cries for the grace of God'.

A number of reflexive verbs are unrelated to any underlying verb (reflexiva tantum), e.g., elgtis 'to behave', juõktis 'to laugh', didziúotis 'to be proud of', pasiėlgti 'to miss', drovetis 'to be shy', teiráutis 'to inquire', etc.

22.2. Verbal Prefixes

The system of word formation with verbal prefixes is highly developed in Lithuanian. Prefixes may change or modify the meaning of the verb. The addition of a prefix usually renders the verb perfective.

The most common prefixes in Lithuanian are the following: ap- (api-), at-, (ati-), i-, is-, nu-, pa-, par-, per-, pra-, pri-, su-, uz-. Several examples of common prefixes with a few of the ordinary meanings are given below.

at- (ati-) may denote:

  • arrival, coming to a certain place, e.g., atvaziúoti 'to come', atnčsti 'to bring';
  • separation or division or removal, e.g., atkirsti 'to cut off', atskėrti 'to separate', 'to detach';
  • return to an original position, e.g., atáugti 'to grow back', 'to grow again', atgėmti 'to be reborn', 'to be revived';
  • the completion of an action, e.g., atpėgti 'to become cheap', to fall in price', atbųkti 'to become blunt'.

i- may denote:

  • motion into a place or an object, e.g., iskrėsti 'fly in'; inčsti 'bring in, carry in';
  • the beginning of an action which is carried out only to a slight degree, e.g., ikirpti 'to cut a little bit', 'to cut into something', itrukti 'get slightly broken';
  • completion of an action, e.g., itėkinti 'to persuade', ivýkdyti 'to carry out, to complete';
  • it also may be used with verbs formed from nouns or adjectives, e.g., iámzinti 'to immortalize' (cf: ámzinas 'eternal'), ipareigóti 'to oblige', 'to bind' (cf: pareigā 'duty', 'obligation').

is- may denote:

  • motion out of something, e.g., isskrėsti 'to fly out', isnčsti 'to carry out', 'to take out';
  • the action covering the entire area or whole series of objects, e.g., isbarstýti 'spill', 'to scatter', iszudýti 'to exterminate';
  • an action lasting for a certain length of time, e.g., isláukti 'to wait for a certain length of time', isbuti 'to stay', 'to remain for a certain length of time';
  • completion or fulfilment of an action, e.g., islõsti 'to win', isskalbti 'to wash', 'to launder'.

nu- may denote:

  • motion away from something or some place, e.g., nuvaziúoti 'to go to (away)', 'to depart to', nubegti 'to run away';
  • motion downwards, e.g., nukrėsti 'fall down', 'fall off', nusókti 'to jump down';
  • severance from the main part of an object, e.g., nulíeti 'to pour off', nupjáuti 'to cut off';
  • completion of an action to the very end, e.g., nuskandėnti 'to drown', 'to sink'.

pa- may denote:

  • the complection of an action, e.g., pasakýti 'to say', 'to tell', pastatýti 'to build', 'to construct';
  • a short duration of an action, e.g., paskalbti 'to wash for a little while', pančsti 'to carry for a little bit';
  • that something is put under something else, e.g., padeti 'to put under', 'to lay under', palisti 'to creep under';
  • the ability or capacity to perform a certain action, e.g., pastųmti 'to be able to push' pančsti 'to be able to carry'.

per- may denote:

  • motion across or through something, e.g., pérnesti 'to carry across', pérlisti 'creep through', 'to get through';
  • separation or division, e.g., pérpjauti 'to cut into two', pérlauzti 'to break into two';
  • the repetition or the renewal of an action, e.g., pérskaiciuoti 'to count again' pérskalbti 'to wash again';
  • exceeding of the norm or going beyond a certain limit, e.g., pérmoketi 'to overpay' pérsidirbti 'to overwork'.

pra- may denote:

  • movement by or past some place, e.g., praskrėsti 'to fly by', 'to fly past', pravaziúoti 'to drive past', 'to ride past';
  • movement through something or some place, e.g., praláuzti 'to break through', prapjáuti 'to cut through';
  • disappearance, loss or lack of something, e.g., pradingti 'to disappear', praválgyti 'to eat away (one's money);
  • the passage of a certain length of time in some activity, e.g., praláukti 'to spend a certain time waiting for', pragalvóti 'to think for a certain length of time'.

su- may denote:

  • gathering together or a coming-together, e.g., sunčsti 'to bring together', suvaziúoti 'to come together';
  • dissection or division into parts, e.g., suláuzyti 'to break into parts', sutrųpinti 'to crumble';
  • the attainment of the goal or the aim, e.g., surāsti 'to find' (what one has lost)', susčkti 'to trace down, to find out'.

uz- may denote:

  • the direction up, e.g., uznčsti 'to carry up', to bring up', uzlėpti 'to climb up', 'to mount', 'to ascend';
  • that something is put on something else, e.g., uzdengti 'to cover', uzpėlti 'to strew on', 'to fill up', 'to cover with';
  • putting something behind something else or going behind something, e.g., uzstatýti 'to place behind', uztámsinti 'to shade';
  • the completion of an action, e.g., uzmoketi 'to pay', uzkųrti 'to light up', 'to set fire to'.

Many verbal prefixes modify the meaning of the verb or show a distinct direction, e.g., mčsti 'to throw', 'to hurl', ' to chuck', apmesti 'to throw with', 'to cover with', atmčsti 'to throw off', 'to cast away', imčsti 'to throw in', 'to cast in' ismčsti 'to throw out', numčsti 'to throw down', 'to fling down', 'to drop', , 'to throw off', 'to cast off', 'to throw far away', 'to cast far away', pamčsti 'to throw under', ' to throw a little', 'to toss a little', parmčsti 'to throw down', 'to bring down', pérmesti 'to throw over', 'to throw across', pramčsti 'to throw past', 'to miss in throwing' primesti 'to throw (full, a quantity of)', 'to heap up', 'to cast (full, a quantity of)', 'to heap up', 'to fill', 'to throw about', sumčsti 'to throw into', 'to throw together' 'to pile', 'to heap', uzmčsti 'to throw on', 'to throw over', 'to fling on', 'to throw behind'.

But in some few cases the prefix can change the real verbal meaning or give to the verb an opposite meaning dúoti 'to give', pardúoti 'to sell', laimeti 'to win', pralaimeti 'to lose', prėmesti 'to press on', 'to thrust on', 'to impute to', sumčsti 'to understand', count up', etc.

Some verbs may have practically the same meaning with either of two prefixes, e.g., isnykti, pranykti 'to disappear', isgýti, pagýti 'to recover', 'to get better', etc. The prefix does not give a new meaning to some verbs and therefore the verb means practically the same thing with or without the prefix, e.g., baigti, pabaigti, uzbaigti 'to finish' grizti, sugrizti 'to return', etc.

The correct usage of prefixes may cause a major problem for foreign learners.

In the clause prefixes correlate with corresponding prepositions: ap- and apie 'about','off'; i- and i 'in', 'into', 'to'; is- and ės 'from', 'out of'; nu- and nuõ 'from', 'off', 'down'; pa- and 'in', 'about', etc.; per- and per 'through', 'across', etc.; pra- and prõ 'through', 'by'; pri- and prie 'at', 'by', etc.; su- and 'with'; uz- and ųz 'behind', 'beyond', e.g.:

  • Jie isvaziãvo ės namu ankstė rýta 'They left their home early in the morning'.
  • Vidųrdieni mes pérsikelem per ųpe 'At midday we crossed the river'.
  • Automobėlis nuslydo nuõ kelio 'The car slid off the road'.
23. The Passive and Reflexive Participles
23.1. The Passive Participles

In Lithuanian the present passive participle and the past passive participle are more common than the future passive participle which is relatively rare. The forms of the so-called 'participles of necessity' are also passive. The present and past passive participles may be used either to form the passive voice of various tenses or they may be used attributively like adjectives.

The Present Passive Participle.

The present passive participle is formed by adding the endings -mas, -ma to the third person present of the finite verbs, e.g.:

nom.sg.masc.   mýli '(he) loves + -mas = mýlimas 'beloved';
nom.sg.fem.   mýli '(she) loves + -ma = mylimā 'beloved'.

The declension of the present passive participle is given below (cf: the adjectives pėktas, piktā 'angry'):

    Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   mýlimas 'beloved'   mylimā
Gen sg   mýlimo   mylimõs
Dat sg   mylimám   mýlimai
Acc sg   mýlima   mýlima
Inst sg   mýlimu   mýlima
Loc sg   mylimamč   mylimojč
    mylimam   mylimõj
         
Nom pl   mylimė   mýlimos
Gen pl   mylimu   mylimu
Dat pl   mylimíems   mylimóms
    mylimíem   mylimóm
Acc pl   mýlimus   mýlimas
Inst pl   mylimais   mylimomės
        mylimõm
Loc pl   mylimuosč   mylimosč
    mylimuõs    

The definite forms of the present passive participles can frequently be used as nouns, e.g.:

  • Válgomasis bųvo pėlnas zmoniu 'The dining-room was full of people'.
  • Nepazistamóji pasisiule padeti 'The stranger offered her help'.

Other definite participles (active and passive) may also be used in nominal positions, e.g.:

  • Láukiantieji prie dųru ėma nerimáuti 'The people waiting at the door start to worry'.
  • Kalbejusieji staigā nutėlo ir suklųso 'The people who were speaking suddenly hushed and pricked up their ears'.
  • Kviestíeji neatvyko 'The invitees did not come'.

The Past Passive Participle.

The past passive participle is formed by removing the infinitive ending -ti and adding the -tas, -ta, e.g.:

  • masc.nom.sg.: myle-ti 'to love' + -tas = myletas 'loved, having been loved';
  • fem.nom.sg.: myle-ti 'to love' + -ta = myleta 'loved, having been loved'.

The paradigm is as follows:

    Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   myletas 'having been loved'   myleta
Gen sg   myleto   myletos
Dat sg   myletam   myletai
Acc sg   myleta   myleta
Inst sg   myletu   myleta
Loc sg   myletam(e)   myletoj(e)
         
Nom pl   myleti   myletos
Gen pl   myletu   myletu
Dat pl   myletiem(s)   myletom(s)
Acc pl   myletus   myletas
Inst pl   myletais   myletomis
Loc pl   myletuos(e)   myletose

The Future Passive Participle.

The future passive participle is formed by adding the endings -mas, -ma to the second person singular of the future tense, e.g.:

masc.nom.sg.   busi 'you (sg) will be' + -mas = busimas;
fem.nom.sg.   busi 'you (sg) will be' + -ma = busimā.

Except for the participle busimas, busimā, future passive participles are rarely used. Future passive participles are declined like present passive participles:

  • Ās vės atideliójau tã sāvo busima susitikėma
  • 'I kept putting off my forthcoming meeting'.

The Participle of Necessity.

The participle of necessity is formed by adding the endings -nas, -na to the verbal infinitive, e.g.:

masc.nom.sg.   vartóti 'to use' + -nas = vartótinas 'which should be used';
fem.nom.sg.   vartóti 'to use' + -na = vartótina 'which should be used'.

The participle of necessity denotes an action which should be performed or is worthy of being performed, e.g.:

  • Sės atmintinas susitikėmas ivyko pries penkerius metųs 'This memorable meeting took place five years ago'.
  • Reikia ieskóti iseities ės tokiõs apverktinõs situãcijos 'It is necessary to seek a way out of such a lamentable situation'.

The most frequent forms, however, do not bear any of the meaning of necessity and function merely as verbal adjectives.

23.2. The Reflexive Participles

The participles can also be reflexive. The reflexive active participles without prefixes are formed by adding the reflexive particle to the ending of the nominative case. The reflexive particle -s is added to the end of the simple particle in the singular and -si to the plural. In the masculine singular there is an -i- inserted between the participle and the final -s of the ending.

Present active participles:

Nom.sg.masc.   gydãs-is 'curing, healing'
Nom.sg.fem.   gýdanti-s
Nom.pl.masc.   gydãsi

Past active participles:

Nom.sg.masc.   gýdes-is
Nom.sg.fem.   gýdziusi-s
Nom.pl.masc.   gýde-si

These participles are used only in the masculine and feminine singular and the masculine plural, e.g.:

  • Sãko, kād jės siuõ metų gydãsis nuõ plauciu uzdegėmo 'They say, now he is being treated for pneumonia'.
  • Nustók tikejesis stebųklo 'Stop waiting for a miracle'.

If the verb is prefixed, than the reflexive particle -si- is inserted after the prefix, but before the root of the verb. Then all of the cases of the participle may be used, e.g., present active participle: nom.sg.masc. besigydãs, besigýdantis, gen.sg.masc. besigýdancio, dat.sg.masc. besigýdanciam, etc.; past active participle: issigýdes, issigýdziusio, issigýdziusiam, etc.:

  • Gãtve bųvo pilnā besilėnksminanciu zmoniu 'The street was full of celebrating people'.
  • Pasidziauges gerā ziniā pākvieciau pųsbroli isgérti kavõs 'Having rejoiced at the good news, I invited my cousin to take a cup of coffee'.

The masculine and feminine forms of reflexive passive participles are created only from prefixed verbs, e.g.: issėperkamas, 'being redeemed', issiperkamā, issėpirktas, '(having been) redeemed' issipirktā:

  • Atsėnesto maisto jíems neuzteko ne dvíem dienóms
  • Food brought with them was not enough even for two days'.

The neuter forms of reflexive passive participles can be formed both from prefixed and non-prefixed verbs, e.g., kalbamasi, pasėkalbama '(being) spoken of, about '; kalbetasi, pasikalbe'ta '(having been) spoken of, about'':

  • Ju kalbetasi apie tolčsnio bendradarbiãvimo perspektyvās
  • 'They spoke among themselves about perspectives for further collaboration'.

The reflexive half-participles and gerunds are formed in the same way as the active participles.

24. The Compound Tenses of the Active Voice

Compound tenses are formed with the finite forms of the auxiliary buti 'to be' and the present or past active or passive participle. Compound tenses containing active participles belong to the active voice, and those containing passive participles belong to the passive voice.

Compound forms with a present active participle form compound continuative tenses and moods, and those with a present passive participle form compound imperfect tenses and moods. Compound forms containing past active or passive participle are used as compound active or passive perfect tenses and moods.

24.1. Continuative Tenses

The past, the past frequentative and the future tense of the verb buti 'to be' may be used with the appropriate form of the present active participle (prefixed with be-) to express an action which is not, or could not be completed. These forms are somewhat similar in meaning to the various progressive tenses of English. There are no present tense continuative forms in modern Lithuanian. The compound past continuative is most frequently used. A sample paradigm with the past tense is given below:

    Masculine   Feminine
1st sg   ās buvau beperkãs 'I was buying'   ās buvau bčperkanti
2nd sg   tų buvai beperkãs 'you were buying'   tų buvai bčperkanti
3rd sg   jės bųvo beperkãs 'he was buying'   jė bųvo bčperkanti
         
1st pl   mes bųvom(e) beperkã 'we were buying'   mes bųvom(e) bčperkancios
2nd pl   jus bųvot(e) beperkã 'you were buying'   jus bųvot(e) bčperkancios
3rd pl   jie bųvo beperkã 'they were buying'   jõs bųvo bčperkancios

The number and gender of the participle are always the same as the number and gender of the subject. The participle is always in the nominative case to agree with the subject of the verb which is also in the nominative case, e.g.:

  • Buvau jau bčperkanti tã kerãmine vãza, bčt paskutėne minųte pastebejau, kād jė itrukusi 'I was already buying that ceramic vase but at the last minute I saw that it had slightly broken.
  • Rytõj tókiu pāt laikų jės jau bųs bekeliáujas namõ 'Tomorrow at the same time he will be already travelling home'.
24.2. Perfect Tenses

Compound perfect tenses are formed with the auxiliary verb buti 'to be' and the past active participle. Buti is used in one of its finite forms. Compound perfect forms occur in the present, past, past frequentative and future of the indicative mood and also in the subjunctive and imperative.

As in English the present perfect tense denotes the present state which is the result of a past action. It may not, however, denote a past action continuing into the present as does the English perfect tense, cf:

  • Siojč imoneje jė dėrba jau penkiólika metu
  • 'She has been working in this company for fifteen years'.

In this case the English perfect tense is translated with a Lithuanian present tense.

The present perfect tense is formed with the present conjugation of the verb buti and the form of the past active participle agrees in gender and number with the subject:

    Masculine   Feminine
1st sg   ās esų pirkes 'I have bought'   ās esų pirkusi
2nd sg   tų esė pirkes 'you have bought'   tų esė pirkusi
3rd sg   jės yrā pirkes 'he has bought'   jė yrā pirkusi
         
1st pl   mes esam(e) pirke 'we have bought'   mes esam(e) pirkusios
2nd pl   jus esat(e) pirke 'you have bought'   jus esat(e) pirkusios
3rd pl   jie yrā pirke 'they have bought'   jõs yrā pirkusios
  • Keleta kartu ir ās esų pazeidusi eismo taisyklčs 'I too have violated traffic regulations several times'.
  • Jie niekadā nerā bųve tokiamč gudziamč miskč 'They have never been in such a gloomy forest'.

The pluperfect tense is formed with the preterit of the verb buti plus the past active participle. The gender and number of the participle depend upon the gender and number of the subject. A sample paradigm is given below:

    Masculine   Feminine
1st sg   ās buvau pirkes 'I had bought'   ās buvau pirkusi
2nd sg   tų buvai pirkes 'you had bought'   tu buvai pirkusi
3rd sg   jės bųvo pirkes 'he had bought'   jė bųvo pirkusi
         
1st pl   mes bųvom(e) pirke 'we had bought'   mes bųvom(e) pirkusios
2nd pl   jus bųvot(e) pirke 'you had bought'   jus bųvot(e) pirkusios
3rd pl   jie bųvo pirke 'they had bought'   jõs bųvo pirkusios

This tense denotes a state which had been attained in the past. It may have been completed either during the time when another action took place or prior to the time another action took place:

  • Kai mes atvaziãvom, sesers seimā jau bųvo isvykusi atostogáuti 'When we came my sister's family had already left for vacation'.
  • Ingridā sugebejo iskčpti vėsta, kõl sveciai atejo 'Ingrida was able to fry a chicken before the guests came'.

The frequentative perfect tense is a compound tense formed with the frequentative past of the verb buti plus the past active participle:

    Masculine   Feminine
1st sg   ās budavau pirkes   ās budavau pirkusi
2nd sg   tų budavai pirkes   tų budavai pirkusi
3rd sg   jės budavo pirkes   jė budavo pirkusi
         
1st pl   mes budavom(e) pirke   mes budavom(e) pirkusios
2nd pl   jus budavot(e) pirke   jus budavot(e) pirkusios
3rd pl   jie budavo pirke   jõs budavo pirkusios

This tense denotes a state which was attained at different times in the past:

  • Mes jau budavom papietãve, kai i válgomaji izengdavo jė
  • 'We had already finished having dinner when(ever) she entered the dinning-room'.

The future perfect tense is formed with the future tense of the verb buti plus the appropriate form of the past active participle. The gender and number of the participle depend upon the gender and the number of the subject. A sample conjugation is given below:

    Masculine   Feminine
1st sg   ās busiu pirkes 'I will have bought'   ās busiu pirkusi
2nd sg   tų busi pirkes 'you will have bought'   tų busi pirkusi
3rd sg   jės bųs pirkes 'he will have bought'   jė bųs pirkusi
         
1st pl   mes busim(e) pirke 'we will have bought'   mes busim(e) pirkusios
2nd pl   jus busit(e) pirke 'you will have bought'   jus busit(e) pirkusios
3rd pl   jie bųs pirke 'they will have bought'   jõs bųs pirkusios

The future perfect tense may express an action which will have taken place before another future action takes place. It may also express a condition or state which will last some time in the future as the result of a future action. Sometimes it expresses the probability that an event has taken place, e.g.:

  • Jéi tų mán skambinsi devinta vãlanda rýto, ās jau busiu isejusi i dárba 'If you call me at nine in the morning, I will have gone to work'.
  • Kai ateis ruduõ, mes nãma jau busim pastãte 'When autumn comes we will have built the house'.
  • Turbut Rasā bųs nuejusi miegóti 'Rasa probably must have gone (somewhere) to sleep'.

In English we must use the present tense after 'when', even if a future time is implied. Since this rule does not apply to Lithuanian the future tense must be used when a future time is specified.

The compound tenses of the active voice also occur in the subjunctive and imperative, e.g., butu beperkãs; buk beperkã; butu pirkes; buk pirkes, e.g.:

  • Simonā butu pirkusi, jéi butu turejusi pinigu
  • 'Simona would have bought (something), if she had had some money'.
25. Use of the Nominative, Genitive and Dative

All case forms, with the exception of the nominative, dative and locative, may occur either alone or with prepositions. They usually depend on the verbs.

25.1. Nominative

The nominative does not depend on any other word in a clause. Its closest "partner" is a verb. It functions mostly as a subject or predicative complement, e.g.:

  • Sáule yrā milziniska zvaigzde
  • 'The sun is a large star'.

The nominative case is also used in certain time expressions, e.g.:

  • Jau kelė metai vãsaros buna sáltos 'It is already a few years that summers have been cold'.
  • Kās minųte vidun izengdavo naujas klientas 'Every minute a new client would come in'.

The accusative, however, is more common under these circumstances in modern Lithuanian.

25.2. Genitive

When not governed by a preposition nouns in the genitive are mostly used as objects or as modifiers. Certain verbs require the direct object in the genitive case rather than in the accusative, e.g., ieskóti, 'to look for', 'to seek'; noreti 'to wish', 'to want'; láukti 'to wait for'; mókytis 'to study', etc.:

  • Jės visuomčt nóri didziáusio kasnio 'He always wants the biggest piece'.
  • Daugelis amerikieciu íesko sāvo saknu Eurōpoje 'Many Americans look for their roots in Europe'.
  • Láukiame ės taves geru ziniu 'We are waiting for good news from you'.

The genitive is used as the direct object of a negated verb, e.g.:

  • Jė nevairúoja automobėlio (cf: Jė vairúoja automobėli)
  • 'She does not drive a car' (cf: She drives a car').

The object of an infinitive which is in turn the object of a negated verb may be in the genitive case, e.g.:

  • Jė nenóri atidúoti jíems didziáusio kasnio
  • 'She does not want to let them have the biggest piece'.

The word kasnis 'piece' is in the genitive case although it is the direct object of atidúoti, not nóri 'wants'.

In order to express an indefinite amount or quantity the genitive may be used where either the nominative or accusative would otherwise be required, e.g.:

  • Sutikau ir blogu zmoniu 'I have also met some bad people'.
  • Vakarč atvaziãvo draugu 'In the evening some friends came'.
  • Kiekvíenas tųrime ýdu 'Everybody has some faults'.

The genitive may be used as a nominal object of an infinitive which follows a verb of motion. In this case it has the meaning of purpose, e.g.:

  • Grizau daiktu pasiimti 'I came back to take (my) things'.
  • Mes vaziúojam pirkti saldytųvo 'We are going (somewhere) to buy a refrigerator''.

The verbs pasiimti 'to take' and pirkti are transitive verbs and must take a direct object in the accusative case under most other circumstances.

The genitive is used with certain nouns and adverbs of quantity, e.g., kilogrãmas jáutienos 'a kilo of beef'; puodelis kavos 'a cup of coffee', daug medziu 'many trees'; mazai ezeru 'few lakes'.

When the genitive case is used to show possession the noun in the genitive cases is usually placed before the object possessed, e.g., brólio nãmas 'brother's house'; móters pirstai 'the woman's fingers'.

Many prepositions require the genitive case. The most common prepositions used with genitive are as follows:

    Ant 'on':   Nesedek ant láiptu - pérsalsi
        'Do not sit on the stairs, you will get a cold'.
    'without':   Dalės zmoniu negãli isgyvénti bč valstýbes paramõs
        'Some people can't survive without support from the government'.
    Del 'through', 'because of', 'due to':   Skrydis bųvo atidetas del ruko
        'The flight has been cancelled due to fog'.
    Ės 'out of', away from':   Ės kambario sklėdo triųksmas
        'The noise came from the room'.
    Nuõ 'from', away from':   Nuõ sáules slepemes põ dėdeliu medzių
        'We were hidden from the sun under the big tree'.
    Ikė (ligė) 'to', 'up to', 'until':   Ikė vãkaro dazýti síenu nespesim baigti
        'We will not able to finish painting the walls until the evening'.
    Prie 'by', 'at', 'at the side of',   Kviesk visųs sesti prie stãlo
    'in the presence of':   'Ask all (the guests) to sit down at the table'.
25.3. Dative

The primary function of the dative is that of the indirect object, e.g.:

  • Pagaliau jės mán pasãke teisýbe 'At last he told (to) me the truth'.
  • Siã knyga paskýriau sāvo seneliams 'I dedicated this book to my grandparents'.

In many cases, Lithuanian uses the indirect object where in English one uses expressions such as: 'for', 'for the sake of', etc.:

  • Draugai Tōmui nupirko sųni
  • 'Friends bought a dog for Thomas'.

The dative may also denote the subject of an impersonal clause, e.g.:

  • Mán truksta isminties 'I lack wisdom'.
  • Jíem bųvo gera 'It was nice for both of them'.

The dative case may be used as the object of an infinitive to express purpose. In English we would have a direct object in a corresponding construction, e.g.:

  • Keliõnei nusipirkau nauja lagamėna 'I have bought a new suitcase for the journey'.
  • Kománda rengesi revánsui 'The team was preparing for the return game'.

It quite often indicates time, e.g.:

  • Sugrizau tėk kelióms dienóms 'I came back only for a few days'.
  • Akėmirkai mes prarãdome zãda 'For a moment we were deprived of speech'.