Juozas Tumas (1869-1933), known as Vaizgantas, was a well-known activist of the Catholic wing of the Lithuanian revival; he advocated the ideas of Lithuanian unity on the basis of Catholicism. This Lithuanian prose author, historian, and critic of literature took part in the founding and publication of several newspapers of national and Catholic orientation of that epoch. Almost every new work of a Lithuanian author was the object of his attention as a critic and reviewer. Vaizgantas had very strict requirements of artistry and language. He was more lenient with younger authors, trying to discern their emerging talent; therefore he is sometimes called 'the diamond hunter.' Although Vaizgantas' native Eastern Aukshtaitish dialect differed most of all from all other Lithuanian dialects, he tried to set an example for other people and to speak and write in the standard Lithuanian language, which was beginning to take root. However, in his literary works he did not avoid borrowings if they seemed to him to be more expressive than the Lithuanian words. In addition he used many dialect words and loved to create neologisms.
Vaizgantas' most popular work is his psychological tale Uncles and Aunts (i.e., wives of uncles). In it the author describes the way of life of the Lithuanian village. He reveals the rich and poetic internal world of the simple village man. 'Uncles' is a term denoting not only relatives, but also a person of a certain social class of the end of the XIXth and beginning of the XXth century in Lithuania. Brothers and sisters, recognizing the seniority of the oldest son to run the farm, remained unmarried and worked without recompense on the brother's farm. Their position was intermediate between that of a family member and a hired hand. Such are the basic protagonists of the story, viz. Mykolas and Severija, because of their gracious demeanor and poetic soul called by the diminutives Mykoliukas and Severiute. In the story their drama of love is described with great artistic force. Love for Severiute is the only real ray of light in the life of Mykoliukas, but being passive by nature and lacking will and ambition, he loses his beloved girl and makes peace with his fate. Distinguished by a firmer character and more energetic strength, his neighbor Rapolas Geise is successful in attracting Severija to his side and he marries her. At Severija's wedding Mykoliukas for the last time plays the little violin he has made until its strings break. In this story scenes of nature, which accompany all the experiences of the protagonists, are extremely important.
The selection given below from Uncles and Aunts tells of the meeting between Mykoliukas and Severiute in a blooming meadow near a marsh. Catching sight of the approaching Severiute, Mykoliukas stops pouring out the longing of his love with his home-made violin. They don't need any words to express their feelings. They both come together with the nature that surrounds them and speaks for them. The eloquent silence of their love is interrupted by the sudden, unexpected appearance of Geise.
In the excerpt we encounter the dual number of several pronouns jíemdviem, júodu, abųdu sedinciu and one participle abųdu sedinciu. Here we also encounter some relatively rarely used future gerunds, which form complicated constructions characteristic of the older language and which in modern Lithuanian are replaced by subordinate clauses: pajųto siandie kitaip busiant; nelaúukiama ilisiant. In one subordinate clause the indirect mood is used: kad myli vienas antra. The excerpt is full of adverbs, e.g., artė, staciai, kazėn_kaip, daugiau, etc., reflexive verbs, e.g. emes, nusėjuoke, kecias, nusiraskyti, etc. Of the more rare words worthy of mention are sabasėnis (festive, unhurried'; this is a suffixed derivative from the word sãbas).
Nuõ pāt kálno, lėgi tėk jã isvýdo, Mykoliųkas jã imtč emes i savč, artino sáu Sevčrija, rýdamas erdve, ir kai priejo visái artė, nebenuléido sāvo akiu, tėk didelem didelem, pilnõm bekrãscio dziaugsmo ir pasigerejimo, ziurejo staciai jái i akelčs.
Nusėjuoke Mykoliųkas, sustódamas gríezes; nč balsų, tėk kazin kaip sāvo vėduriu.
Ir daugiau nebčgrieze.
Kám begries, kād dabar jõ krutėneje, visamč jamč bųvo tokiā mųzika, kuriõs jės nčgi isreiks menkų sāvo grieztuvelių...
Sedejo abųdu ir nieko daugiau nebekalbejo.
Jíem bųvo gera.
Taip gera, kaip pėlnu zíedu prazýdusiems zolýnams.
Jie tarpsta, kvepia, lapeliai kecias i salės, ės sunkųmo lepsta.
Jie grãzina píeva, tráukia i savč bet kuriõ gývio akės.
Ir ne víenas vabzdys neaplenkia ju nepabuciãves, ant ju nepasilsejes.
Tėk víenas nedõrelis zmogųs tuõj síekia jõ - nusiraskýti ir, pavarcius pavarcius, numčsti, kād bč laiko nuvýstu, jau ųzmirstas.
Kã jie galejo víenas antrám pasisakýti?
Kād mýli víenas antra, kād jíemdviem gera draugejč?
Jųk tai ir bč zõdziu áisku.
Zõdziai arbā nč vėska tepasãko, arbā per daug pasãko ir atvesėna vėdu.
Zõdziai - gãras: issisnypscia ir nebčkecia vidaus.
Abųdu sedinciu staigā pamãte ės raisto issinerusi ju sventvakariu bendra, del kuriõ jíemdviem siaipjau bųvo nei silta, nei sálta.
Pasérgejo ir pagreitinta jõ zingsni, nč tóki sabasėni kaip kitomės póilsio dienomės.
Pasérgeje zingsniúojant tiesiai i juõdu, pajųto siandie kitaip busiant, neláukiama ilisiant i tã óra, kuri tėk ka bųvo susidãre pãtys sáu, sáu vieníem, kuriõ pavydų bųvo, kād kitė kvepúotu; ilis ir sudrums uzkereta ju méiles srėti.
Nuõ pāt kálno, lėgi tėk jã isvýdo, Mykoliųkas jã imtč emes i savč, artino sáu Sevčrija, rýdamas erdve, ir kai priejo visái artė, nebenuléido sāvo akiu, tėk didelem didelem, pilnõm bekrãscio dziaugsmo ir pasigerejimo, ziurejo staciai jái i akelčs.
Nusėjuoke Mykoliųkas, sustódamas gríezes; nč balsų, tėk kazin kaip sāvo vėduriu. Ir daugiau nebčgrieze. Kám begries, kād dabar jõ krutėneje, visamč jamč bųvo tokiā mųzika, kuriõs jės nčgi isreiks menkų sāvo grieztuvelių...
Sedejo abųdu ir nieko daugiau nebekalbejo. Jíem bųvo gera. Taip gera, kaip pėlnu zíedu prazýdusiems zolýnams. Jie tarpsta, kvepia, lapeliai kecias i salės, ės sunkųmo lepsta. Jie grãzina píeva, tráukia i savč bet kuriõ gývio akės. Ir ne víenas vabzdys neaplenkia ju nepabuciãves, ant ju nepasilsejes. Tėk víenas nedõrelis zmogųs tuõj síekia jõ - nusiraskýti ir, pavarcius pavarcius, numčsti, kād bč laiko nuvýstu, jau ųzmirstas.
Kã jie galejo víenas antrám pasisakýti? Kād mýli víenas antra, kād jíemdviem gera draugejč? Jųk tai ir bč zõdziu áisku. Dár pilniau. Zõdziai arbā nč vėska tepasãko, arbā per daug pasãko ir atvesėna vėdu. Zõdziai - gãras: issisnypscia ir nebčkecia vidaus.
Abųdu sedinciu staigā pamãte ės raisto issinerusi ju sventvakariu bendra, del kuriõ jíemdviem siaipjau bųvo nei silta, nei sálta. Pasérgejo ir pagreitinta jõ zingsni, nč tóki sabasėni kaip kitomės póilsio dienomės. Pasérgeje zingsniúojant tiesiai i juõdu, pajųto siandie kitaip busiant, neláukiama ilisiant i tã óra, kuri tėk ka bųvo susidãre pãtys sáu, sáu vieníem, kuriõ pavydų bųvo, kād kitė kvepúotu; ilis ir sudrums uzkereta ju méiles srėti.
From that very hill, as soon as he caught sight of her, he took her into himself, he brought Severija near to himself, eagerly devouring the space and when she got very near, he no longer lowered his gaze, but with great eyes full of limitless joy and pleasure looked her straight in the eyes.
Stopping his playing Mykoliukas laughed, not with his voice, but somehow or other with his insides. And played no more. Why would he play, when now in his breast, in all of him, there was such music, which he could never express with his insignificant little instrument.
They both sat and said nothing more. It was nice for both of them. It was just as nice as for blossoming greenery in full bloom. They grow luxuriantly, they smell good, the leaves spread out to the sides, grow limp from heaviness. They adorn the meadow and attract to themselves the eyes of any living thing. And not a single insect passes them by without kissing (them) and without resting on them. Only the human being (dishonorable as he is known to be) reaches for it immediately - to tear it off for himself and having turned it over, to throw it away so that it would fade before its time, already forgotten.
What could they say to each other? That they love each other, that they like being together? But that is clear without words. Or even more. Words either don't say everything or they say too much and make the insides cold. Words are steam. They make a noise, but they don't reach the insides.
While both of them were sitting there, they saw arising from the marsh a participant in the holiday evenings someone about whom both were indifferent. They watched his accelerated pace, which was not so festive and unhurried as on other days of rest. Watching him walking directly to them, they felt that today would be different, unexpectedly forcing its way into that atmosphere which they had just created for themselves only, the two of them alone, of which they were jealous, that other people might breathe it. It will force its way in and disturb the charmed dimension of their love.
Ordinal numerals are mostly derived from the corresponding cardinal numerals by adding the suffix -tas,-ta. The formation of pėrmas 'first', antras 'second' and trecias 'third' differs from that of other ordinal numerals. These numerals denote place in a series. They are declined like regular adjectives (cf: pėktas, piktā 'angry') and agree with the word they modify in case, number and gender. The following ordinal numerals are used most frequently:
Ordinal numerals possess definite forms which are similar to the adjectives of the first declension (cf: naujas 'new', naujā), e.g., pirmāsis 'the first', pirmóji; antrāsis 'the second', antróji; treciāsis 'the third', trecióji, etc.:
Definite ordinal numerals are used to designate dates, e.g.:
In a compound ordinal number only the final element has the form of an ordinal numeral and is declined. The other elements remain in the nominative case, e.g.:
|Nom.||penkė simtai trėsdesimt ketvirtas tãskas 'the five hundred thirty fourth point.'|
|Gen.||penkė simtai trėsdesimt ketvirto tãsko|
|Dat.||penkė simtai trėsdesimt ketvirtám tãskui|
|Acc.||penkė simtai trėsdesimt ketvirta tãska, etc.|
They also have a neuter form, e.g., pėrmas 'first': pėrma; antras 'second': antra; penktas 'fifth': penkta, etc.:
Pėrma, butina atsikélti astunta vãlanda rýto; antra, paskambinti i aeroúosta; trecia, susikráuti lagamėna... 'First, it is necessary to get up at eight in the morning; second, to call the airport; third, to pack the suitcase...'
In mathematics such forms as vienā antróji 'one-half', dvė treciosios 'two-thirds', trys penktosios 'three fifths' are used. The numerator is a feminine cardinal number and the denominator is a feminine ordinal number in the definite form. The denominator always agrees with dalės 'part' in gender, although the word dalės does not appear in any fraction. When the numerator is a numeral from 1 to 9 the denominator agrees with the numerator in gender, number and case, e.g., Padalėnk ės dvieju treciuju 'Divide by two-thirds'. When the numerator is any other numeral (except from 1 to 9), the denominator is always in the genitive plural, e.g., Vienúolikos dvidesimtuju neimãnoma suprãstinti 'It is impossible to simplify eleven-twentieths'.
Parts of things are most often indicated by compound numerals. Their first component is the root of an ordinal numeral, and the second component is the noun dalės 'part'. They are listed below:
trecdalis 'one third': trecdalis pasáulio 'one-third of the world'; ketvirtãdalis 'one fourth': ketvirtãdalis valandõs 'one-fourth of an hour'; penktãdalis 'one fifth': penktãdalis studentu 'one-fifth of the students'; sestãdalis 'one sixth': sestãdalis augalu 'one-sixth of the plants'; septintãdalis 'one seventh': septintãdalis ligóniu 'one-seventh of the patients'; astuntãdalis 'one eighth': astuntãdalis gãtviu 'one-eighth of the streets'; devintãdalis 'one ninth': devintãdalis Eurōpos 'one-ninth of Europe'; desimtãdalis 'one tenth': desimtãdalis paskolõs 'one-tenth of a loan'.
All these numerals are declined like the nouns of the first declension (cf: brólis). Fractions vienā antróji 'one-half' and vienā ketvirtóji are often replaced by the feminine noun pųse 'half' and the masculine noun ketvirtis 'quarter' respectively, e.g.:
There is a group of numerals the first component of which is the root of the noun pųse 'half' and the second component of which is an ordinal numeral in the genitive, e.g.:
|Masc. sing.||Fem. sing.||Plural|
|pusantro 'one and a half'||pusantrõs||pusantru|
|pustrecio 'two and a half'||pustreciõs||pustreciu|
|pusketvirto 'three and a half'||pusketvirtõs||pusketvirtu|
|puspenkto 'four and a half'||puspenktõs||puspenktu|
|pussesto 'five and a half'||pussestõs||pussestu|
|pusseptinto 'six and a half'||pusseptintõs||pusseptintu|
|pusastunto 'seven and a half'||pusastuntõs||pusastuntu|
|pusdevinto 'eight and a half'||pusdevintõs||pusdevintu|
|pusdesimto 'nine and a half'||pusdesimtõs||pusdesimtu|
The reflexive verbs in Lithuanian can be divided into two groups: simple reflexive verbs where the reflexive particle -si or -s is added at the end and compound reflexive verbs where the reflexive particle -si is inserted between the prefix and the verb proper. To this group also belong all reflexive verbs in their negative forms. The negative particle ne is treated in such cases as a prefix, e.g., jis kartójasi 'he repeats himself', jės nesikartója 'he does not repeat himself'. In the latter group, the conjugation of the basic verb does not change at all, only the -si- is inserted.
It is a little more difficult to learn the simple reflexive verbs. Certain changes occur both in the endings of these verbs and the reflexive particle -si:
|1st sg||gailiúosi 'I regret'||gailejausi 'I regretted'||gailedavausi 'I used to regret'|
|1st sg||gailesiuosi 'I will regret'||gaileciausi 'I would regret'|
|2nd sg||gailesiesi||gailetumeisi||gailekis 'regret'|
In present and future the first person singular endings -u and -iu are replaced by -uo- and -iuo- respectively and the second person singular ending -i is replaced by -ie-. In the first and second plural, instead of -si, only -s is added, and the short final -e of these forms is replaced by -e. The third person future has the shortened variant of the reflexive particle. Also there is an -i- inserted after the consonant s. In the imperative the longer suffix -ki is retained.
The stress pattern is the same as in the non-reflexive verbs.
The reflexive particle may change the verbal meaning in a variety of ways, cf:
A number of reflexive verbs are unrelated to any underlying verb (reflexiva tantum), e.g., elgtis 'to behave', juõktis 'to laugh', didziúotis 'to be proud of', pasiėlgti 'to miss', drovetis 'to be shy', teiráutis 'to inquire', etc.
The system of word formation with verbal prefixes is highly developed in Lithuanian. Prefixes may change or modify the meaning of the verb. The addition of a prefix usually renders the verb perfective.
The most common prefixes in Lithuanian are the following: ap- (api-), at-, (ati-), i-, is-, nu-, pa-, par-, per-, pra-, pri-, su-, uz-. Several examples of common prefixes with a few of the ordinary meanings are given below.
at- (ati-) may denote:
i- may denote:
is- may denote:
nu- may denote:
pa- may denote:
per- may denote:
pra- may denote:
su- may denote:
uz- may denote:
Many verbal prefixes modify the meaning of the verb or show a distinct direction, e.g., mčsti 'to throw', 'to hurl', ' to chuck', apmesti 'to throw with', 'to cover with', atmčsti 'to throw off', 'to cast away', imčsti 'to throw in', 'to cast in' ismčsti 'to throw out', numčsti 'to throw down', 'to fling down', 'to drop', , 'to throw off', 'to cast off', 'to throw far away', 'to cast far away', pamčsti 'to throw under', ' to throw a little', 'to toss a little', parmčsti 'to throw down', 'to bring down', pérmesti 'to throw over', 'to throw across', pramčsti 'to throw past', 'to miss in throwing' primesti 'to throw (full, a quantity of)', 'to heap up', 'to cast (full, a quantity of)', 'to heap up', 'to fill', 'to throw about', sumčsti 'to throw into', 'to throw together' 'to pile', 'to heap', uzmčsti 'to throw on', 'to throw over', 'to fling on', 'to throw behind'.
But in some few cases the prefix can change the real verbal meaning or give to the verb an opposite meaning dúoti 'to give', pardúoti 'to sell', laimeti 'to win', pralaimeti 'to lose', prėmesti 'to press on', 'to thrust on', 'to impute to', sumčsti 'to understand', count up', etc.
Some verbs may have practically the same meaning with either of two prefixes, e.g., isnykti, pranykti 'to disappear', isgýti, pagýti 'to recover', 'to get better', etc. The prefix does not give a new meaning to some verbs and therefore the verb means practically the same thing with or without the prefix, e.g., baigti, pabaigti, uzbaigti 'to finish' grizti, sugrizti 'to return', etc.
The correct usage of prefixes may cause a major problem for foreign learners.
In the clause prefixes correlate with corresponding prepositions: ap- and apie 'about','off'; i- and i 'in', 'into', 'to'; is- and ės 'from', 'out of'; nu- and nuõ 'from', 'off', 'down'; pa- and põ 'in', 'about', etc.; per- and per 'through', 'across', etc.; pra- and prõ 'through', 'by'; pri- and prie 'at', 'by', etc.; su- and sų 'with'; uz- and ųz 'behind', 'beyond', e.g.:
In Lithuanian the present passive participle and the past passive participle are more common than the future passive participle which is relatively rare. The forms of the so-called 'participles of necessity' are also passive. The present and past passive participles may be used either to form the passive voice of various tenses or they may be used attributively like adjectives.
The Present Passive Participle.
The present passive participle is formed by adding the endings -mas, -ma to the third person present of the finite verbs, e.g.:
|nom.sg.masc.||mýli '(he) loves + -mas = mýlimas 'beloved';|
|nom.sg.fem.||mýli '(she) loves + -ma = mylimā 'beloved'.|
The declension of the present passive participle is given below (cf: the adjectives pėktas, piktā 'angry'):
|Nom sg||mýlimas 'beloved'||mylimā|
The definite forms of the present passive participles can frequently be used as nouns, e.g.:
Other definite participles (active and passive) may also be used in nominal positions, e.g.:
The Past Passive Participle.
The past passive participle is formed by removing the infinitive ending -ti and adding the -tas, -ta, e.g.:
The paradigm is as follows:
|Nom sg||myletas 'having been loved'||myleta|
The Future Passive Participle.
The future passive participle is formed by adding the endings -mas, -ma to the second person singular of the future tense, e.g.:
|masc.nom.sg.||busi 'you (sg) will be' + -mas = busimas;|
|fem.nom.sg.||busi 'you (sg) will be' + -ma = busimā.|
Except for the participle busimas, busimā, future passive participles are rarely used. Future passive participles are declined like present passive participles:
The Participle of Necessity.
The participle of necessity is formed by adding the endings -nas, -na to the verbal infinitive, e.g.:
|masc.nom.sg.||vartóti 'to use' + -nas = vartótinas 'which should be used';|
|fem.nom.sg.||vartóti 'to use' + -na = vartótina 'which should be used'.|
The participle of necessity denotes an action which should be performed or is worthy of being performed, e.g.:
The most frequent forms, however, do not bear any of the meaning of necessity and function merely as verbal adjectives.
The participles can also be reflexive. The reflexive active participles without prefixes are formed by adding the reflexive particle to the ending of the nominative case. The reflexive particle -s is added to the end of the simple particle in the singular and -si to the plural. In the masculine singular there is an -i- inserted between the participle and the final -s of the ending.
Present active participles:
|Nom.sg.masc.||gydãs-is 'curing, healing'|
Past active participles:
These participles are used only in the masculine and feminine singular and the masculine plural, e.g.:
If the verb is prefixed, than the reflexive particle -si- is inserted after the prefix, but before the root of the verb. Then all of the cases of the participle may be used, e.g., present active participle: nom.sg.masc. besigydãs, besigýdantis, gen.sg.masc. besigýdancio, dat.sg.masc. besigýdanciam, etc.; past active participle: issigýdes, issigýdziusio, issigýdziusiam, etc.:
The masculine and feminine forms of reflexive passive participles are created only from prefixed verbs, e.g.: issėperkamas, 'being redeemed', issiperkamā, issėpirktas, '(having been) redeemed' issipirktā:
The neuter forms of reflexive passive participles can be formed both from prefixed and non-prefixed verbs, e.g., kalbamasi, pasėkalbama '(being) spoken of, about '; kalbetasi, pasikalbe'ta '(having been) spoken of, about'':
The reflexive half-participles and gerunds are formed in the same way as the active participles.
Compound tenses are formed with the finite forms of the auxiliary buti 'to be' and the present or past active or passive participle. Compound tenses containing active participles belong to the active voice, and those containing passive participles belong to the passive voice.
Compound forms with a present active participle form compound continuative tenses and moods, and those with a present passive participle form compound imperfect tenses and moods. Compound forms containing past active or passive participle are used as compound active or passive perfect tenses and moods.
The past, the past frequentative and the future tense of the verb buti 'to be' may be used with the appropriate form of the present active participle (prefixed with be-) to express an action which is not, or could not be completed. These forms are somewhat similar in meaning to the various progressive tenses of English. There are no present tense continuative forms in modern Lithuanian. The compound past continuative is most frequently used. A sample paradigm with the past tense is given below:
|1st sg||ās buvau beperkãs 'I was buying'||ās buvau bčperkanti|
|2nd sg||tų buvai beperkãs 'you were buying'||tų buvai bčperkanti|
|3rd sg||jės bųvo beperkãs 'he was buying'||jė bųvo bčperkanti|
|1st pl||mes bųvom(e) beperkã 'we were buying'||mes bųvom(e) bčperkancios|
|2nd pl||jus bųvot(e) beperkã 'you were buying'||jus bųvot(e) bčperkancios|
|3rd pl||jie bųvo beperkã 'they were buying'||jõs bųvo bčperkancios|
The number and gender of the participle are always the same as the number and gender of the subject. The participle is always in the nominative case to agree with the subject of the verb which is also in the nominative case, e.g.:
Compound perfect tenses are formed with the auxiliary verb buti 'to be' and the past active participle. Buti is used in one of its finite forms. Compound perfect forms occur in the present, past, past frequentative and future of the indicative mood and also in the subjunctive and imperative.
As in English the present perfect tense denotes the present state which is the result of a past action. It may not, however, denote a past action continuing into the present as does the English perfect tense, cf:
In this case the English perfect tense is translated with a Lithuanian present tense.
The present perfect tense is formed with the present conjugation of the verb buti and the form of the past active participle agrees in gender and number with the subject:
|1st sg||ās esų pirkes 'I have bought'||ās esų pirkusi|
|2nd sg||tų esė pirkes 'you have bought'||tų esė pirkusi|
|3rd sg||jės yrā pirkes 'he has bought'||jė yrā pirkusi|
|1st pl||mes esam(e) pirke 'we have bought'||mes esam(e) pirkusios|
|2nd pl||jus esat(e) pirke 'you have bought'||jus esat(e) pirkusios|
|3rd pl||jie yrā pirke 'they have bought'||jõs yrā pirkusios|
The pluperfect tense is formed with the preterit of the verb buti plus the past active participle. The gender and number of the participle depend upon the gender and number of the subject. A sample paradigm is given below:
|1st sg||ās buvau pirkes 'I had bought'||ās buvau pirkusi|
|2nd sg||tų buvai pirkes 'you had bought'||tu buvai pirkusi|
|3rd sg||jės bųvo pirkes 'he had bought'||jė bųvo pirkusi|
|1st pl||mes bųvom(e) pirke 'we had bought'||mes bųvom(e) pirkusios|
|2nd pl||jus bųvot(e) pirke 'you had bought'||jus bųvot(e) pirkusios|
|3rd pl||jie bųvo pirke 'they had bought'||jõs bųvo pirkusios|
This tense denotes a state which had been attained in the past. It may have been completed either during the time when another action took place or prior to the time another action took place:
The frequentative perfect tense is a compound tense formed with the frequentative past of the verb buti plus the past active participle:
|1st sg||ās budavau pirkes||ās budavau pirkusi|
|2nd sg||tų budavai pirkes||tų budavai pirkusi|
|3rd sg||jės budavo pirkes||jė budavo pirkusi|
|1st pl||mes budavom(e) pirke||mes budavom(e) pirkusios|
|2nd pl||jus budavot(e) pirke||jus budavot(e) pirkusios|
|3rd pl||jie budavo pirke||jõs budavo pirkusios|
This tense denotes a state which was attained at different times in the past:
The future perfect tense is formed with the future tense of the verb buti plus the appropriate form of the past active participle. The gender and number of the participle depend upon the gender and the number of the subject. A sample conjugation is given below:
|1st sg||ās busiu pirkes 'I will have bought'||ās busiu pirkusi|
|2nd sg||tų busi pirkes 'you will have bought'||tų busi pirkusi|
|3rd sg||jės bųs pirkes 'he will have bought'||jė bųs pirkusi|
|1st pl||mes busim(e) pirke 'we will have bought'||mes busim(e) pirkusios|
|2nd pl||jus busit(e) pirke 'you will have bought'||jus busit(e) pirkusios|
|3rd pl||jie bųs pirke 'they will have bought'||jõs bųs pirkusios|
The future perfect tense may express an action which will have taken place before another future action takes place. It may also express a condition or state which will last some time in the future as the result of a future action. Sometimes it expresses the probability that an event has taken place, e.g.:
In English we must use the present tense after 'when', even if a future time is implied. Since this rule does not apply to Lithuanian the future tense must be used when a future time is specified.
The compound tenses of the active voice also occur in the subjunctive and imperative, e.g., butu beperkãs; buk beperkã; butu pirkes; buk pirkes, e.g.:
All case forms, with the exception of the nominative, dative and locative, may occur either alone or with prepositions. They usually depend on the verbs.
The nominative does not depend on any other word in a clause. Its closest "partner" is a verb. It functions mostly as a subject or predicative complement, e.g.:
The nominative case is also used in certain time expressions, e.g.:
The accusative, however, is more common under these circumstances in modern Lithuanian.
When not governed by a preposition nouns in the genitive are mostly used as objects or as modifiers. Certain verbs require the direct object in the genitive case rather than in the accusative, e.g., ieskóti, 'to look for', 'to seek'; noreti 'to wish', 'to want'; láukti 'to wait for'; mókytis 'to study', etc.:
The genitive is used as the direct object of a negated verb, e.g.:
The object of an infinitive which is in turn the object of a negated verb may be in the genitive case, e.g.:
The word kasnis 'piece' is in the genitive case although it is the direct object of atidúoti, not nóri 'wants'.
In order to express an indefinite amount or quantity the genitive may be used where either the nominative or accusative would otherwise be required, e.g.:
The genitive may be used as a nominal object of an infinitive which follows a verb of motion. In this case it has the meaning of purpose, e.g.:
The verbs pasiimti 'to take' and pirkti are transitive verbs and must take a direct object in the accusative case under most other circumstances.
The genitive is used with certain nouns and adverbs of quantity, e.g., kilogrãmas jáutienos 'a kilo of beef'; puodelis kavos 'a cup of coffee', daug medziu 'many trees'; mazai ezeru 'few lakes'.
When the genitive case is used to show possession the noun in the genitive cases is usually placed before the object possessed, e.g., brólio nãmas 'brother's house'; móters pirstai 'the woman's fingers'.
Many prepositions require the genitive case. The most common prepositions used with genitive are as follows:
|Ant 'on':||Nesedek ant láiptu - pérsalsi|
|'Do not sit on the stairs, you will get a cold'.|
|Bč 'without':||Dalės zmoniu negãli isgyvénti bč valstýbes paramõs|
|'Some people can't survive without support from the government'.|
|Del 'through', 'because of', 'due to':||Skrydis bųvo atidetas del ruko|
|'The flight has been cancelled due to fog'.|
|Ės 'out of', away from':||Ės kambario sklėdo triųksmas|
|'The noise came from the room'.|
|Nuõ 'from', away from':||Nuõ sáules slepemes põ dėdeliu medzių|
|'We were hidden from the sun under the big tree'.|
|Ikė (ligė) 'to', 'up to', 'until':||Ikė vãkaro dazýti síenu nespesim baigti|
|'We will not able to finish painting the walls until the evening'.|
|Prie 'by', 'at', 'at the side of',||Kviesk visųs sesti prie stãlo|
|'in the presence of':||'Ask all (the guests) to sit down at the table'.|
The primary function of the dative is that of the indirect object, e.g.:
In many cases, Lithuanian uses the indirect object where in English one uses expressions such as: 'for', 'for the sake of', etc.:
The dative may also denote the subject of an impersonal clause, e.g.:
The dative case may be used as the object of an infinitive to express purpose. In English we would have a direct object in a corresponding construction, e.g.:
It quite often indicates time, e.g.: