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Baltic Online

Lesson 5: Lithuanian

Virginija Vasiliauskiene and Jonathan Slocum

Juozas Tumas (1869-1933), known as Vaizgantas, was a well-known activist of the Catholic wing of the Lithuanian revival; he advocated the ideas of Lithuanian unity on the basis of Catholicism. This Lithuanian prose author, historian, and critic of literature took part in the founding and publication of several newspapers of national and Catholic orientation of that epoch. Almost every new work of a Lithuanian author was the object of his attention as a critic and reviewer. Vaizgantas had very strict requirements of artistry and language. He was more lenient with younger authors, trying to discern their emerging talent; therefore he is sometimes called 'the diamond hunter.' Although Vaizgantas' native Eastern Aukshtaitish dialect differed most of all from all other Lithuanian dialects, he tried to set an example for other people and to speak and write in the standard Lithuanian language, which was beginning to take root. However, in his literary works he did not avoid borrowings if they seemed to him to be more expressive than the Lithuanian words. In addition he used many dialect words and loved to create neologisms.

Vaizgantas' most popular work is his psychological tale Uncles and Aunts (i.e., wives of uncles). In it the author describes the way of life of the Lithuanian village. He reveals the rich and poetic internal world of the simple village man. 'Uncles' is a term denoting not only relatives, but also a person of a certain social class of the end of the XIXth and beginning of the XXth century in Lithuania. Brothers and sisters, recognizing the seniority of the oldest son to run the farm, remained unmarried and worked without recompense on the brother's farm. Their position was intermediate between that of a family member and a hired hand. Such are the basic protagonists of the story, viz. Mykolas and Severija, because of their gracious demeanor and poetic soul called by the diminutives Mykoliukas and Severiute. In the story their drama of love is described with great artistic force. Love for Severiute is the only real ray of light in the life of Mykoliukas, but being passive by nature and lacking will and ambition, he loses his beloved girl and makes peace with his fate. Distinguished by a firmer character and more energetic strength, his neighbor Rapolas Geise is successful in attracting Severija to his side and he marries her. At Severija's wedding Mykoliukas for the last time plays the little violin he has made until its strings break. In this story scenes of nature, which accompany all the experiences of the protagonists, are extremely important.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The selection given below from Uncles and Aunts tells of the meeting between Mykoliukas and Severiute in a blooming meadow near a marsh. Catching sight of the approaching Severiute, Mykoliukas stops pouring out the longing of his love with his home-made violin. They don't need any words to express their feelings. They both come together with the nature that surrounds them and speaks for them. The eloquent silence of their love is interrupted by the sudden, unexpected appearance of Geise.

In the excerpt we encounter the dual number of several pronouns jíemdviem, júodu, abùdu sė́dinčiu and one participle abùdu sė́dinčiu. Here we also encounter some relatively rarely used future gerunds, which form complicated constructions characteristic of the older language and which in modern Lithuanian are replaced by subordinate clauses: pajùto šiañdie kitaĩp bū́siant; nelaúukiamą įlį̃siant. In one subordinate clause the indirect mood is used: kad mylį vienas antrą. The excerpt is full of adverbs, e.g., artì, stačiaĩ, kažìn_kaip, daugiaũ, etc., reflexive verbs, e.g. ė̃mės, nusìjuokė, kẽčias, nusiraškyti, etc. Of the more rare words worthy of mention are šabasìnis (festive, unhurried'; this is a suffixed derivative from the word šãbas).

Nuõ pàt kálno, lìgi tìk ją̃ išvýdo, Mykoliùkas ją̃ imtè ė̃mės į̃ savè, ar̃tino sáu Sevèriją, rýdamas er̃dvę, ir̃ kaĩ priė̃jo visái artì, nebenuléido sàvo akių̃, tìk didelė̃m didelė̃m, pilnõm bekrãščio džiaũgsmo ir̃ pasigėrė́jimo, žiūrė́jo stačiaĩ jái į̃ akelès.

  • nuõ -- preposition; <nuõ> from -- from
  • pàt -- particle; <pàt> very -- very
  • kálno -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <kálnas> hill -- hill
  • lìgi tìk -- conjunction; <lìgi tik> as soon as -- as soon as
  • ją̃ -- pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- her
  • išvýdo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <išvýsti, išvýsta, išvýdo> see, witness -- he caught sight of
  • Mykoliùkas -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Mykoliùkas> Mykoliukas -- Mykoliukas
  • ją̃ -- pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- her
  • imtè -- second infinitive; <imtè> taking -- ...
  • ė̃mės -- verb; 3rd person preterit reflexive of <im̃tis, ìmasi, ė̃mėsi> take -- took (her)
  • į̃ -- preposition; <į̃> at, for, in, to -- into
  • savè -- pronoun; accusative of <savę̃s> oneself, itself -- himself
  • ar̃tino -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <ar̃tinti, ar̃tina, ar̃tino> bring near -- (he) brought near
  • sáu -- pronoun; dative of <savę̃s> oneself, itself -- to himself
  • Sevèriją -- proper noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Sevèrija> Severija -- Severija
  • rýdamas -- verb; singular masculine of half participle of <rýti, rỹja, rìjo> devour -- devouring
  • er̃dvę -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <erdvė̃> space -- the space
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • kaĩ -- conjunction; <kaĩ> when -- when
  • priė̃jo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <prieĩti, prieĩna, priė̃jo> come, get -- (she) got
  • visái -- adverb; <visái> completely, totally -- very
  • artì -- adverb; <artì> near -- near
  • nebenuléido -- negative particle; <nebe> not any more + verb; 3rd person preterit of <nuléisti, nuléidžia, nuléido> lower -- he did not lower
  • sàvo -- pronoun; genitive of <sàvo> he, she -- his
  • akių̃ -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <akìs> eye -- eyes
  • tìk -- particle; <tìk> only -- but
  • didelė̃m -- adjective; instrumental plural feminine of <dìdelis, dìdelė> great, large -- with large (eyes)
  • didelė̃m -- adjective; instrumental plural feminine of <dìdelis, dìdelė> great, large -- ...
  • pilnõm -- adjective; instrumental plural feminine of <pìlnas, pilnà> full -- full
  • bekrãščio -- adjective; genitive singular masculine of <bekrãštis, bekrãštė> boundless -- limitless
  • džiaũgsmo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <džiaũgsmas> joy -- of joy
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • pasigėrė́jimo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular reflexive of <pasigėrė́jimas> enjoyment, pleasure -- of pleasure
  • žiūrė́jo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <žiūrė́ti, žiū̃ri, žiūrė́jo> look -- looked
  • stačiaĩ -- adverb; <stačiaĩ> straight -- straight
  • jái -- pronoun; dative singular feminine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- her
  • į̃ -- preposition; <į̃> at, for, in, to -- in
  • akelès -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <akẽlės> eye -- the eyes

Nusìjuokė Mykoliùkas, sustódamas gríežęs; nè balsù, tìk kažin kaĩp sàvo vìduriu.

  • nusìjuokė -- verb; 3rd person preterit reflexive of <nusijuõkti, nusijuõkia, nusìjuokė> laugh -- laughed
  • Mykoliùkas -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Mykoliùkas> Mykoliukas -- Mykoliukas
  • sustódamas -- verb; singular masculine of half participle of <sustóti, sustója, sustójo> stop -- stopping
  • gríežęs -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <gríežti, gríežia, gríežė> play -- playing
  • -- particle; <> no, not -- not
  • balsù -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <bal̃sas> voice -- with voice
  • tìk -- particle; <tìk> only -- but
  • kažin kaĩp -- adverb; <kažin kaĩp> somehow -- somehow
  • sàvo -- pronoun; genitive of <sàvo> he, she -- his
  • vìduriu -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <vidurỹs> inside -- with insides

Ir̃ daugiaũ nebègriežė.

  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • daugiaũ -- adverb; comparative of <daũg> many, much -- more
  • nebègriežė -- negative particle; <nebe> not any more + verb; 3rd person preterit of <gríežti, gríežia, gríežė> play -- (he) did not play

Kám begriẽš, kàd dabar̃ jõ krūtìnėje, visamè jamè bùvo tokià mùzika, kuriõs jìs nègi išreĩkš menkù sàvo griežtuvėliù...

  • kám -- adverb; <kám> why -- why
  • begriẽš -- verb; 3rd person future of <begríežti, begríežia, begríežė> play -- will he play
  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- when
  • dabar̃ -- adverb; <dabar̃> now -- now
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- his
  • krūtìnėje -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <krūtìnė> breast -- in the breast
  • visamè -- pronoun; locative singular masculine of <vìsas, visà> all -- all (of)
  • jamè -- pronoun; locative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- in him
  • bùvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- there was
  • tokià -- pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <tóks, tokià> such -- such
  • mùzika -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <mùzika> music -- music
  • kuriõs -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <kurìs, kurì> which, who -- which
  • jìs -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- he
  • nègi -- particle; <nègi> never -- never
  • išreĩkš -- verb; 3rd person future of <išréikšti, išréiškia, išréiškė> express -- could express
  • menkù -- adjective; instrumental singular masculine of <meñkas, menkà> poor -- poor
  • sàvo -- pronoun; genitive of <sàvo> he, she -- his
  • griežtuvėliù -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <griežtuvė̃lis> instrument -- with the instrument

Sėdė́jo abùdu ir̃ niẽko daugiaũ nebekalbė́jo.

  • sėdė́jo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <sėdė́ti, sė́di, sėdė́jo> sit -- sat
  • abùdu -- pronoun; nominative dual masculine of <abùdu, abìdvi> both -- both
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • niẽko -- pronoun; genitive singular of <niẽkas> no one, nobody, nothing -- nothing
  • daugiaũ -- adverb; comparative of <daũg> many, much -- more
  • nebekalbė́jo -- negative particle; <nebe> not any more + verb; 3rd person preterit of <kalbė́ti, kal̃ba, kalbė́jo> speak -- did not speak

Jíem bùvo gẽra.

  • jíem -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- for them
  • bùvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- (it) was
  • gẽra -- adjective; neuter of <gẽras, gerà> good, well -- nice

Taĩp gẽra, kaĩp pìlnu žíedu pražýdusiems žolýnams.

  • taĩp -- adverb; <taĩp> so, therefore -- just as
  • gẽra -- adjective; neuter of <gẽras, gerà> good, well -- (it was) nice
  • kaĩp -- conjunction; <kaĩp> as, like -- as
  • pìlnu -- adjective; instrumental singular masculine of <pìlnas, pilnà> full -- full
  • žíedu -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <žíedas> blossom, flower -- in bloom
  • pražýdusiems -- verb; dative plural masculine of preterit participle active of <pražýsti, pražýsta, pražýdo> blossom -- blossoming
  • žolýnams -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <žolýnas> greenery -- for greenery

Jiẽ tar̃psta, kvẽpia, lapẽliai kẽčias į̃ šalìs, ìš sunkùmo lė̃psta.

  • jiẽ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- they
  • tar̃psta -- verb; 3rd person present of <tar̃pti, tar̃psta, tar̃po> grow luxuriantly -- grow luxuriantly
  • kvẽpia -- verb; 3rd person present of <kvepė́ti, kvẽpia, kvepė́jo> smell good -- smell good
  • lapẽliai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <lapẽlis> leaf -- the leaves
  • kẽčias -- verb; 3rd person present reflexive of <̃stis, kẽčiasi, kė̃tėsi> spread out -- spread out
  • į̃ -- preposition; <į̃> at, for, in, to -- to
  • šalìs -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <šalìs> side -- the sides
  • ìš -- preposition; <ìš> from -- from
  • sunkùmo -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <sunkùmas> heaviness, weight -- heaviness
  • ̃psta -- verb; 3rd person present of <lėpti, lėpsta, lėpo> droop -- droop

Jiẽ grãžina píevą, tráukia į̃ savè bet kuriõ gývio akìs.

  • jiẽ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- they
  • grãžina -- verb; 3rd person present of <grãžinti, grãžina, grãžino> adorn -- adorn
  • píevą -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <píeva> meadow -- meadow
  • tráukia -- verb; 3rd person present of <tráukti, tráukia, tráukė> attract -- attract
  • į̃ -- preposition; <į̃> at, for, in, to -- to
  • savè -- pronoun; accusative of <savę̃s> oneself, itself -- themselves
  • bet kuriõ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <bet kurìs> any -- any
  • gývio -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <gývis> living being -- of living being
  • akìs -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <akìs> eye -- the eyes

Ir̃ nė víenas vabzdỹs neapleñkia jų̃ nepabučiãvęs, añt jų̃ nepasilsė́jęs.

  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • nė víenas -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <nė víenas, nė vienà> not one -- not a single
  • vabzdỹs -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <vabzdỹs> insect -- insect
  • neapleñkia -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; 3rd person present of <apleñkti, apleñkia, àplenkė> pass by -- passes by
  • jų̃ -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- them
  • nepabučiãvęs -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <pabučiúoti, pabučiúoja, pabučiãvo> kiss -- not kissing
  • añt -- preposition; <añt> in, on -- on
  • jų̃ -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- them
  • nepasilsė́jęs -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <pasilsė́ti, pasìlsi, pasilsė́jo> rest -- not resting

Tìk víenas nedõrėlis žmogùs tuõj síekia jõ - nusiraškýti ir̃, pavar̃čius pavar̃čius, numèsti, kàd bè laĩko nuvýstų, jaũ ùžmirštas.

  • tìk -- particle; <tìk> only -- only
  • víenas -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <víenas, vienà> alone, each -- one
  • nedõrėlis -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <nedõrėlis> dishonorable -- dishonorable
  • žmogùs -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <žmogùs> human being, person -- human being
  • tuõj -- adverb; <tuõj> immediately -- immediately
  • síekia -- verb; 3rd person present of <síekti, síekia, síekė> try to get, reach -- reaches
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- for it
  • nusiraškýti -- verb; infinitive reflexive of <nusiraškýti, nusirãško, nusirãškė> tear off -- to tear (it) off
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • pavar̃čius -- verb; preterit gerund(ive) of <pavartýti, pavar̃to, pavar̃tė> turn over -- having turned (it) over
  • pavar̃čius -- verb; preterit gerund(ive) of <pavartýti, pavar̃to, pavar̃tė> turn over -- having turned (it) over
  • numèsti -- verb; infinitive of <numèsti, nùmeta, nùmetė> throw away -- to throw (it) away
  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- so that
  • -- preposition; <> before, without -- before
  • laĩko -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <laĩkas> time -- (its) time
  • nuvýstų -- verb; 3rd person subjunctive of <nuvýsti, nuvýsta, nuvýto> fade -- (it) would fade
  • jaũ -- particle; <jaũ> already, just -- already
  • ùžmirštas -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle passive of <užmir̃šti, užmir̃šta, užmir̃šo> forget -- forgotten

Ką̃ jiẽ galė́jo víenas antrám pasisakýti?

  • ką̃ -- pronoun; accusative of <kàs> which, what -- what
  • jiẽ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- they
  • galė́jo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <galė́ti, gãli, galė́jo> can -- could
  • víenas -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <víenas, vienà> alone, each -- ...
  • antrám -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <añtras, antrà> other -- to each other
  • pasisakýti -- verb; infinitive reflexive of <pasisakýti, pasisãko, pasisãkė> say, tell -- to say

Kàd mýlį víenas añtrą, kàd jíemdviem gẽra draugėjè?

  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- that
  • mýlį -- verb; 3rd person present of <mylė́ti, mýli, mylė́jo> love -- (they) love
  • víenas -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <víenas, vienà> alone, each -- ...
  • añtrą -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <añtras, antrà> other -- each other
  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- that
  • jíemdviem -- pronoun; dative dual masculine of <juõdu, jiẽdvi> they both -- they both
  • gẽra -- adjective; neuter of <gẽras, gerà> good, well -- (feel) good
  • draugėjè -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <draugė̃> company -- together

Jùk taĩ ir̃ bè žõdžių áišku.

  • jùk -- particle; <jùk> but -- but
  • taĩ -- pronoun; neuter of <tàs, tà> this, that -- that
  • ir̃ -- particle; <ir̃> and -- even
  • -- preposition; <> before, without -- without
  • žõdžių -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <žõdis> word -- words
  • áišku -- adjective; neuter of <áiškus, áiški> clear -- (is) clear

Dár pilniaũ.

  • dár -- adverb; <dár> even, still -- even
  • pilniaũ -- adverb; comparative of <pilnaĩ> exhaustively -- more exhaustively

Žõdžiai arbà nè vìską tepasãko, arbà per daũg pasãko ir̃ atvėsìna vìdų.

  • žõdžiai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <žõdis> word -- words
  • arbà -- conjunction; <arbà> either, or -- either...
  • -- particle; <> no, not -- do not
  • vìską -- pronoun; accusative of <vìskas> everything -- everything
  • tepasãko -- verb; 3rd person present of <tepasakýti, tepasãko, tepasãkė> say, tell -- say
  • arbà -- conjunction; <arbà> either, or -- or
  • per daũg -- adverb; <per daũg> too much -- too much
  • pasãko -- verb; 3rd person present of <pasakýti, pasãko, pasãkė> say, tell -- (they) say
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • atvėsìna -- verb; 3rd person present of <atvėsìnti, atvėsìna, atvėsìno> cool off -- cool off
  • vìdų -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <vidùs> inside -- the insides

Žõdžiai - gãras: išsišnỹpščia ir̃ nebèkečia vidaũs.

  • žõdžiai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <žõdis> word -- words
  • gãras -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <gãras> steam -- (are) steam
  • išsišnỹpščia -- verb; 3rd person present reflexive of <išsišnỹpšti, išsišnỹpščia, išsìšnỹpštė> hiss -- (they) are hissed out
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • nebèkečia -- negative particle; <nebe> not any more + verb; 3rd person present of <̃sti, kẽčia, kė̃> reach -- don't reach
  • vidaũs -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <vidùs> inside -- the insides

Abùdu sė́dinčiu staigà pamãtė ìš raĩsto išsinė́rusį jų̃ šveñtvakarių beñdrą, dė̃l kuriõ jíemdviem šiaĩpjau bùvo neĩ šil̃ta, neĩ šálta.

  • abùdu -- pronoun; nominative dual masculine of <abùdu, abìdvi> both -- they both
  • ́dinčiu -- verb; nominative dual masculine of present participle active of <sėdė́ti, sė́di, sėdė́jo> sit -- while were sitting
  • staigà -- adverb; <staigà> suddenly -- suddenly
  • pamãtė -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <pamatýti, pamãto, pamãtė> see -- saw
  • ìš -- preposition; <ìš> from -- from
  • raĩsto -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <raĩstas> marsh -- the marsh
  • išsinė́rusį -- verb; accusative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <išsinérti, išsìneria, išsinė́> come out, arise -- arising
  • jų̃ -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- their
  • šveñtvakarių -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <šveñtvakaris> holiday evening -- of the holiday evenings
  • beñdrą -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <beñdras> friend, participant -- a participant
  • ̃l -- preposition; <̃l> because, for -- because of
  • kuriõ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <kurìs, kurì> which, who -- whom
  • jíemdviem -- pronoun; dative dual masculine of <jiẽdu, jiẽdvi> they both -- they both
  • šiaĩpjau -- adverb; <šiaĩpjau> in general, on the whole -- on the whole
  • bùvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- were
  • neĩ -- conjunction; <neĩ> neither, nor -- neither
  • šil̃ta -- adjective; neuter of <šil̃tas, šiltà> warm -- warm
  • neĩ -- conjunction; <neĩ> neither, nor -- nor
  • šálta -- adjective; neuter of <šáltas, šaltà> cold -- cold

Pasérgėjo ir̃ pagreĩtintą jõ žiñgsnį, nè tókį šabasìnį kaĩp kitomìs póilsio dienomìs.

  • pasérgėjo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <pasérgėti, pasérgi, pasérgėjo> watch, notice -- (they) watched
  • ir̃ -- particle; <ir̃> and -- also
  • pagreĩtintą -- verb; accusative singular masculine of preterit participle passive of <pagreĩtinti, pagreĩtina, pagreĩtino> accelerate -- accelerated
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- his
  • žiñgsnį -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <žiñgsnis> step, pace -- pace
  • -- particle; <> no, not -- (which was) not
  • tókį -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <tóks, tokià> such -- so
  • šabasìnį -- adjective; accusative singular masculine <šabasìnis, šabasìnė> festive -- festive
  • kaĩp -- conjunction; <kaĩp> as, like -- as
  • kitomìs -- pronoun; instrumental plural feminine of <kìtas, kità> other -- on other
  • póilsio -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <póilsis> rest -- of rest
  • dienomìs -- noun, feminine; instrumental plural of <dienà> day -- days

Pasérgėję žingsniúojant tiẽsiai į̃ juõdu, pajùto šiañdie kitaĩp bū́siant, neláukiamą įlį̃siant į̃ tą̃ órą, kurį̃ tìk ką bùvo susidãrę pãtys sáu, sáu vieníem, kuriõ pavydù bùvo, kàd kitì kvėpúotų; įlį̃s ir̃ sudrum̃s užkerė́tą jų̃ méilės srìtį.

  • pasérgėję -- verb; nominative plural masculine of preterit participle active of <pasérgėti, pasérgi, pasérgėjo> watch, notice -- watching
  • žingsniúojant -- verb; present gerund(ive) of <žingsniúoti, žingsniúoja, žingsniãvo> walk, pace -- (him) walking
  • tiẽsiai -- adverb; <tiẽsiai> directly -- directly
  • į̃ -- preposition; <į̃> at, for, in, to -- to
  • juõdu -- pronoun; nominative dual masculine of <juõdu, jiẽdvi> they both -- them both
  • pajùto -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <pajùsti, pajuñta, pajùto> feel -- (they) felt
  • šiañdie -- adverb; <šiañdie> today -- today
  • kitaĩp -- adverb; <kitaĩp> differently -- differently
  • ́siant -- verb; future gerund(ive) of <́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- would be
  • neláukiamą -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; accusative singular masculine of present participle passive of <láukti, láukia, láukė> expect, wait -- (him) unexpected
  • įlį̃siant -- verb; future gerund(ive) of <įlį̃sti, į̃lenda, įliñdo> get in -- would get in
  • į̃ -- preposition; <į̃> at, for, in, to -- in
  • tą̃ -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <tàs, tà> this, that -- that
  • órą -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <óras> atmosphere -- atmosphere
  • kurį̃ -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <kurìs, kurì> which, who -- which
  • tìk ką -- adverb; <tìk ką> just, just now -- just
  • bùvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- had
  • susidãrę -- verb; nominative plural masculine of preterit participle active reflexive of <susidarýti, susidãro, susidãrė> create -- created
  • pãtys -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <pàts, patì> themselves -- (they) themselves
  • sáu -- pronoun; dative of <savę̃s> oneself, itself -- for themselves
  • sáu -- pronoun; dative of <savę̃s> oneself, itself -- for themselves
  • vieníem -- adjective; dative plural masculine of <víenas, vienà> alone, each -- alone
  • kuriõ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <kurìs, kurì> which, who -- of which
  • pavydù -- adjective; neuter of <pavydùs, pavydì> jealous -- jealous
  • bùvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <́ti, yrà, bùvo> be -- (they) were
  • kàd -- conjunction; <kàd> that -- that
  • kitì -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <kìtas, kità> other -- other
  • kvėpúotų -- verb; 3rd person subjunctive of <kvėpúoti, kvėpúoja, kvėpãvo> breathe -- would breathe (it)
  • įlį̃s -- verb; 3rd person future of <įlį̃sti, į̃lenda, įliñdo> get in -- (he) will get in
  • ir̃ -- conjunction; <ir̃> and -- and
  • sudrum̃s -- verb; 3rd person future of <sudrum̃sti, sudrum̃sčia, sùdrumstė> disturb -- will disturb
  • užkerė́ -- verb; accusative singular feminine of preterit participle passive of <užkerė́ti, ùžkeri, užkerė́jo> charmed -- charmed
  • jų̃ -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <jìs, jì> he, she, it -- their
  • méilės -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <méilė> love -- of love
  • srìtį -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <sritìs> field, area -- the area

Lesson Text

Nuõ pàt kálno, lìgi tìk ją̃ išvýdo, Mykoliùkas ją̃ imtè ė̃mės į̃ savè, ar̃tino sáu Sevèriją, rýdamas er̃dvę, ir̃ kaĩ priė̃jo visái artì, nebenuléido sàvo akių̃, tìk didelė̃m didelė̃m, pilnõm bekrãščio džiaũgsmo ir̃ pasigėrė́jimo, žiūrė́jo stačiaĩ jái į̃ akelès.

Nusìjuokė Mykoliùkas, sustódamas gríežęs; nè balsù, tìk kažin kaĩp sàvo vìduriu. Ir̃ daugiaũ nebègriežė. Kám begriẽš, kàd dabar̃ jõ krūtìnėje, visamè jamè bùvo tokià mùzika, kuriõs jìs nègi išreĩkš menkù sàvo griežtuvėliù...

Sėdė́jo abùdu ir̃ niẽko daugiaũ nebekalbė́jo. Jíem bùvo gẽra. Taĩp gẽra, kaĩp pìlnu žíedu pražýdusiems žolýnams. Jiẽ tar̃psta, kvẽpia, lapẽliai kẽčias į̃ šalìs, ìš sunkùmo lė̃psta. Jiẽ grãžina píevą, tráukia į̃ savè bet kuriõ gývio akìs. Ir̃ nė víenas vabzdỹs neapleñkia jų̃ nepabučiãvęs, añt jų̃ nepasilsė́jęs. Tìk víenas nedõrėlis žmogùs tuõj síekia jõ - nusiraškýti ir̃, pavar̃čius pavar̃čius, numèsti, kàd bè laĩko nuvýstų, jaũ ùžmirštas.

Ką̃ jiẽ galė́jo víenas antrám pasisakýti? Kàd mýlį víenas añtrą, kàd jíemdviem gẽra draugėjè? Jùk taĩ ir̃ bè žõdžių áišku. Dár pilniaũ. Žõdžiai arbà nè vìską tepasãko, arbà per daũg pasãko ir̃ atvėsìna vìdų. Žõdžiai - gãras: išsišnỹpščia ir̃ nebèkečia vidaũs.

Abùdu sė́dinčiu staigà pamãtė ìš raĩsto išsinė́rusį jų̃ šveñtvakarių beñdrą, dė̃l kuriõ jíemdviem šiaĩpjau bùvo neĩ šil̃ta, neĩ šálta. Pasérgėjo ir̃ pagreĩtintą jõ žiñgsnį, nè tókį šabasìnį kaĩp kitomìs póilsio dienomìs. Pasérgėję žingsniúojant tiẽsiai į̃ juõdu, pajùto šiañdie kitaĩp bū́siant, neláukiamą įlį̃siant į̃ tą̃ órą, kurį̃ tìk ką bùvo susidãrę pãtys sáu, sáu vieníem, kuriõ pavydù bùvo, kàd kitì kvėpúotų; įlį̃s ir̃ sudrum̃s užkerė́tą jų̃ méilės srìtį.

Translation

From that very hill, as soon as he caught sight of her, he took her into himself, he brought Severija near to himself, eagerly devouring the space and when she got very near, he no longer lowered his gaze, but with great eyes full of limitless joy and pleasure looked her straight in the eyes.
Stopping his playing Mykoliukas laughed, not with his voice, but somehow or other with his insides. And played no more. Why would he play, when now in his breast, in all of him, there was such music, which he could never express with his insignificant little instrument.
They both sat and said nothing more. It was nice for both of them. It was just as nice as for blossoming greenery in full bloom. They grow luxuriantly, they smell good, the leaves spread out to the sides, grow limp from heaviness. They adorn the meadow and attract to themselves the eyes of any living thing. And not a single insect passes them by without kissing (them) and without resting on them. Only the human being (dishonorable as he is known to be) reaches for it immediately - to tear it off for himself and having turned it over, to throw it away so that it would fade before its time, already forgotten.
What could they say to each other? That they love each other, that they like being together? But that is clear without words. Or even more. Words either don't say everything or they say too much and make the insides cold. Words are steam. They make a noise, but they don't reach the insides.
While both of them were sitting there, they saw arising from the marsh a participant in the holiday evenings someone about whom both were indifferent. They watched his accelerated pace, which was not so festive and unhurried as on other days of rest. Watching him walking directly to them, they felt that today would be different, unexpectedly forcing its way into that atmosphere which they had just created for themselves only, the two of them alone, of which they were jealous, that other people might breathe it. It will force its way in and disturb the charmed dimension of their love.

Grammar

21. Numerals
21.1. The Ordinal Numerals

Ordinal numerals are mostly derived from the corresponding cardinal numerals by adding the suffix -tas,-ta. The formation of pìrmas 'first', añtras 'second' and trẽčias 'third' differs from that of other ordinal numerals. These numerals denote place in a series. They are declined like regular adjectives (cf: pìktas, piktà 'angry') and agree with the word they modify in case, number and gender. The following ordinal numerals are used most frequently:

    Masculine   Feminine
    pìrmas 'first'   pirmà
    añtras 'second'   antrà
    trẽčias 'third'   trečià
    ketvir̃tas 'fourth'   ketvirtà
    peñktas 'fifth'   penktà
    šẽštas 'sixth'   šeštà
    septiñtas 'seventh'   septintà
    aštuñtas 'eighth'   aštuntà
    deviñtas 'ninth'   devintà
    dešim̃tas 'tenth'   dešimtà
    vienúoliktas 'eleventh'   vienúolikta
    dvýliktas 'twelfth'   dvýlikta
    trýliktas 'thirteenth'   trýlikta
    keturióliktas 'fourteenth'   keturiólikta
    penkióliktas 'fifteenth'   penkiólikta
    šešióliktas 'sixteenth'   šešiólikta
    septynióliktas 'seventeenth'   septyniólikta
    aštuonióliktas 'eighteenth'   aštuoniólikta
    devynióliktas 'nineteenth'   devyniólikta
    dvidešim̃tas 'twentieth'   dvidešimtà
    trisdešim̃tas 'thirtieth'   trisdešimtà
    keturiasdešim̃tas 'fortieth'   keturiasdešimtà
    penkiasdešim̃tas 'fiftieth'   penkiasdešimtà
    šešiasdešim̃tas 'sixtieth'   šešiasdešimtà
    septyniasdešim̃tas 'seventieth'   septyniasdešimtà
    aštuoniasdešim̃tas 'eightieth'   aštuoniasdešimtà
    devyniasdešim̃tas 'ninetieth'   devyniasdešimtà

Ordinal numerals possess definite forms which are similar to the adjectives of the first declension (cf: naũjas 'new', naujà), e.g., pirmàsis 'the first', pirmóji; antràsis 'the second', antróji; trečiàsis 'the third', trečióji, etc.:

  • Paũlius bùvo trečiàsis vaĩkas màno brólio šeimojè
  • 'Paulius was the third child in my brother's family'.
  • Rytój Violetà šveñčia sàvo šešióliktąjį gimtãdienį
  • 'Tomorrow Violeta is celebrating her sixteenth birthday'.

Definite ordinal numerals are used to designate dates, e.g.:

  • Taĩ įvỹko tū́kstantis penkì šimtaĩ kẽturiasdešimt septintaĩsiais
  • 'That happened in one thousand five hundred and forty-seven'.

In a compound ordinal number only the final element has the form of an ordinal numeral and is declined. The other elements remain in the nominative case, e.g.:

Nom.   penkì šimtaĩ trìsdešimt ketvir̃tas tãškas 'the five hundred thirty fourth point.'
Gen.   penkì šimtaĩ trìsdešimt ketvir̃to tãško
Dat.   penkì šimtaĩ trìsdešimt ketvirtám tãškui
Acc.   penkì šimtaĩ trìsdešimt ketvir̃tą tãšką, etc.

They also have a neuter form, e.g., pìrmas 'first': pìrma; añtras 'second': añtra; peñktas 'fifth': peñkta, etc.:

Pìrma, bū́tina atsikélti aštuñtą vãlandą rýto; añtra, paskam̃binti į̃ aeroúostą; trẽčia, susikráuti lagamìną... 'First, it is necessary to get up at eight in the morning; second, to call the airport; third, to pack the suitcase...'

21.2. Fractions

In mathematics such forms as vienà antróji 'one-half', dvì trẽčiosios 'two-thirds', trỹs peñktosios 'three fifths' are used. The numerator is a feminine cardinal number and the denominator is a feminine ordinal number in the definite form. The denominator always agrees with dalìs 'part' in gender, although the word dalìs does not appear in any fraction. When the numerator is a numeral from 1 to 9 the denominator agrees with the numerator in gender, number and case, e.g., Padalìnk ìš dviejų̃ trečių̃jų 'Divide by two-thirds'. When the numerator is any other numeral (except from 1 to 9), the denominator is always in the genitive plural, e.g., Vienúolikos dvidešimtų̃jų neįmãnoma suprãstinti 'It is impossible to simplify eleven-twentieths'.

Parts of things are most often indicated by compound numerals. Their first component is the root of an ordinal numeral, and the second component is the noun dalìs 'part'. They are listed below:

trẽčdalis 'one third': trẽčdalis pasáulio 'one-third of the world'; ketvirtãdalis 'one fourth': ketvirtãdalis valandõs 'one-fourth of an hour'; penktãdalis 'one fifth': penktãdalis studeñtų 'one-fifth of the students'; šeštãdalis 'one sixth': šeštãdalis augalų̃ 'one-sixth of the plants'; septintãdalis 'one seventh': septintãdalis ligónių 'one-seventh of the patients'; aštuntãdalis 'one eighth': aštuntãdalis gãtvių 'one-eighth of the streets'; devintãdalis 'one ninth': devintãdalis Euròpos 'one-ninth of Europe'; dešimtãdalis 'one tenth': dešimtãdalis paskolõs 'one-tenth of a loan'.

All these numerals are declined like the nouns of the first declension (cf: brólis). Fractions vienà antróji 'one-half' and vienà ketvirtóji are often replaced by the feminine noun pùsė 'half' and the masculine noun ketvir̃tis 'quarter' respectively, e.g.:

  • Láukiau tavę̃s pùsę valandõs 'I was waiting for you a half an hour'.
  • Mẽs prarãdome ketvir̃tį milijõno 'We have lost a quarter of a million'.

There is a group of numerals the first component of which is the root of the noun pùsė 'half' and the second component of which is an ordinal numeral in the genitive, e.g.:

    Masc. sing.   Fem. sing.   Plural
    pusañtro 'one and a half'   pusantrõs   pusantrų̃
    pustrẽčio 'two and a half'   pustrečiõs   pustrečių̃
    pusketvir̃to 'three and a half'   pusketvirtõs   pusketvirtų̃
    puspeñkto 'four and a half'   puspenktõs   puspenktų̃
    pusšẽšto 'five and a half'   pusšeštõs   pusšeštų̃
    pusseptiñto 'six and a half'   pusseptintõs   pusseptintų̃
    pusaštuñto 'seven and a half'   pusaštuntõs   pusaštuntų̃
    pusdeviñto 'eight and a half'   pusdevintõs   pusdevintų̃
    pusdešim̃to 'nine and a half'   pusdešimtõs   pusdešimtų̃
  • Žadù nusipir̃kti pustrečiõs tònos kviečių̃ 'I intend to buy two and a half tons of wheat'.
  • Kur̃ tù buvaĩ pusantrõs saváitės? 'Where were you for a week and a half?'
22. Reflexive Verbs and Verbal Prefixes
22.1. The Reflexive Verbs

The reflexive verbs in Lithuanian can be divided into two groups: simple reflexive verbs where the reflexive particle -si or -s is added at the end and compound reflexive verbs where the reflexive particle -si is inserted between the prefix and the verb proper. To this group also belong all reflexive verbs in their negative forms. The negative particle ne is treated in such cases as a prefix, e.g., jis kartójasi 'he repeats himself', jìs nesikartója 'he does not repeat himself'. In the latter group, the conjugation of the basic verb does not change at all, only the -si- is inserted.

It is a little more difficult to learn the simple reflexive verbs. Certain changes occur both in the endings of these verbs and the reflexive particle -si:

    Present   Preterit   Preterit Frequentative
1st sg   gailiúosi 'I regret'   gailė́jausi 'I regretted'   gailė́davausi 'I used to regret'
2nd sg   gailíesi   gailė́jaisi   gailė́davaisi
3rd sg   gaĩlisi   gailė́josi   gailė́davosi
             
1st pl   gaĩlimės   gailė́jomės   gailė́davomės
2nd pl   gaĩlitės   gailė́jotės   gailė́davotės
3rd pl   gaĩlisi   gailė́josi   gailė́davosi
             
    Future   Subjunctive   Imperative
1st sg   gailė́siuosi 'I will regret'   gailė́čiausi 'I would regret'    
2nd sg   gailė́siesi   gailė́tumeisi   gailė́kis 'regret'
3rd sg   gailė́sis   gailė́tųsi    
             
1st pl   gailė́simės   gailė́tu(mė)mės   gailė́kimės
2nd pl   gailė́sitės   gailė́tumėtės   gailė́kitės
3rd pl   gailė́sis   gailė́tųsi    

In present and future the first person singular endings -u and -iu are replaced by -uo- and -iuo- respectively and the second person singular ending -i is replaced by -ie-. In the first and second plural, instead of -si, only -s is added, and the short final -e of these forms is replaced by -ė. The third person future has the shortened variant of the reflexive particle. Also there is an -i- inserted after the consonant s. In the imperative the longer suffix -ki is retained.

The stress pattern is the same as in the non-reflexive verbs.

The reflexive particle may change the verbal meaning in a variety of ways, cf:

  • Vakarè išmáudžiau vaikùs, po to išsimaudžiau pats 'In the evening I bathed the children, later I took a bath myself'.
  • Vìskas pasìkeitė jíems čia apsigyvẽnus. Butè jiẽ pàkeitė visùs senùs baldùs 'Everything changed when they moved here. They changed all the old furniture in the apartment'.
  • Jám visadà sunkù valdýti sàvo emòcijas, tačiau vãkar jìs vis dėlto pàjėgė susivalýti 'It is always difficult for him to control his emotions, but yesterday he was nevertheless able to control himself'.
  • Čià jìs šaũkia gýdytoją, čià šaũkiasi Diẽvo malónės Sometimes he calls for a doctor, sometimes he cries for the grace of God'.

A number of reflexive verbs are unrelated to any underlying verb (reflexiva tantum), e.g., el̃gtis 'to behave', juõktis 'to laugh', didžiúotis 'to be proud of', pasiìlgti 'to miss', drovė́tis 'to be shy', teiráutis 'to inquire', etc.

22.2. Verbal Prefixes

The system of word formation with verbal prefixes is highly developed in Lithuanian. Prefixes may change or modify the meaning of the verb. The addition of a prefix usually renders the verb perfective.

The most common prefixes in Lithuanian are the following: ap- (api-), at-, (ati-), į-, -, nu-, pa-, par-, per-, pra-, pri-, su-, -. Several examples of common prefixes with a few of the ordinary meanings are given below.

at- (ati-) may denote:

  • arrival, coming to a certain place, e.g., atvažiúoti 'to come', atnèšti 'to bring';
  • separation or division or removal, e.g., atkir̃sti 'to cut off', atskìrti 'to separate', 'to detach';
  • return to an original position, e.g., atáugti 'to grow back', 'to grow again', atgìmti 'to be reborn', 'to be revived';
  • the completion of an action, e.g., atpìgti 'to become cheap', to fall in price', atbùkti 'to become blunt'.

į- may denote:

  • motion into a place or an object, e.g., įskrìsti 'fly in'; įnèšti 'bring in, carry in';
  • the beginning of an action which is carried out only to a slight degree, e.g., įkir̃pti 'to cut a little bit', 'to cut into something', įtrū́kti 'get slightly broken';
  • completion of an action, e.g., įtìkinti 'to persuade', įvýkdyti 'to carry out, to complete';
  • it also may be used with verbs formed from nouns or adjectives, e.g., įámžinti 'to immortalize' (cf: ámžinas 'eternal'), įpareigóti 'to oblige', 'to bind' (cf: pareigà 'duty', 'obligation').

- may denote:

  • motion out of something, e.g., išskrìsti 'to fly out', išnèšti 'to carry out', 'to take out';
  • the action covering the entire area or whole series of objects, e.g., išbarstýti 'spill', 'to scatter', išžudýti 'to exterminate';
  • an action lasting for a certain length of time, e.g., išláukti 'to wait for a certain length of time', išbū́ti 'to stay', 'to remain for a certain length of time';
  • completion or fulfilment of an action, e.g., išlõšti 'to win', išskal̃bti 'to wash', 'to launder'.

nu- may denote:

  • motion away from something or some place, e.g., nuvažiúoti 'to go to (away)', 'to depart to', nubė́gti 'to run away';
  • motion downwards, e.g., nukrìsti 'fall down', 'fall off', nušókti 'to jump down';
  • severance from the main part of an object, e.g., nulíeti 'to pour off', nupjáuti 'to cut off';
  • completion of an action to the very end, e.g., nuskandìnti 'to drown', 'to sink'.

pa- may denote:

  • the complection of an action, e.g., pasakýti 'to say', 'to tell', pastatýti 'to build', 'to construct';
  • a short duration of an action, e.g., paskal̃bti 'to wash for a little while', panèšti 'to carry for a little bit';
  • that something is put under something else, e.g., padė́ti 'to put under', 'to lay under', palį̃sti 'to creep under';
  • the ability or capacity to perform a certain action, e.g., pastùmti 'to be able to push' panèšti 'to be able to carry'.

per- may denote:

  • motion across or through something, e.g., pérnešti 'to carry across', pérlįsti 'creep through', 'to get through';
  • separation or division, e.g., pérpjauti 'to cut into two', pérlaužti 'to break into two';
  • the repetition or the renewal of an action, e.g., pérskaičiuoti 'to count again' pérskalbti 'to wash again';
  • exceeding of the norm or going beyond a certain limit, e.g., pérmokėti 'to overpay' pérsidirbti 'to overwork'.

pra- may denote:

  • movement by or past some place, e.g., praskrìsti 'to fly by', 'to fly past', pravažiúoti 'to drive past', 'to ride past';
  • movement through something or some place, e.g., praláužti 'to break through', prapjáuti 'to cut through';
  • disappearance, loss or lack of something, e.g., pradiñgti 'to disappear', praválgyti 'to eat away (one's money);
  • the passage of a certain length of time in some activity, e.g., praláukti 'to spend a certain time waiting for', pragalvóti 'to think for a certain length of time'.

su- may denote:

  • gathering together or a coming-together, e.g., sunèšti 'to bring together', suvažiúoti 'to come together';
  • dissection or division into parts, e.g., suláužyti 'to break into parts', sutrùpinti 'to crumble';
  • the attainment of the goal or the aim, e.g., suràsti 'to find' (what one has lost)', susèkti 'to trace down, to find out'.

- may denote:

  • the direction up, e.g., užnèšti 'to carry up', to bring up', užlìpti 'to climb up', 'to mount', 'to ascend';
  • that something is put on something else, e.g., uždeñgti 'to cover', užpìlti 'to strew on', 'to fill up', 'to cover with';
  • putting something behind something else or going behind something, e.g., užstatýti 'to place behind', užtámsinti 'to shade';
  • the completion of an action, e.g., užmokė́ti 'to pay', užkùrti 'to light up', 'to set fire to'.

Many verbal prefixes modify the meaning of the verb or show a distinct direction, e.g., mèsti 'to throw', 'to hurl', ' to chuck', apmesti 'to throw with', 'to cover with', atmèsti 'to throw off', 'to cast away', įmèsti 'to throw in', 'to cast in' išmèsti 'to throw out', numèsti 'to throw down', 'to fling down', 'to drop', , 'to throw off', 'to cast off', 'to throw far away', 'to cast far away', pamèsti 'to throw under', ' to throw a little', 'to toss a little', parmèsti 'to throw down', 'to bring down', pérmesti 'to throw over', 'to throw across', pramèsti 'to throw past', 'to miss in throwing' primesti 'to throw (full, a quantity of)', 'to heap up', 'to cast (full, a quantity of)', 'to heap up', 'to fill', 'to throw about', sumèsti 'to throw into', 'to throw together' 'to pile', 'to heap', užmèsti 'to throw on', 'to throw over', 'to fling on', 'to throw behind'.

But in some few cases the prefix can change the real verbal meaning or give to the verb an opposite meaning dúoti 'to give', pardúoti 'to sell', laimė́ti 'to win', pralaimė́ti 'to lose', prìmesti 'to press on', 'to thrust on', 'to impute to', sumèsti 'to understand', count up', etc.

Some verbs may have practically the same meaning with either of two prefixes, e.g., išnỹkti, pranỹkti 'to disappear', išgýti, pagýti 'to recover', 'to get better', etc. The prefix does not give a new meaning to some verbs and therefore the verb means practically the same thing with or without the prefix, e.g., baĩgti, pabaĩgti, užbaĩgti 'to finish' grį̃žti, sugrį̃žti 'to return', etc.

The correct usage of prefixes may cause a major problem for foreign learners.

In the clause prefixes correlate with corresponding prepositions: ap- and apiẽ 'about','off'; į- and į̃ 'in', 'into', 'to'; - and ìš 'from', 'out of'; nu- and nuõ 'from', 'off', 'down'; pa- and 'in', 'about', etc.; per- and per̃ 'through', 'across', etc.; pra- and prõ 'through', 'by'; pri- and priẽ 'at', 'by', etc.; su- and 'with'; - and ùž 'behind', 'beyond', e.g.:

  • Jiẽ išvažiãvo ìš namų̃ ankstì rýtą 'They left their home early in the morning'.
  • Vidùrdienį mẽs pérsikėlėm per̃ ùpę 'At midday we crossed the river'.
  • Automobìlis nuslydo nuõ kẽlio 'The car slid off the road'.
23. The Passive and Reflexive Participles
23.1. The Passive Participles

In Lithuanian the present passive participle and the past passive participle are more common than the future passive participle which is relatively rare. The forms of the so-called 'participles of necessity' are also passive. The present and past passive participles may be used either to form the passive voice of various tenses or they may be used attributively like adjectives.

The Present Passive Participle.

The present passive participle is formed by adding the endings -mas, -ma to the third person present of the finite verbs, e.g.:

nom.sg.masc.   mýli '(he) loves + -mas = mýlimas 'beloved';
nom.sg.fem.   mýli '(she) loves + -ma = mylimà 'beloved'.

The declension of the present passive participle is given below (cf: the adjectives pìktas, piktà 'angry'):

    Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   mýlimas 'beloved'   mylimà
Gen sg   mýlimo   mylimõs
Dat sg   mylimám   mýlimai
Acc sg   mýlimą   mýlimą
Inst sg   mýlimu   mýlima
Loc sg   mylimamè   mylimojè
    mylimam̃   mylimõj
         
Nom pl   mylimì   mýlimos
Gen pl   mylimų̃   mylimų̃
Dat pl   mylimíems   mylimóms
    mylimíem   mylimóm
Acc pl   mýlimus   mýlimas
Inst pl   mylimaĩs   mylimomìs
        mylimõm
Loc pl   mylimuosè   mylimosè
    mylimuõs    

The definite forms of the present passive participles can frequently be used as nouns, e.g.:

  • Válgomasis bùvo pìlnas žmonių̃ 'The dining-room was full of people'.
  • Nepažįstamóji pasisiū́lė padė́ti 'The stranger offered her help'.

Other definite participles (active and passive) may also be used in nominal positions, e.g.:

  • Láukiantieji priẽ dùrų ìma nerimáuti 'The people waiting at the door start to worry'.
  • Kalbė́jusieji staigà nutìlo ir̃ suklùso 'The people who were speaking suddenly hushed and pricked up their ears'.
  • Kviestíeji neatvỹko 'The invitees did not come'.

The Past Passive Participle.

The past passive participle is formed by removing the infinitive ending -ti and adding the -tas, -ta, e.g.:

  • masc.nom.sg.: mylė́-ti 'to love' + -tas = mylė́tas 'loved, having been loved';
  • fem.nom.sg.: mylė́-ti 'to love' + -ta = mylė́ta 'loved, having been loved'.

The paradigm is as follows:

    Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   mylė́tas 'having been loved'   mylė́ta
Gen sg   mylė́to   mylė́tos
Dat sg   mylė́tam   mylė́tai
Acc sg   mylė́   mylė́
Inst sg   mylė́tu   mylė́ta
Loc sg   mylė́tam(e)   mylė́toj(e)
         
Nom pl   mylė́ti   mylė́tos
Gen pl   mylė́   mylė́
Dat pl   mylė́tiem(s)   mylė́tom(s)
Acc pl   mylė́tus   mylė́tas
Inst pl   mylė́tais   mylė́tomis
Loc pl   mylė́tuos(e)   mylė́tose

The Future Passive Participle.

The future passive participle is formed by adding the endings -mas, -ma to the second person singular of the future tense, e.g.:

masc.nom.sg.   ́si 'you (sg) will be' + -mas = ́simas;
fem.nom.sg.   ́si 'you (sg) will be' + -ma = būsimà.

Except for the participle ́simas, būsimà, future passive participles are rarely used. Future passive participles are declined like present passive participles:

  • Àš vìs atidėliójau tą̃ sàvo bū́simą susitikìmą
  • 'I kept putting off my forthcoming meeting'.

The Participle of Necessity.

The participle of necessity is formed by adding the endings -nas, -na to the verbal infinitive, e.g.:

masc.nom.sg.   vartóti 'to use' + -nas = vartótinas 'which should be used';
fem.nom.sg.   vartóti 'to use' + -na = vartótina 'which should be used'.

The participle of necessity denotes an action which should be performed or is worthy of being performed, e.g.:

  • Šìs atmiñtinas susitikìmas įvỹko priẽš peñkerius metùs 'This memorable meeting took place five years ago'.
  • Reĩkia ieškóti išeitiẽs ìš tokiõs apverktinõs situãcijos 'It is necessary to seek a way out of such a lamentable situation'.

The most frequent forms, however, do not bear any of the meaning of necessity and function merely as verbal adjectives.

23.2. The Reflexive Participles

The participles can also be reflexive. The reflexive active participles without prefixes are formed by adding the reflexive particle to the ending of the nominative case. The reflexive particle -s is added to the end of the simple particle in the singular and -si to the plural. In the masculine singular there is an -i- inserted between the participle and the final -s of the ending.

Present active participles:

Nom.sg.masc.   gydą̃s-is 'curing, healing'
Nom.sg.fem.   gýdanti-s
Nom.pl.masc.   gydą̃si

Past active participles:

Nom.sg.masc.   gýdęs-is
Nom.sg.fem.   gýdžiusi-s
Nom.pl.masc.   gýdę-si

These participles are used only in the masculine and feminine singular and the masculine plural, e.g.:

  • Sãko, kàd jìs šiuõ metù gydą̃sis nuõ plaũčių uždegìmo 'They say, now he is being treated for pneumonia'.
  • Nustók tikė́jęsis stebùklo 'Stop waiting for a miracle'.

If the verb is prefixed, than the reflexive particle -si- is inserted after the prefix, but before the root of the verb. Then all of the cases of the participle may be used, e.g., present active participle: nom.sg.masc. besigydą̃s, besigýdantis, gen.sg.masc. besigýdančio, dat.sg.masc. besigýdančiam, etc.; past active participle: išsigýdęs, išsigýdžiusio, išsigýdžiusiam, etc.:

  • Gãtvė bùvo pilnà besilìnksminančių žmonių̃ 'The street was full of celebrating people'.
  • Pasidžiaũgęs gerà žinià pàkviečiau pùsbrolį išgérti kavõs 'Having rejoiced at the good news, I invited my cousin to take a cup of coffee'.

The masculine and feminine forms of reflexive passive participles are created only from prefixed verbs, e.g.: išsìperkamas, 'being redeemed', išsiperkamà, išsìpirktas, '(having been) redeemed' išsipirktà:

  • Atsìnešto maĩsto jíems neužtẽko nė̃ dvíem dienóms
  • Food brought with them was not enough even for two days'.

The neuter forms of reflexive passive participles can be formed both from prefixed and non-prefixed verbs, e.g., kal̃bamasi, pasìkalbama '(being) spoken of, about '; kalbė́tasi, pasikalbḗta '(having been) spoken of, about'':

  • Jų̃ kalbė́tasi apiẽ tolèsnio bendradarbiãvimo perspektyvàs
  • 'They spoke among themselves about perspectives for further collaboration'.

The reflexive half-participles and gerunds are formed in the same way as the active participles.

24. The Compound Tenses of the Active Voice

Compound tenses are formed with the finite forms of the auxiliary ́ti 'to be' and the present or past active or passive participle. Compound tenses containing active participles belong to the active voice, and those containing passive participles belong to the passive voice.

Compound forms with a present active participle form compound continuative tenses and moods, and those with a present passive participle form compound imperfect tenses and moods. Compound forms containing past active or passive participle are used as compound active or passive perfect tenses and moods.

24.1. Continuative Tenses

The past, the past frequentative and the future tense of the verb ́ti 'to be' may be used with the appropriate form of the present active participle (prefixed with be-) to express an action which is not, or could not be completed. These forms are somewhat similar in meaning to the various progressive tenses of English. There are no present tense continuative forms in modern Lithuanian. The compound past continuative is most frequently used. A sample paradigm with the past tense is given below:

    Masculine   Feminine
1st sg   àš buvaũ beperką̃s 'I was buying'   àš buvaũ bèperkanti
2nd sg   tù buvaĩ beperką̃s 'you were buying'   tù buvaĩ bèperkanti
3rd sg   jìs bùvo beperką̃s 'he was buying'   jì bùvo bèperkanti
         
1st pl   mẽs bùvom(e) beperką̃ 'we were buying'   mẽs bùvom(e) bèperkančios
2nd pl   ̃s bùvot(e) beperką̃ 'you were buying'   ̃s bùvot(e) bèperkančios
3rd pl   jiẽ bùvo beperką̃ 'they were buying'   jõs bùvo bèperkančios

The number and gender of the participle are always the same as the number and gender of the subject. The participle is always in the nominative case to agree with the subject of the verb which is also in the nominative case, e.g.:

  • Buvaũ jaũ bèperkanti tą̃ kerãminę vãzą, bèt paskutìnę minùtę pastebė́jau, kàd jì įtrū́kusi 'I was already buying that ceramic vase but at the last minute I saw that it had slightly broken.
  • Rytõj tókiu pàt laikù jìs jaũ bùs bekeliáująs namõ 'Tomorrow at the same time he will be already travelling home'.
24.2. Perfect Tenses

Compound perfect tenses are formed with the auxiliary verb ́ti 'to be' and the past active participle. ́ti is used in one of its finite forms. Compound perfect forms occur in the present, past, past frequentative and future of the indicative mood and also in the subjunctive and imperative.

As in English the present perfect tense denotes the present state which is the result of a past action. It may not, however, denote a past action continuing into the present as does the English perfect tense, cf:

  • Šiojè į́monėje jì dìrba jaũ penkiólika mẽtų
  • 'She has been working in this company for fifteen years'.

In this case the English perfect tense is translated with a Lithuanian present tense.

The present perfect tense is formed with the present conjugation of the verb ́ti and the form of the past active participle agrees in gender and number with the subject:

    Masculine   Feminine
1st sg   àš esù pir̃kęs 'I have bought'   àš esù pir̃kusi
2nd sg   tù esì pir̃kęs 'you have bought'   tù esì pir̃kusi
3rd sg   jìs yrà pir̃kęs 'he has bought'   jì yrà pir̃kusi
         
1st pl   mẽs ẽsam(e) pir̃kę 'we have bought'   mẽs ẽsam(e) pir̃kusios
2nd pl   ̃s ẽsat(e) pir̃kę 'you have bought'   ̃s ẽsat(e) pir̃kusios
3rd pl   jiẽ yrà pir̃kę 'they have bought'   jõs yrà pir̃kusios
  • Kẽletą kar̃tų ir̃ àš esù pažeĩdusi eĩsmo taisyklès 'I too have violated traffic regulations several times'.
  • Jiẽ niekadà nėrà bùvę tokiamè gūdžiamè miškè 'They have never been in such a gloomy forest'.

The pluperfect tense is formed with the preterit of the verb ́ti plus the past active participle. The gender and number of the participle depend upon the gender and number of the subject. A sample paradigm is given below:

    Masculine   Feminine
1st sg   àš buvaũ pir̃kęs 'I had bought'   àš buvaũ pir̃kusi
2nd sg   tù buvaĩ pir̃kęs 'you had bought'   t̀u buvaĩ pir̃kusi
3rd sg   jìs bùvo pir̃kęs 'he had bought'   jì bùvo pir̃kusi
         
1st pl   mẽs bùvom(e) pir̃kę 'we had bought'   mẽs bùvom(e) pir̃kusios
2nd pl   ̃s bùvot(e) pir̃kę 'you had bought'   ̃s bùvot(e) pir̃kusios
3rd pl   jiẽ bùvo pir̃kę 'they had bought'   jõs bùvo pir̃kusios

This tense denotes a state which had been attained in the past. It may have been completed either during the time when another action took place or prior to the time another action took place:

  • Kaĩ mẽs atvažiãvom, seser̃s šeimà jaũ bùvo išvỹkusi atostogáuti 'When we came my sister's family had already left for vacation'.
  • Ingridà sugebė́jo iškèpti vìštą, kõl svečiai atė̃jo 'Ingrida was able to fry a chicken before the guests came'.

The frequentative perfect tense is a compound tense formed with the frequentative past of the verb ́ti plus the past active participle:

    Masculine   Feminine
1st sg   àš bū́davau pir̃kęs   àš bū́davau pir̃kusi
2nd sg   tù bū́davai pir̃kęs   tù bū́davai pir̃kusi
3rd sg   jìs bū́davo pir̃kęs   jì bū́davo pir̃kusi
         
1st pl   mẽs bū́davom(e) pir̃kę   mẽs bū́davom(e) pir̃kusios
2nd pl   ̃s bū́davot(e) pir̃kę   ̃s bū́davot(e) pir̃kusios
3rd pl   jiẽ bū́davo pir̃kę   jõs bū́davo pir̃kusios

This tense denotes a state which was attained at different times in the past:

  • Mẽs jaũ bū́davom papietãvę, kai į̃ válgomąjį įžeñgdavo jì
  • 'We had already finished having dinner when(ever) she entered the dinning-room'.

The future perfect tense is formed with the future tense of the verb ́ti plus the appropriate form of the past active participle. The gender and number of the participle depend upon the gender and the number of the subject. A sample conjugation is given below:

    Masculine   Feminine
1st sg   àš bū́siu pir̃kęs 'I will have bought'   àš bū́siu pir̃kusi
2nd sg   tù bū́si pir̃kęs 'you will have bought'   tù bū́si pir̃kusi
3rd sg   jìs bùs pir̃kęs 'he will have bought'   jì bùs pir̃kusi
         
1st pl   mẽs bū́sim(e) pir̃kę 'we will have bought'   mẽs bū́sim(e) pir̃kusios
2nd pl   ̃s bū́sit(e) pir̃kę 'you will have bought'   ̃s bū́sit(e) pir̃kusios
3rd pl   jiẽ bùs pir̃kę 'they will have bought'   jõs bùs pir̃kusios

The future perfect tense may express an action which will have taken place before another future action takes place. It may also express a condition or state which will last some time in the future as the result of a future action. Sometimes it expresses the probability that an event has taken place, e.g.:

  • Jéi tù mán skam̃binsi deviñtą vãlandą rýto, àš jaũ bū́siu išė̃jusi į̃ dárbą 'If you call me at nine in the morning, I will have gone to work'.
  • Kai ateĩs ruduõ, mẽs nãmą jaũ bū́sim pastãtę 'When autumn comes we will have built the house'.
  • Turbū́t Rasà bùs nuė̃jusi miegóti 'Rasa probably must have gone (somewhere) to sleep'.

In English we must use the present tense after 'when', even if a future time is implied. Since this rule does not apply to Lithuanian the future tense must be used when a future time is specified.

The compound tenses of the active voice also occur in the subjunctive and imperative, e.g., ́tų beperką̃s; ́k beperką̃; ́tų pir̃kęs; ́k pir̃kęs, e.g.:

  • Simonà bū́tų pir̃kusi, jéi bū́tų turė́jusi pinigų̃
  • 'Simona would have bought (something), if she had had some money'.
25. Use of the Nominative, Genitive and Dative

All case forms, with the exception of the nominative, dative and locative, may occur either alone or with prepositions. They usually depend on the verbs.

25.1. Nominative

The nominative does not depend on any other word in a clause. Its closest "partner" is a verb. It functions mostly as a subject or predicative complement, e.g.:

  • Sáulė yrà mil̃žiniška žvaigždė̃
  • 'The sun is a large star'.

The nominative case is also used in certain time expressions, e.g.:

  • Jaũ kelì mẽtai vãsaros bū̃na šáltos 'It is already a few years that summers have been cold'.
  • Kàs minùtė viduñ įžeñgdavo naũjas klieñtas 'Every minute a new client would come in'.

The accusative, however, is more common under these circumstances in modern Lithuanian.

25.2. Genitive

When not governed by a preposition nouns in the genitive are mostly used as objects or as modifiers. Certain verbs require the direct object in the genitive case rather than in the accusative, e.g., ieškóti, 'to look for', 'to seek'; norė́ti 'to wish', 'to want'; láukti 'to wait for'; mókytis 'to study', etc.:

  • Jìs visuomèt nóri didžiáusio ką́snio 'He always wants the biggest piece'.
  • Daũgelis amerikiẽčių íeško sàvo šaknų̃ Euròpoje 'Many Americans look for their roots in Europe'.
  • Láukiame ìš tavę̃s gerų̃ žinių̃ 'We are waiting for good news from you'.

The genitive is used as the direct object of a negated verb, e.g.:

  • Jì nevairúoja automobìlio (cf: Jì vairúoja automobìlį)
  • 'She does not drive a car' (cf: She drives a car').

The object of an infinitive which is in turn the object of a negated verb may be in the genitive case, e.g.:

  • Jì nenóri atidúoti jíems didžiáusio ką́snio
  • 'She does not want to let them have the biggest piece'.

The word ́snis 'piece' is in the genitive case although it is the direct object of atidúoti, not nóri 'wants'.

In order to express an indefinite amount or quantity the genitive may be used where either the nominative or accusative would otherwise be required, e.g.:

  • Sutikaũ ir̃ blogų̃ žmonių̃ 'I have also met some bad people'.
  • Vakarè atvažiãvo draugų̃ 'In the evening some friends came'.
  • Kiekvíenas tùrime ýdų 'Everybody has some faults'.

The genitive may be used as a nominal object of an infinitive which follows a verb of motion. In this case it has the meaning of purpose, e.g.:

  • Grįžaũ daiktų̃ pasiim̃ti 'I came back to take (my) things'.
  • Mẽs važiúojam pir̃kti šaldytùvo 'We are going (somewhere) to buy a refrigerator''.

The verbs pasiim̃ti 'to take' and pir̃kti are transitive verbs and must take a direct object in the accusative case under most other circumstances.

The genitive is used with certain nouns and adverbs of quantity, e.g., kilogrãmas jáutienos 'a kilo of beef'; puodẽlis kavos 'a cup of coffee', daũg mẽdžių 'many trees'; mažaĩ ežerų̃ 'few lakes'.

When the genitive case is used to show possession the noun in the genitive cases is usually placed before the object possessed, e.g., brólio nãmas 'brother's house'; móters pir̃štai 'the woman's fingers'.

Many prepositions require the genitive case. The most common prepositions used with genitive are as follows:

    Añt 'on':   Nesėdė́k añt láiptų - péršalsi
        'Do not sit on the stairs, you will get a cold'.
    'without':   Dalìs žmonių̃ negãli išgyvénti bè valstýbės paramõs
        'Some people can't survive without support from the government'.
    ̃l 'through', 'because of', 'due to':   Skrỹdis bùvo atidė́tas dė̃l rū̃ko
        'The flight has been cancelled due to fog'.
    Ìš 'out of', away from':   Ìš kam̃bario sklìdo triùkšmas
        'The noise came from the room'.
    Nuõ 'from', away from':   Nuõ sáulės slė̃pėmės põ dìdeliu medžiù
        'We were hidden from the sun under the big tree'.
    Ikì (ligì) 'to', 'up to', 'until':   Ikì vãkaro dažýti síenų nespė́sim baĩgti
        'We will not able to finish painting the walls until the evening'.
    Priẽ 'by', 'at', 'at the side of',   Kviẽsk visùs sė́sti priẽ stãlo
    'in the presence of':   'Ask all (the guests) to sit down at the table'.
25.3. Dative

The primary function of the dative is that of the indirect object, e.g.:

  • Pagaliaũ jìs mán pasãkė teisýbę 'At last he told (to) me the truth'.
  • Šią̃ knỹgą paskýriau sàvo senẽliams 'I dedicated this book to my grandparents'.

In many cases, Lithuanian uses the indirect object where in English one uses expressions such as: 'for', 'for the sake of', etc.:

  • Draugaĩ Tòmui nupir̃ko šùnį
  • 'Friends bought a dog for Thomas'.

The dative may also denote the subject of an impersonal clause, e.g.:

  • Mán trū́ksta išmintiẽs 'I lack wisdom'.
  • Jíem bùvo gẽra 'It was nice for both of them'.

The dative case may be used as the object of an infinitive to express purpose. In English we would have a direct object in a corresponding construction, e.g.:

  • Keliõnei nusipirkaũ naũją lagamìna 'I have bought a new suitcase for the journey'.
  • Kománda reñgėsi revánšui 'The team was preparing for the return game'.

It quite often indicates time, e.g.:

  • Sugrįžaũ tìk kelióms dienóms 'I came back only for a few days'.
  • Akìmirkai mẽs prarãdome žãdą 'For a moment we were deprived of speech'.