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Baltic Online

Lesson 6: Lithuanian

Virginija Vasiliauskiene and Jonathan Slocum

The foundations for the flourishing of Lithuanian culture of the 18th century were laid in the previous two centuries. In the 16th and 17th centuries, a collective tradition for the production of religious and linguistic works had been created, and in Daniel Klein's grammar, norms for the written language had been codified. The distinguished literary historian Jųrgis Lebedys has emphasized that, without Jõnas Bretkunas, the greatest producer of religious literature at the end of the 16th century and the translator of the Bible, Kristijõnas Doneláitis (1714-1780) would never have become famous.

Kristijõnas Doneláitis as a poet was nurtured by the cultural milieu of 18th century East Prussia. At the age of 29 he was appointed pastor of the small East Prussian parish Tolminkiemis, where he lived until his death. He loved the simple and unhurried life. He had not only poetic talent, but also golden hands: he made optical and meteorological instruments and even built for himself a piano that he played, and he maintained a garden. A great part of his life was spent talking with the peasants of his parish and experiencing their woes and cares. Half the members of his parish were Germans who, supported by the government, tried to push Lithuanian peasants out of the more fertile lands. Thus, as a pastor, it frequently fell to his lot to quell national and social conflicts, encouraging the peasants to argue their cases in court.

It is thought that six fables belong to the initial phase of his literary activity. Some are borrowed from Aesop and others are original. However the most important work, which made him famous, is the poem Metai 'The Seasons'. Most likely Doneláitis wrote this in the course of ten years without any preconceived plan for the work. The poem was constantly being supplemented and corrected, but remained unfinished to the end. The famous East Prussian Lithuanian cultural activist Liųdvikas Rezā published it 38 years after its author's death. He was the first to call this work Metai 'The Seasons'. This is made up of four parts: The amusements of spring, Summer work, The pleasures of fall and Winter cares. In these the author describes the East Prussian Lithuanian village, the way of life of its peasant inhabitants, and their work, all of which was well known to him. The impressive views of nature during the seasons described by the poet help to hold together the various parts of the work. The lives of the Lithuanian peasants in the poem are closely bound up with the cycles of nature. The most important things for the peasant are work, sleep and food. Doneláitis relied little on any kind of literary canons, but in the division of the poem's characters into positive (polite) and negative (good-for-nothing) persons we can see some elements of classical writing. The use of extravagant expressions and the tendency to hyperbolize are connected with the baroque tradition. In the work there are quite a few didactic precepts and pieces of advice, because its author is not only a poet but a preacher as well. In The Seasons, the author through the mouths of his characters comes out against the foreign German culture and emphasizes the value of his own language and culture. His national feeling is distinguished by conservatism.

The poetry of antiquity (Hesiod, Vergil) had a profound influence on him. His entire poem is in rhymed hexameter. Although the antique hexameter is based on the difference between short and long syllables, he applied it to the Lithuanian language, which has free stress, and he replaced the old hexameter with tonic hexameter. In his verses he alternates tonic dactyls and trochees, but the penultimate foot of a line is always dactylic. Characteristic of each line is a caesura in the third foot or two caesuras in the second and fourth feet. The caesura is for the most part masculine.

The episode given here is from the second part of The Seasons. Summer work tells about one of the most colorful good-for-nothing peasants of this poem, Plauciunas. After a bit of unpaid collective work, he has his fill of food and drink at the place of his neighbor Kãsparas and wanders home, arriving only at dawn and without his new scythe and whetstone. He misses his tools only after the quail calls him to make hay. Unable to find his tools anywhere, Pliauciunas beats his wife and children, saddles up his one-eared nag and rides off to Karaliáucius to buy a scythe. But there he forgets all about the scythe and at Mėkas' place pays for his drinks with his old nag and wanders home on foot after two weeks. Crawling and snorting, he cuts his neglected meadow with a sickle. This excerpt was translated by William Schmalstieg.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The text of the selection is given according to the rules of contemporary Lithuanian orthography and punctuation: as much as possible, an attempt has been made to maintain the authentic Donelaitis stress (he did not supply all the words with stress and some are stressed in several ways). In this selection as in the entire poem, abundant use is made of the half-participles, which are distinguished by their picturesque quality, e.g., klydinedams 'wandering around', miegódams 'sleeping', vaitódams 'groaning', pamatýdams 'seeing', zioplinedams 'gaping', sokinedams 'dancing', snypsdams 'snorting', replinedams 'crawling'. Also characteristic of the author's language is the ending - s as a shortening of - as, i.e., the loss of mobile - a-, e.g., Plauciuns, pavitóts 'having been given food and drink', miegódams 'sleeping', vaitódams 'groaning', etc. Infinitives are also shortened: sienáut(i) 'to make hay', pjáut(i) 'to cut, to reap', conjunctions ėk(i) 'until.' The locative ending -yje is shortened not to -y, but to yj, e.g.., naktyj 'in the night'.

In the text given here Slavisms are encountered, e.g., pavitóts 'having been given food and drink', glupas 'stupid, silly', nesvíetiskai 'not of this world, inhuman, beyond ordinary measure', dyvas 'wonder', nedele 'week', potám 'then'. Most common are the conjunctions kād 'that, when', bčt 'but', ir 'and', bei 'and'. Frequent in this excerpt are adverbs (paskiaus 'afterwards, then', prastai 'poorly', taip 'also', namõn 'home', daug 'many, much', konč 'almost', etc.) and prepositions (pās 'at', ant 'on', 'with', per 'through', ės 'from, out of', i 'into', 'under, after', etc). In addition the adverb irgi 'and even', characteristic of the literature of Lithuania Minor, is also used.

The excerpt is taken from the book Kristijonas Donelaitis. Metai ir pasakecios. Vilnius: Baltu lanku leidyba, 2000, translated by William Schmalstieg.

Tās nenáudelis Plauciuns, pās Kãspara pérnai
Talkojč pavitóts, taip baisiai bųvo pririjes,
Kād jės nãktyj, ant tamsiu lauku klydinedams,
Bųde nauja sų dalgių suketu prapųlde
Irgi namõn isausus jau vos võs parsibãste.

  • tās -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <tās, tā> this, that -- that
  • nenáudelis -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <nenáudelis, nenáudele> good-for-nothing -- good-for-nothing
  • Plauciuns -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Plauciuns> Plauciunas -- Plauciunas
  • pās -- preposition; <pās> at, to -- at
  • Kãspara -- proper noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Kãsparas> Kasparas -- Kasparas' (place)
  • pérnai -- adverb; <pérnai> last year -- last year
  • talkojč -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <talkā> collective labor -- in the collective labor
  • pavitóts -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle passive of <pavitóti, pavitója, pavitójo> entertain, give food and drink -- having been given food and drink
  • taip -- adverb; <taip> so, therefore -- so
  • baisiai -- adverb; <baisiai> awfully -- much
  • bųvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <buti, yrā, bųvo> be -- had
  • pririjes -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <prirýti, priryja, prirėjo> drink -- drunk
  • kād -- conjunction; <kād> that -- that
  • jės -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine <jės, jė> he, she, it -- he
  • nãktyj -- noun, feminine; locative singular <naktės> night -- at night
  • ant -- preposition; <ant> in, on -- around
  • tamsiu -- adjective; genitive plural masculine of <tamsųs, tamsė> dark -- dark
  • lauku -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <laukas> field -- the fields
  • klydinedams -- verb; singular masculine of half participle of <klydineti, klydineja, klydinejo> wander -- wandering
  • bųde -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <bųde> whetstone -- the whetstone
  • nauja -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <naujas, naujā> new -- new
  • -- preposition; <> with -- with
  • dalgių -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <dalgis> scythe -- the scythe
  • suketu -- adjective; instrumental singular masculine of <suketas, suketa> chipped -- chipped
  • prapųlde -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <prapųldyti, prapųldo, prapųlde> lose -- lost
  • irgi -- adverb; <irgi> and even -- and even
  • namõn -- adverb; <namõn> home -- home
  • isausus -- verb; preterit gerund(ive) of <isausti, isausta, isauso> break of dawn -- at the break of dawn
  • jau -- adverb; <jau> already, just -- just
  • vos võs -- adverb; <vos võs> barely -- barely
  • parsibãste -- verb; 3rd person preterit reflexive of <parsibastýti, parsibãsto, parsibãste> wander -- (he) wandered

Taip jisai paskui, per diena vėsa miegódams,
Pāmestu ryku laukč ieskót neminejo,
Ėk põ meto vel sienáut jau pųtpela sauke.

  • taip -- adverb; <taip> so, therefore -- so that
  • jisai -- definite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- he
  • paskui -- adverb; <paskui> afterwards -- afterwards
  • per -- preposition; <per> through -- through
  • diena -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <dienā> day -- the day
  • vėsa -- pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <vėsas, visā> all -- whole
  • miegódams -- verb; singular masculine of half participle of <miegóti, miega, miegójo> sleep -- sleeping
  • pāmestu -- verb; genitive plural masculine of preterit participle passive of <pamčsti, pāmeta, pāmete> loose -- lost
  • ryku -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <rykas> tool -- the tools
  • laukč -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <laukas> field -- in the field
  • ieskót -- verb; infinitive of <ieskóti, íesko, ieskójo> look for -- to look for
  • neminejo -- negative particle; <ne> not + verb; 3rd person preterit of <mineti, mėni, minejo> remember -- (he) didn't remember
  • ėk -- conjunction; <ėk> until -- until
  • -- preposition; <> after, over, on -- after
  • meto -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <metai> year -- a year
  • vel -- adverb; <vel> again -- again
  • sienáut -- verb; infinitive of <sienáuti, sienáuja, sienãvo> make hay -- to make hay
  • jau -- adverb; <jau> already, just -- already
  • pųtpela -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <pųtpela> quail -- the quail
  • sauke -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <saukti, saukia, sauke> call -- called (him)

Stai Plauciuns sāvo dalgio bei bųdes pasigedo
Ir vaitódams vės ir sen, ir ten beginejo;
Ėk paskiaus, ės pãpykio berzėni pagãves,
Pãcia sų glupais vaikais konč nųmuse smirdas.

  • stai -- particle; <stai> here -- so now
  • Plauciuns -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Plauciuns> Plauciunas -- Plauciunas
  • sāvo -- pronoun; genitive of <sāvo> he, she -- his
  • dalgio -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <dalgis> scythe -- scythe
  • bei -- conjunction; <bei> and -- and
  • bųdes -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <bųde> whetstone -- whetstone
  • pasigedo -- verb; 3rd person preterit reflexive of <pasigčsti, pasigenda, pasigedo> miss -- missed
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • vaitódams -- verb; singular masculine of half participle of <vaitóti, vaitója,vaitójo> moan, groan -- groaning
  • vės -- adverb; <vės> still -- ...
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- ...
  • sen -- adverb; <sen> hither -- hither
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • ten -- adverb; <ten> there, thither -- thither
  • beginejo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <begineti, begineja, beginejo> run about -- ran
  • ėk -- conjunction; <ėk> until -- until
  • paskiaus -- adverb; <paskiaus> then, after that -- finally
  • ės -- preposition; <ės> from -- from
  • pãpykio -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <pãpykis> anger -- anger
  • berzėni -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <berzėnis> birch stick -- a birch stick
  • pagãves -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <pagáuti, pagáuna, pagãvo> grab up -- grabbing up
  • pãcia -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <patė> wife -- (his) wife
  • -- preposition; <> with -- and
  • glupais -- adjective; instrumental plural masculine of <glupas> stupid -- stupid
  • vaikais -- noun, masculine; instrumental plural of <vaikas> child -- (their) children
  • konč -- adverb; <konč> almost -- almost
  • nųmuse -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <numųsti, nųmusa, nųmuse> kill -- killed
  • smirdas -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <smirdas> stinking fellow -- the stinking fellow

Taip potám jisai, nesvíetiskai prisidukes
Ir vienausi kuinpalaiki prastai pazebójes,
I Karaliáuciu dalgi pirkt tiesióg nukeliãvo.

  • taip -- adverb; <taip> so, therefore -- so
  • potám -- adverb; <potám> then, after that -- then
  • jisai -- definite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <jės, jė> he, she, it -- he
  • nesvíetiskai -- adverb; <nesvietiskai> inhuman, not of this world -- unholy
  • prisidukes -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active reflexive of <prisidukti, prisiduksta, prisiduko> rage, raise a row -- in a fit of rage
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- ...
  • vienausi -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <vienausis, vienause> one-eared -- one-eared
  • kuinpalaiki -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <kuinpalaikis> old nag -- the old nag
  • prastai -- adverb; <prastai> badly -- somehow
  • pazebójes -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <pazebóti, pazebója, pazebójo> bridle -- having bridled
  • i -- preposition; <i> at, for, in, to -- for
  • Karaliáuciu -- proper noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Karaliáucius> Karaliaucius -- Karaliaucius
  • dalgi -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <dalgis> scythe -- a scythe
  • pirkt -- verb; infinitive of <pirkti, perka, pirko> buy -- to buy
  • tiesióg -- adverb; <tiesióg> directly -- directly
  • nukeliãvo -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <nukeliáuti, nukeliáuja, nukeliãvo> travel -- set off

Õ vei ten, dyvu visókiu daug pamatýdams
Ir zioplinedams vės bei buriskai sokinedams,
Bųde sų naujų dalgių nusipirkt uzsimirso;
Bčt ir kuinpalaiki taip jau pās Mėka prageres,
Pescias põ dvieju nedeliu võs parsibãste,
Ir sāvo píeva prėdergta (tėkt geda sakýti)
Snypsdams ir replinedams vės sų piáutuvu kirto.

  • õ -- conjunction; <õ> and, but -- but
  • vei -- particle; <vei> look -- ...
  • ten -- adverb; <ten> there, thither -- there
  • dyvu -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <dyvas> miracle, wonder -- wonders
  • visókiu -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <visóks, visókia> all -- marvelous
  • daug -- adverb; <daug> many, much -- many
  • pamatýdams -- verb; singular masculine of half participle of <pamatýti, pamãto, pamãte> see -- seeing
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- ...
  • zioplinedams -- verb; singular masculine of half participle of <zioplineti, zioplineja, zioplinejo> gape -- gaping
  • vės -- adverb; <vės> still -- still
  • bei -- conjunction; <bei> and -- and
  • buriskai -- adverb; <buriskai> like a peasant -- like a peasant
  • sokinedams -- verb; singular masculine of half participle of <sokineti, sokineja, sokinejo> dance, skip -- dancing
  • bųde -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <bųde> whetstone -- a whetstone
  • -- preposition; <> with -- and
  • naujų -- adjective; instrumental singular masculine of <naujas, naujā> new -- new
  • dalgių -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <dalgis> scythe -- a scythe
  • nusipirkt -- verb; infinitive reflexive of <nusipirkti, nusėperka, nusipirko> buy -- to buy
  • uzsimirso -- verb; 3rd person preterit reflexive of <uzsimirsti, uzsimirsta, uzsimirso> forget -- (he) forgot
  • bčt -- conjunction; <bčt> but -- but
  • ir -- particle; <ir> and -- ...
  • kuinpalaiki -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <kuinpalaikis> old nag -- the old nag
  • taip jau -- adverb; <taip jau> also -- ...
  • pās -- preposition; <pās> at, to -- at
  • Mėka -- proper noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Mėkas> Mikas -- Mikas' (place)
  • prageres -- verb; nominative singular masculine of preterit participle active of <pragérti, prāgeria, pragere> drink up -- having drunk up
  • pescias -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <pescias, pesciā> on foot -- on foot
  • -- preposition; <> after, over, on -- after
  • dvieju -- number; genitive feminine of <dų, dvė> two -- two
  • nedeliu -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <nedelia> week -- weeks
  • võs -- particle; <võs> barely, hardly -- ...
  • parsibãste -- verb; 3rd person preterit reflexive of <parsibastýti, parsibãsto, parsibãste> wander -- (he) wandered (home)
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • sāvo -- pronoun; genitive of <sāvo> he, she -- his
  • píeva -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <píeva> meadow -- field
  • prėdergta -- verb; accusative singular feminine of preterit participle passive of <pridérgti, pridérgia, pridérge> befoul -- befouled
  • tėkt -- particle; <tėkt> only -- only
  • geda -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <geda> shameful -- (it is) shameful
  • sakýti -- verb; infinitive of <sakýti, sãko, sãke> say -- to say (it)
  • snypsdams -- verb; singular masculine of half participle of <snypsti, snypscia, snypste> snort -- snorting
  • ir -- conjunction; <ir> and -- and
  • replinedams -- verb; singular masculine of half participle of <replineti, replineja, replinejo> crawl -- crawling
  • vės -- adverb; <vės> still -- over and over
  • -- preposition; <> with -- with
  • piáutuvu -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <piáutuvas> sickle -- a sickle
  • kirto -- verb; 3rd person preterit of <kirsti, kerta, kirto> cut -- harvested

Lesson Text

Tās nenáudelis Plauciuns, pās Kãspara pérnai
Talkojč pavitóts, taip baisiai bųvo pririjes,
Kād jės nãktyj, ant tamsiu lauku klydinedams,
Bųde nauja sų dalgių suketu prapųlde
Irgi namõn isausus jau vos võs parsibãste.
Taip jisai paskui, per diena vėsa miegódams,
Pāmestu ryku laukč ieskót neminejo,
Ėk põ meto vel sienáut jau pųtpela sauke.
Stai Plauciuns sāvo dalgio bei bųdes pasigedo
Ir vaitódams vės ir sen, ir ten beginejo;
Ėk paskiaus, ės pãpykio berzėni pagãves,
Pãcia sų glupais vaikais konč nųmuse smirdas.
Taip potám jisai, nesvíetiskai prisidukes
Ir vienausi kuinpalaiki prastai pazebójes,
I Karaliáuciu dalgi pirkt tiesióg nukeliãvo.
Õ vei ten, dyvu visókiu daug pamatýdams
Ir zioplinedams vės bei buriskai sokinedams,
Bųde sų naujų dalgių nusipirkt uzsimirso;
Bčt ir kuinpalaiki taip jau pās Mėka prageres,
Pescias põ dvieju nedeliu võs parsibãste,
Ir sāvo píeva prėdergta (tėkt geda sakýti)
Snypsdams ir replinedams vės sų piáutuvu kirto.

Translation

That good-for-nothing Plauciunas, (having participated) last year in the collective labor and having been given food and drink at Kasparas' place, had drunk so much that, wandering around the dark fields at night, he lost his new whetstone and chipped scythe. He wandered home just barely at the break of dawn so that afterwards, sleeping through the whole day, he didn't remember to look in the field for his lost tools, until after a year the quail called him to make hay again. So now Plauciunas missed his scythe and whetstone and, groaning, ran hither and thither until finally, from anger, grabbing up a birch stick, the stinking fellow almost killed his wife and their stupid children. So then in a fit of unholy rage, having somehow bridled the old one-eared nag, he set off directly for Karaliaucius to buy a scythe. But seeing many marvelous wonders there, still gaping and dancing like a peasant, he forgot to buy a whetstone and a new scythe. But having drunk up the old nag [i.e., having spent all the money he got from selling the nag] at Mikas' place, he wandered home on foot after two weeks and harvested his befouled field (it's only shameful to say it) with a sickle, crawling and snorting over and over.

Grammar

26. Adverbs

Adverbs express qualitative, quantitive, spatial or temporal characteristics of actions, states, properties, sometimes of things. They can also denote the circumstances under which actions and states occur. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, adverbs and clauses, e.g.:

  • Kolegā rugsciai pāzvelge i manč 'My colleague glanced at me acidly'.
  • Keliõne bųvo neiprastai sunkė 'The trip was unusually difficult'.
  • Dazniáusiai visė darbai uzgriuva tuõ pacių metų 'Most often all the jobs occur at the same time'.

Some qualitative adverbs can be used as predicatives, e.g.:

  • Mán labai blogai
  • 'I feel extremely bad'.

It should be noted that some words function either as adverbs or as prepositions, e.g.:

  • Atsistók saliā 'Stand close'.
  • Atsistók saliā manes 'Stand next to me'.

Most adverbs are formed from other parts of speech (nouns, adjectives, numerals, pronouns, participles) by means of suffixes or prefixes.

The suffix -(i)ai is particulary common and productive in Lithuanian. Adverbs with the suffix -(i)ai are formed from adjectives and participles with an adjectival meaning:

    Adj/Part.   Adv
    kárst-as 'hot'   karst-ai 'hotly'
    laimėng-as 'happy'   laimėng-ai 'happily'
    astr-ųs 'sharp'   astr-iai 'sharply'
    mandag-ųs 'polite'   mandag-iai 'politely'
    nevykus-i 'unsuccessful'   nevykus-iai 'unsuccessfully'
    deram-as 'proper'   deramai 'properly'
    neláukt-as 'unexpected'   nelauktai 'unexpectedly'

Before the suffix -iai, the consonants t and d are replaced by c and dz:

    Adj   Adv
    skaud-ųs 'painful'   skaudz-iai 'painfully
    prėderant-i 'becoming, appropriate'   prėderanc-iai 'appropriately'

Adverbs formed by adding the suffix -yn denote a change into the condition denoted by the root adjective, e.g.:

    Adj   Adv
    sált-as 'cold'   saltyn '(turning, becoming) cold'
    áukst-as 'high, tall'   aukstyn 'up', upwards'

A number of adverbs are adverbialized case forms of nouns, e.g.:

Case   Adv
Nominative   ganā 'enough', neziniā '(it) is not known'
Dative   ilgám 'for long', trumpám 'for a short while'
Accusative   trupųti 'a little'
Instrumental   gretā 'side by side, next to somebody', tycia 'on purpose', draugč 'together', kartais 'sometimes'
Locative   tarpųsavy 'between themselves'

The instrumental endings -(i)ui, -mis and -ais have developed into adverbial suffixes, e.g.:

  • véltui 'in vain'; pakeliui 'on the way, the same way';
  • paskubomės 'in a hurry'; apgraibomės 'gropingly';
  • retsykiais 'now and then'; dáiktais 'in places'.

The postpositional locative forms (the illative and the allative) are also used as adverbs, e.g.: salin 'away, off', virsun 'up', vakaróp 'towards evening', velnióp 'to hell'. The adverbs namie 'at home', artė 'near (by)', tolė 'far (away)' retain the archaic locative case form.

Numerous prepositional phrases have acquired adverbial meaning: is karto 'at once', bč gãlo 'extremely, on end' (lit. without end'), põ senóvei 'as of old, still', i valiās 'sufficiently'. Some of them lost case endings and developed into prefixed adverbs, e.g.: iskart (cf: ės karto) 'at once', pernãkt (cf: per nãkti) 'overnight', etc.

The following adverbs are adverbialized case forms of numerals, e.g., dvíese 'two by two', 'in twos'; trisč 'in a group of three'; vienaip 'in one way, in one manner'; antraip 'in another way, in a contrary manner'; treciaip 'in a third way, in a third manner'.

The adverbs kur 'where', kaip 'how', kíek 'how much, how many', kadā 'when', ciā 'here', ten 'there', visadā 'always', kitaip 'otherwise', etc. are related to pronouns. Their suffixes -(i)ur, -d(ā) and -(i)ai~p can be used to form other adverbs, e.g., niekadā 'never', svetur 'in a strange land (place)', vienur 'in one place', savaip 'in one's way', etc.

Some adverbs have developed from word groups, e.g., anãkart 'that time', kasdien 'every day', siemet 'this year'.

Words formed from verbs with the suffix -te, -tinai are traditionally considered to be non-finite verbal forms. They are called budinys 'second infinitive'. However, in the newest Lithuanian grammars these forms are classed as adverbs, e.g.,

    skrės-ti 'to fly'   skris-tč 'flying'
    skrės-ti 'to fly'   skris-tinai 'flying'

They are used with the verbs of the same root for emphasis. The suffix -tinai is rare; is used instead, e.g.:

  • Ciā zmõgu nukankėndavo, ciulptč isciulpdavo jõ sveikãta, jõ jegās. 'Here (they) used to torture a person, sucking (lit. sucking used to suck) dry his health, his energy'.
  • Astā skristč iskrėdo prõ durės 'Asta came running fast (lit. flying flew) into the room'.

Adverbs deriving from adjectives which denote a variable property can form degrees of comparison. The comparative degree is formed by adding the suffix -iau while the superlative degree is derived by means of the suffix -iausiai or -iausia, e.g.:

    Pos.   Comp.   Sup.
    kãrst-ai 'hotly'   karsc-iau ' more hotly'   karsc-iáusiai 'the most hotly'
    graz-iai 'nicely'   graziau 'more nicely'   graziáusia(i) 'the most nicely'

The comparative and superlative forms of adverbs coincide with those of the respective neuter adjectives, cf: grazų '(it is) nice', graziau 'nicer', graziáusia 'the nicest'.

Adverbs can be divided into a few semantic types (adverbs of manner, place, time, cause, etc.), e.g.:

  • Isklausýk manč ramiai 'Listen to me calmly'.
  • Aplinkui bųvo tųscia 'It was empty all around'.
  • Rudenióp orai atsãla 'The weather gets colder towards autumn'.
27. Verbal Aspects and Transitivity
27.1. Verbal Aspects

Verbal aspect is that characteristic of the verb which shows whether the action has been completed or is still in progress. Two aspectual meanings are distinguished: perfective and imperfective. In Lithuanian the use of verbal aspect depends on three things, viz. the structure of the verb, its lexical meaning and tense.

The perfective meaning is mainly characteristic of prefixed verbs. Most prefixed verbs denote a completed action, especially in the preterit and future tenses, e.g.,

taise '(he) was repairing': pataise '(he) repaired, (he) has repaired'; výkde '(he) was accomplishing': ivýkde '(he) accomplished', (he) has accomplished'; pųvo '(it) was rotting': supųvo '(it) rotted, (it) has rotted'; nese 'he was carrying': ātnese 'he carried, he has carried'.

The following example illustrates the difference between the imperfective and the resultative perfective:

  • Tevas ilgai taise kavõs aparãta, bčt nesutaise
  • 'Father was (in the process of) repairing the coffee machine for a long time, but he did not manage to repair (it)'.

The prefix pa- is the most common prefix to give verbs perfective meaning. However, the addition of the iterative suffix -ineti makes such verbs imperfective again or perhaps neutral in regard to aspect:

  • ātnese: atnesinejo 'he carried' (repeatedly);
  • nurãse: nurasinejo 'he kept copying'.

As far as the lexical meaning of the verb is concerned, the punctual verbs and the verbs which denote a very short (momentary) action can only be perfective, e.g., rāsti 'to find', sáuti 'to shoot', sukteleti 'to utter a cry', zvėlgtereti 'to casts a glance'.

The duration of the action is also important because we can only imagine a finished action in the past or the future. A finished action in the present would be in the past at the moment of utterance. Perfective verbs can then only be used with present tense endings in secondary functions. They may denote:

A general action which is not connected with any special time, e.g., Siáureje Lietuvā susisiekia sų Lãtvija 'In the North Lithuania borders on Latvia'. The possibility of performing an action, e.g., Māno tevas jau vel paeina 'My father is able to walk again'. The historical present, e.g., Põ treciojo Zecpospolėtos padalėjimo (1795) Rųsija prisijųngia didčsniaja Lietuvõs dãli 'After the third partition of the Commonwealth (1795) Russia annexes (i.e. annexed) the greater part of Lithuania'. The future, e.g., Tuõj pāt vaziúoju ir parsėvezu ji namõ 'I am going right now and bringing him home'.

The aspectual meaning of a verb may depend on the tense form and context. The present tense form of a verb is imperfective and the preterit and future tense forms are either perfective or imperfective according to context, e.g.:

  • Zmogųs mėrsta (imperfective) 'A man is dying'.
  • Pérnai mėre sesuõ (perfective) 'Sister died last year'.
  • Vaikai mirs jusu akysč (imperfective) 'Children will be dying right before your eyes' (lit. 'in your eyes').

The imperfective aspect is most characteristic of unprefixed verbs. Among prefixed verbs, imperfective are those verbs which (a) are not used without prefixes or (b) the prefix of which changes or modifies their basic meaning, e.g.:

(a)   supranta '(he) understands', pãsakoja '(he) relates', pajegia '(he) is able', priestaráuja '(he) objects', uzdarbiáuja '(he) earns a living';
(b)   jaucia '(he) feels': uzjaucia '(he) sympathizes (with)'; āpkalba '(he) slanders': kalba '(he) speaks'; apgáuna '(he) deceives': gáuna '(he) gets'; sųtaria '(he) gets on (with someone): tãria '(he) says'; ėslipa '(he) climbs off, out of': lėpa '(he) climbs'.

The suffixed verbs are usually imperfective (except -el(e)ti, -er(e)ti), cf: tráukti 'to pull': tráukyti 'to pull' (repeatedly); sųkti 'to twist': sukióti 'to twist' (repeatedly)'; rekti 'to shout': rekauti 'to shout' (repeatedly); mčsti 'to throw': metyti 'to throw, to fling' (repeatedly).

Some prefixed forms are neutral with respect to aspect. Their aspect depends on the context, e.g.:

  • Jės tėk zvėlgterejo mán i véida ir iskart manč prisėmine 'He only glanced up at my face and remembered me at once'.
  • Tų prisėminei manč visųs tuõs ėlgus issiskyrėmo metųs 'You remembered me after all those long years of separation'.

One should always remember that the various tenses of the verb can have different aspect.

It is important to distinguish carefully between the perfect tenses and the perfective aspect. A perfect tense denotes the state or condition which is the result of a past action, whereas the perfective aspect denotes a completed action. Thus the various perfect tenses may have verbs in either the perfective or imperfective aspect, e.g.:

  • Mes nč karta esam skrėde siõs óro lėnijos lektųvais (imperfective) 'We have flown with the planes of this airline many times'.
  • Kai draudėmas skrėsti i Bōstona bųvo ātsauktas, mes jau bųvome isskrėde i Filadelfija (perfective) 'By the time the ban on flights to Boston was cancelled we had already flown to Philadelphia'.

Although any combination of tense and aspect is theoretically possible, it is to be expected that the perfect tenses are more likely to be used with verbs of perfective aspect. This is because a condition which has been attained is more likely to be coupled with a completed action than with a noncompleted action.

27.2. Transitivity

Transitive verbs are used with the direct object in the accusative case. Intransitive verbs cannot take a direct object, cf.:

  • Visās nereikalėngas kampúotas síenas ansai prótevis nugrióve 'This ancestor destroyed all the unnecessary awkward walls'.
  • Vãkar jės ėssiunte sāvo atsistatýdinimo prãsyma 'Yesterday he sent the application for his resignation'.
  • Vaikai daznai bėjo tamsõs 'Children often are afraid of darkness'.
  • Kai kurie zmónes visuomčt dziaugiasi kitu zmoniu nesekmemės 'Some people always rejoice at the misfortune of other people'.

There are some verbs that can be used as transitives or intransitives, e.g.:

  • Ās dár gerai girdzių 'I still hear well'.
  • Ās pėrma karta girdzių siã daina 'I am hearing this song for the first time'.
  • Pyrãgas jau kepa 'The cake is already baking.'
  • Renatā visuomčt kepa pyrãga sāvo gimtãdieniui 'Renata always bakes a cake for her birthday'.

Many transitive verbs have intransitive counterparts. They can differ from each other in apophonic vowel alternation (a), the transitive verbs may take the causative suffixes -(d)inti, -(d)yti (b) or prefixes (c), the transitive counterpart is not reflexive (d):

(a)   Obels Sakā nuluzo 'The branch of the apple tree broke off'.
    Vejas nuláuze obels sãka 'The wind broke off the branch of the apple tree'.
(b)   Skruóstai dege ės gedos 'The cheeks burned with shame'.
    Egzōtiski príeskoniai degino bųrna 'The exotic spices burned the mouth'.
(c)   Dár vãkar ās drãsiai ejau tuõ kelių 'Yesterday I still went bravely on that road'.
    Mes apejome vėsa mėska, bčt nieko nerãdomč 'We went all over the forest but we found nothing'.
(d)   Prikélk manč astunta vãlanda rýto 'Wake me up at eight in the morning'.
    Laikas kéltis 'It is time to get up'.
28. Compound Tenses of the Passive Voice and Passivization.
28.1. The Compound Tenses of the Passive Voice

As was mentioned in lesson 5, the passive voice is formed with the auxiliary verb buti 'to be'. There are as many tenses in the passive voice as there are tenses in the conjugation of the verb buti. Since both the present passive and the past passive participle can be used to form the passive voice, there are actually always two tenses possible: one with the present passive participle (imperfect passive), the other with the past passive participle (perfect passive). The former is sometimes called the actional passive, and the latter the statal passive. One can render the tenses where the present passive participle is used into English as a regular passive, but with the word 'being' because the action is still being done (present tense), was being done (past tense), used to be being done (frequentative past), or will be being done (future). A sample paradigm of the imperfect passive tense is given below:

    Masculine   Feminine
    ('I am being invited')    
1st sg   ās esų kvieciamas   ās esų kvieciamā
2nd sg   tų esė kvieciamas   tų esė kvieciamā
3rd sg   jės yrā kvieciamas   jė yrā kvieciamā
         
1st pl   mes esam(e) kvieciamė   mes esam(e) kvieciamos
2nd pl   jus esat(e) kvieciamė   jus esat(e) kvieciamos
3rd pl   jie yrā kvieciamė   jõs yrā kvieciamos
         
    ('I was being invited')    
1st sg   ās buvau kvieciamas   ās buvau kvieciamā
2nd sg   tų buvai kvieciamas   tų buvai kvieciamā
3rd sg   jės bųvo kvieciamas   jė bųvo kvieciamā
         
1st pl   mes bųvom(e) kvieciamė   mes bųvom(e) kvieciamos
2nd pl   jus bųvot(e) kvieciamė   jus bųvot(e) kvieciamos
3rd pl   jie bųvo kvieciamė   jõs bųvo kvieciamos
         
    ('I used to be (being) invited')    
1st sg   ās budavau kvieciamas   ās budavau kvieciamā
2nd sg   tų budavai kvieciamas   tų budavai kvieciamā
3rd sg   jės budavo kvieciamas   jė budavo kvieciamā
         
1st pl   mes budavom(e) kvieciamė   mes budavom(e) kvieciamos
2nd pl   jus budavot(e) kvieciamė   jus budavot(e) kvieciamos
3rd pl   jie budavo kvieciamė   jõs budavo kvieciamos
         
    ('I will be (being) invited')    
1st sg   ās busiu kvieciamas   ās busiu kvieciamā
2nd sg   tų busi kvieciamas   tų busi kvieciamā
3rd sg   jės bųs kvieciamas   jė bųs kvieciamā
         
1st pl   mes busim(e) kvieciamė   mes busim(e) kvieciamos
2nd pl   jus busit(e) kvieciamė   jus busit(e) kvieciamos
3rd pl   jie bųs kvieciamė   jõs bųs kvieciamos

Examples:

  • Mes esam kvieciamė i sāvo kolčgos naujõs knygos pristãtyma 'We are being invited to the presentation of the new book of my colleague'.
  • Ketųri zmónes bųvo suzeistė per avãrija Kuciu nãkti 'Four people were injured in an accident on Christmas Eve'.

The passive tenses with the past passive participles express the action as already complete, or completed, in any tense. Their paradigm is as follows:

    Masculine   Feminine
    ('I am invited, I have been invited')    
1st sg   ās esų kviestas   ās esų kviestā
2nd sg   tų esė kviestas   tų esė kviestā
3rd sg   jės yrā kviestas   jė yrā kviestā
         
1st pl   mes esam(e) kviestė   mes esam(e) kviestos
2nd pl   jus esat(e) kviestė   jus esat(e) kviestos
3rd pl   jie yrā kviestė   jõs yrā kviestos
         
    ('I was invited, I had been invited')    
1st sg   ās buvau kviestas   ās buvau kviestā
2nd sg   tų buvai kviestas   tų buvai kviestā
3rd sg   jės bųvo kviestas   jė bųvo kviestā
         
1st pl   mes bųvom(e) kviestė   mes bųvom(e) kviestos
2nd pl   jus bųvot(e) kviestė   jus bųvot(e) kviestos
3rd pl   jie bųvo kviestė   jõs bųvo kviestos
         
    ('I used to be invited, I would be invited')    
1st sg   ās budavau kviestas   ās budavau kviestā
2nd sg   tų budavai kviestas   tų budavai kviestā
3rd sg   jės budavo kviestas   jė budavo kviestā
         
1st pl   mes budavom(e) kviestė   mes budavom(e) kviestos
2nd pl   jus budavot(e) kviestė   jus budavot(e) kviestos
3rd pl   jie budavo kviestė   jõs budavo kviestos
         
    ('I will be invited, I will have been invited')    
1st sg   ās busiu kviestas   ās busiu kviestā
2nd sg   tų busi kviestas   tų busi kviestā
3rd sg   jės bųs kviestas   jė bųs kviestā
         
1st pl   mes busim(e) kviestė   mes busim(e) kviestos
2nd pl   jus busit(e) kviestė   jus busit(e) kviestos
3rd pl   jie bųs kviestė   jõs bųs kviestos

Examples:

  • Musu idejos nebųvo sųprastos 'Our ideas were not understood'.
  • Rytõj ās busiu prezidento pasvéikintas sų pérgale 'Tomorrow I will be congratulated by the president on the victory'.

To form the subjunctive of the passive voice, the subjunctive forms of the verb buti 'to be' are combined with the appropriate passive participle:

    Masculine   Feminine
    ('I would be (being) invited')    
1st sg   ās buciau kvieciamas   ās buciau kvieciamā
2nd sg   tų butum kvieciamas   tų butum kvieciamā
3rd sg   jės butu kvieciamas   jė butu kvieciamā
         
1st pl   mes butume kvieciamė   mes butume kvieciamos
2nd pl   jus butumet(e) kvieciamė   jus butumet(e) kvieciamos
3rd pl   jie butu kvieciamė   jõs butu kvieciamos
         
    ('I would be invited, I would have been invited')    
1st sg   ās buciau pākviestas   ās buciau pakviestā
2nd sg   tų butum pākviestas   tų butum pakviestā
3rd sg   jės butu pākviestas   jė butu pakviestā
         
1st pl   mes butume pakviestė   mes butume pākviestos
2nd pl   jus butumet(e) pakviestė   jus butumet(e) pākviestos
3rd pl   jie butu pakviestė   jõs butu pakviestos

Examples:

  • Tų taip pāt butum kvieciamas i tās vestuvčs, jéi butum ju gimináitis 'You also would be (being) invited to that wedding if you had been their relative'.
  • Vaikas butu apziuretas tuõj pāt, jéigu gýdytojas neturetu sunkiu ligóniu 'The child would be examined immediately if the physician didn't have (more) serious patients'.

The passive imperative is formed with the imperative forms of the verb buti 'to be' and the appropriate passive participle:

    Masculine   Feminine
    ('be respected')    
2nd sg   tų buk gerbiamas   tų buk gerbiamā
1st pl   mes bukim(e) gerbiamė   mes bukim(e) gerbiamos
2nd pl   jus bukit(e) gerbiamė   jus bukit(e) gerbiamos
         
    ('be satisfied')    
2nd sg   tų buk paténkintas   tų buk paténkinta
1st pl   mes bukim(e) paténkinti   mes bukim(e) paténkintos
2nd pl   jus bukit(e) paténkinti   jus bukit(e) paténkintos

One can form the passive forms with the compound tenses of buti, e.g., ās esų bųves apkalbetas 'I have been slandered'; tų butum bųves ėskviestas 'you would have been (being) called out'; mes esam bųve skriaudziamė 'we have been harmed', etc.

Examples:

  • Irenā nč karta yrā bųvusi apkalbeta sāvo artimiáusiu draugu 'Irena more than once has been slandered by her closest friends'.
  • Mes butume bųve apgautė, jei tu nebutum musu laikų ispejes 'We would have been deceived if you had not warned us in time'.

The passive infinitive is formed with the infinitive of the verb buti 'to be' and the appropriate passive participle in the dative case, e.g.:

  • Mán nepatėko buti isnaudójamam 'I did not like to be exploited'.
  • Buti apgautám sųkciu -- mãzas malonųmas 'To be deceived by swindlers is a small pleasure'.
28.2. Passivization

The active voice is represented in Lithuanian by all the simple finite verb forms, infinitive, active participles and the compound tenses with the active participles. The passive voice is represented by passive participles and the compound tenses with the present and past passive participles.

In the passive construction, the semantic subject is expressed by the genitive or it is omitted. Passive participles agree with the subject in number and case, cf:

  • Kaimýnai pardave si nãma 'The neighbors sold this house'
  • Kaimýnai yrā pardãve si nãma 'The neighbors have sold this house'.
  • Sės nãmas yrā kaimýnu pardúotas 'This house is sold by the neighbors'.

The accusative object of an active transitive verb is changed to the nominative subject in the passive construction, while the active subject is changed to the genitive agent. The same transformation is used for some verbs taking the genitive or dative object, e.g.:

  • Taves láukia draugai 'Friends are waiting for you'.
  • Tų esė laukiamā draugu 'You are awaited by friends'.
  • Polėcininkas isãke jíems sustóti 'The policeman ordered them to stop'.
  • Jie bųvo isakýti polėcininko sustóti 'They were ordered to stop by the policeman'.

In the latter instance the dative can be retained in the passive transformation, e.g.:

  • Jíems bųvo isakýta polėcininko sustóti
  • 'They were ordered to stop by the policeman'
  • (lit. 'To them it was ordered by the policeman to stop').

Constructions with the neuter forms of participles are possible, although they are not used frequently in Modern Lithuanian, e.g.:

  • Sės nãmas yrā kaimýnu pardúota
  • 'This house is sold by the neighbors'.

The neuter participles are mostly used with the pronouns unmarked for gender (e.g., kazkās 'somebody' 'something'; vėskas 'everything') and adverbs or other words (e.g., daug 'many, much'; mazai 'few, little'; tukstantis 'thousand') with the genitive of quantity, e.g.:

  • Kazkās ciā taisoma 'Something is being repaired here'.
  • Isgélbeta bųvo tukstanciai zmoniu 'Thousands of people were saved'.

Intransitive verbs have passive forms only with the neuter participles, e.g.:

  • Jės bego siuõ siaurų takelių 'He was running on this narrow path'.
  • Jõ begta siuõ siaurų takelių 'He must have run on this narrow path'.
  • Ciā stovejo māno nãmas 'My house stood here'.
  • Ciā māno nãmo stoveta 'My house must have stood here'.
29. Use of the Accusative, Instrumental and Locative
29.1. Accusative

The accusative is primarily the case of the direct object. All regular transitive verbs require the accusative case, e.g.:

  • Kiekvíena rųdeni mes sodėname medziųs sāvo sodč 'Every fall we plant trees in our garden'.
  • Pamegėnk jám uzciáupti bųrna 'Try to shut his mouth'.

The accusative can express certain periods of time, such as the day of the week, the month, the season:

  • Vãsara Lietuvojč daznė líetus 'In summer rain storms are frequent in Lithuania'.
  • Líepa buna silciáusios dienos 'The warmest days are in June'.
  • Penktãdieni pavelavau i tráukini 'On Friday I was late for the train.'

The accusative case may denote definite time, limited time, or duration of time:

  • Pótvynis prasidejo nãkti 'The flood started at night'.
  • Dvė saváites negalejau kójos is namu iskélti 'Two weeks I could not leave my home even for a short period' (lit. '...could not put my foot out of the house').
  • Nesutarėmai tesesi visųs metųs 'Disagreements lasted the entire year'.

It is also used with kās to denote 'each, every':

  • Kās vãlanda skambinau bróliui tikedamasis gáuti geru ziniu
  • 'Every hour I called my brother hoping to get the good news'.

Many prepositions govern the accusative case. The most frequent are:

  • Apie 'around, about, near, approximately, concerning': Papãsakok mán daugiau apie savč 'Tell me more about yourself'.
  • Aplink 'around, by': Aplink manč susibure māno remejai 'My supporters gathered round me'.
  • I 'in, into, to': Mes visė esam isipáinioje i si nemalõnu reikala 'We have all become involved in this unpleasant affair'.
  • Per 'through, across', during, throughout': Linksmýbes tesesi per vėsa nãkti 'Merriment lasted the whole night'.
  • 'here and there, round about', in, on, over': Kiekvíenas uzsisãkem põ bųteli alaus 'We each ordered a bottle of beer apiece'. Rytais braidziodavau po rasóta zõle 'In the morning I used to walk about on the dewy grass'.
  • Pries 'before, in the presence of, ago, against': Niekad neisiu pries sāvo sazine 'I will never go against my conscience'.
  • Prõ 'by, past, through': Simonā praejo prõ sãli ne nepasisvéikinusi 'Simona passed by without even saying hello'.
  • Ųz 'than, for, in return for': Nepyk ant jõ uz tã nekalta mela 'Do not be angry with him for the fib' (lit. '...for the harmless lie)'.

The preposition can be used with the genitive case (when it means 'after'), with the accusative case (when it means 'here and there, round about') or with the instrumental case (when it means 'under').

The preposition ųz can be used with the genitive case (when it means 'in, after') or with the accusative case (when it means '(in return) for').

29.2. Instrumental

The instrumental case may denote the means with which something is done, e.g.:

  • Zaisdamė fųtbola vaikai kãmuoliu patáike i lánga 'The children hit the window with the ball while playing football'.
  • Neketinų vaziúoti automopbilių, skrendų lektuvų 'I am not going to go by bus, I am flying by plane'.

In place of the instrumental case by itself, the preposition may also be used with the instrumental:

  • Zaisdamė fųtbola vaikai sų kãmuoliu patáike i lánga 'The children hit the window with the ball while playing football'.
  • Neketinų vaziúoti sų automopbilių, skrendų sų lektuvų 'I am not going to go by bus, I am flying by plane'.

The instrumental may be used to indicate the place along which or through which something or somebody is moving, e.g.:

  • Dangumė skríejo baltė debeseliai
  • 'The white small clouds were flying through the sky'.

It may also be used in certain expressions of time. The instrumental plural may imply that something happens repeatedly or regularly at a certain time:

  • Saváitgaliais mes visuomčt zaidziam brėdza
  • 'On weekends we always play bridge'.

Many fossilized expressions of time are actually old instrumental case forms (see section 26).

Certain verbs require a direct object or an indirect complement in the instrumental case, e.g.:

  • Visā kománda dziaugiasi praejusiu metu pérgalemis 'The whole team rejoices at the victories of the last year'.
  • Supykes pavadinau ji ãsilu 'Having got angry, I called him an ass'.

The instrumental case may denote the condition or profession. Such constructions may be found with the verbs virsti 'to turn into, to become', detis 'to pretend to be', laikýti 'to consider...as', skėrti 'to name, to appoint', gėmti 'to be born', áugti 'to grow (into)', tāpti 'to become', etc.:

  • Jės dedasi māno draugų 'He pretends to be my friend'.
  • Vãkar Sėlvija bųvo paskirtā komėsijos pėrmininke 'Yesterday Silvia was appointed the chairwoman of the commission'.

As a predicate the instrumental may be used with the verb buti 'to be', especially when it is close in meaning to tāpti 'to become'. The Lithuanian standard grammars indicate that the nominative denotes a constant characteristic of the subject, whereas the instrumental denotes an accidental or temporary condition, e.g.:

Māno tevas yrā architčktas, õ ās busiu (tāpsiu) zurnalistų (zurnalėstas) 'My father is an architect and I will be (become) a journalist'.

However, this rule is not always reflected in spoken Lithuanian.

The nominative is most common as predicate of the verb buti 'to be', whereas with the other verbs mentioned above the predicate is in the instrumental. But the instrumental may be used as a predicate of buti 'to be' when it means approximately the same as tāpti 'to become'.

The instrumental case may be used as the object of certain prepositions, e.g.:

  • 'with': Gál galė supazėndinti mųs sų sāvo tevais? 'Can you introduce us to your parents?'
  • 'under': Põ páltu jė vilkejo tėk plóna suknele 'She wore only a thin dress under the coat'.
  • Sulėg 'up to, as far as': Sniego pripųste sulėg vartais 'There were drifts of snow up to the gate'.
  • Ties 'opposite': Bėte sųko ratųs ties māno nósimi 'The bee was circling round opposite my nose'.
29.3. Locative

The locative case is used primarily to indicate location, e.g.:

  • Apsigyvenome miesto centrč 'We stayed downtown'.
  • Gulejau rugiu laukč ir ziurejau i dangu 'I was lying in the field of rye and looking at the sky'.

It is also used in certain expressions of time, e.g.:

  • Vidųrdieny pasidãrebaisiai kársta 'It got terribly hot at noon'.
  • Visė tėkimes, kād ateityjč bųs geriau 'We all expect that it will be better in the future'.

The postpositional locative forms, viz. the illative, the allative and the adessive, are not common in modern Lithuanian.

30. Conjunctions and Particles
30.1. The Conjunctions

Conjunctions are of two types, coordinating conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions. With regard to form, conjunctions are divided into simple (e.g., ir 'and', kād 'that', ar 'or') and complex (e.g., õ vės deltõ 'but still', võs tėk 'as soon as', kād ir 'though').

The words ir 'and', õ 'and, but', bčt 'but', taciau 'but, nevertheless, however', ar 'or', ar ... ar 'either ... or', arbā 'or', arbā ... arbā 'either ... or', nei ... nei 'neither ... nor', bei 'and', etc. are coordinating conjunctions and can connect either clauses, phrases or single words:

  • Taigi knygā prabyla lietųviskai, ir nč bčt_kaip, õ eiliúotai 'Thus the book speaks Lithuanian, and not any kind, but rhymed'.
  • Zõdziai arbā nč vėska tepasãko, arbā per_daug pasãko ir atvesėna vėdu 'Words either don't say everything or they say too much and make the insides cold'.

In general õ and bčt are similar in usage, but bčt is more emphatic, e.g.:

  • Bčt tenai -- visė lýgus. Õ ciā -- niekur nieko! Jokiõs prasmes! 'But there - - everyone is equal. And here - - nothing anywhere! No meaning!'
  • Gimináiciai ketėno pavieseti dvė saváites, bčt (õ, taciau) isvyko tėk põ triju 'The relatives were going to stay with us two weeks, but (however) they left only after three weeks'.

Bčt may be replaced by taciau especially after negative clauses. The clause introduced by bčt also denote in some cases something which is unexpected in view of the meaning of the main clause:

  • Visė susizvalge, bčt (taciau) niekas neėstare ne zõdzio
  • 'All exchanged glances, but nobody said even a word'.

Taciau is more limited to formal discourse, whereas bčt is common in every day conversation. There are also such complex conjunctions as õ vės deltõ 'but still', õ vės tíek, bčt vės tíek 'but even so', õ taciau 'but however':

  • Niekas nesitikejo, kād jės gãli laimeti siās varzýbas, õ vės deltõ jám pavyko
  • 'Nobody expected that he could win this competition, but he succeeded'.

The conjunction bei 'and' can unite two closely related words or phrases. Sometimes preference is given to bei to avoid repetition of ir:

  • Objčktas lietųviu kalbojč dazniáusiai réiskiamas galininkų ir kilmininkų, reciau naudininkų bei inagininku
  • 'In Lithuanian the object is usually expressed by the accusative or the genitive case, more rarely by the instrumental or the dative case'.

Bei is especially popular in contemporary journalistic and scientific style.

The subordinating conjunctions kād 'that', jóg 'that', kadángi 'because, for', nčs 'because', jéi(gu) 'if', nórs 'although', nórs ir 'though, even if', kād ir 'although', etc. express the relation of subordination between clauses:

  • Tėk bókstas pasilėko, nórs jõ taip_jau nebereikejo 'Only the tower remained, although that was also no longer necessary'.
  • Kād ir labai noretum, negáutum 'Even if you would like (it) a lot you would not get (it)'.
  • Jéi(gu) visė ateitu, gãli neuztčkti vietos 'If everybody came there would not be enough space (for all)'.

The archaic idant 'in order (that)' is used rarely. Kadángi 'because' is limited to formal discourse (preference is given to nčs). Generally it is found as the first word of a sentence:

  • Kadángi sė informãcija bųvo gautā per velai, jė nebųs isspáusdinta rýtdienos laikrastyje
  • Sė informãcija nebųs isspáusdinta rýtdienos laikrastyje, nčs jė gautā per velai
  • Since this information was received too late, it will not be published in tomorrow's newspaper'.

The subordinating conjunction kād is polyfunctional. It may subordinate different types of subordinate clauses:

  • Bčt bókstas ir siandien dár nezėno, kād jės nebereikalėngas 'But the tower even today doesn't realize that it is no longer necessary'.
  • Siandien jõ plysiúotos síenos nč tám, kād lietųviai, ciā pasislepe, sáudytu sāvo strelemės i neātmusamus príesus 'Today its fissured walls are not there for Lithuanians, who, hidden here, could shoot their arrows at unstoppable enemies'.
  • suklýdau del tõ, kād suabejójau savimė 'I made a mistake because I entertained doubts about myself'.

Jóg is mostly used as a synonym of kād:

  • Paprasiau, kād jės visíems primintu, jóg (kād) reikia pasiimti maisto
  • 'I asked him to remind everybody about taking some food'.

Pronouns and adverbs are also used to connect clauses, e.g.:

  • Baisus bųvo kitė naikėnimo lãgeriai, kur, budavo, ātveza kãlini ir tuojau nuzųdo 'The other extermination camps, where they brought in a prisoner and immediately killed (him), were atrocious, too'.
  • Dabar niekas negãli tiksliai pasakýti, kã galvójo musu próteviai gárbindami azuolus 'Today nobody can tell exactly what our ancestors were thinking about while worshiping oaks'.
30.2. The Particles

A great number of various particles are used in Lithuanian. They give modal or emotional emphasis to other words, or word groups, or clauses. Some of them have several meanings, e.g., tėk limits, singles out, or intensifies the meaning of a word:

  • Ės siõs kebliõs padeties issisųkti pavyko tėk Sėmui 'Only Simas succeeded in getting out of this embarrassing situation'.
  • Ās tėk truputeli pamastýsiu ir apsispresiu 'I will think only a little bit and will decide'.
  • Tėk pamegėnk vel ten nueiti! 'Just you try to go there again!'

With respect to their structure, particles may be simple (e.g., jau 'already', dár 'yet', vel 'again'), compound (e.g., konč 'almost', argi 'really', nebent 'if only'), or complex (e.g., kad_ir 'even', ar_nč 'isn't it', víen_tik 'just only').

A number of particles have the same form as conjunctions (e.g., kād 'that', ir 'and'), adverbs (e.g., ciā 'here', taip 'thus, so') or pronouns (e.g., sáu, kuõ 'what'):

  • Õ jė visái nieko sáu 'She is not so bad'.
  • Kate kād sõks ant jõ 'The cat suddenly jumped on him'.

The negative and the interrogative particles were discussed in Lesson 2 and Lesson 3.

The most popular specifying and limiting particles are bevéik 'almost', per 'too', võs 'hardly', dár 'yet', jau 'already', nčt 'even', vel 'again', pāt 'right', tėk 'only' etc., e.g.:

  • Õ treciāsis galimųmas tuõ metų jám bųvo dár tėk pradejes aisketi 'But at that moment the third possibility just began to become clear'.
  • Siandien jau niekam nebereikia tõ bóksto sargýbos 'Today nobody needs the protection of that tower any more'.
  • Tėk bókstas pasilėko, nórs jõ taip_jau nebereikejo 'Only the tower remained, although that was also unnecessary'.

Comparative particles lýg 'like, as if', tarsi, tarýtum, tarsi 'as if, as though' express comparison and doubt at the same time, e.g.:

  • Õ tai girdisi lýg kād senis svepliótu 'But it sounds like a lisping old man'.
  • Jám tarsi atsivere ãkys 'It seemed as if his eyes opened'.

There are two optative particles tegų(l) and 'let', e.g.:

  • Tegų visųs jųs lydi sekme 'May success accompany all of you'.
  • Tegųl jės pasãko, kõ ės tikruju nóri 'Let him say what he really wants'.

Emphatic particles , jųk, ir are used to emphasize a word or clause, e.g.:

  • Bčt mes gė nieko nezinójome 'But we still knew nothing'.
  • Jųk tai ir bč zõdziu áisku 'But that is clear without words'.
  • Ir jus ciā esat iveltė 'Even you are involved here'.