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Old Norse Online

Lesson 6

Todd B. Krause and Jonathan Slocum

Viking Skills

Though ostensibly ruffians from the viewpoint of those they invaded, the Vikings nevertheless had a more cultured and refined aspect to their way of life when at home. When we consider the volume of Old Norse literature, it becomes clear that their culture highly prized, if not writing itself, at least stories artistically wrought and poetry of great complexity. But from the stories themselves we find other skills and amusements which were highly esteemed. A passage from Earl Rognvald of the Orkneys (1135-58) lists them clearly:

    "There are nine skills known to me --
    At 'tables' I play ably;
    Rarely I run out of runes;
    Reading, smith-craft, both come ready;
    I can skim the ground on skis,
    Wield a bow, do well in rowing;
    To both arts I can bend my mind:
    Poet's lay and harper's playing."
    (trans. Jacqueline Simpson)

It is not altogether clear what is meant by 'tables'. Some render the term 'draughts', but this game probably came to Europe later than would be fitting for many of the references in Old Norse literature. The term was likely a catch-all for several different games, many of which seem to have specific names in Old Norse formed as compound words. Game pieces are found in many Scandinavian graves, but it is rarely clear if the set is complete, and, if so, how it was used. One game board found in Balinderry consists of a seven by seven array of holes in which bone pegs were placed.

The topic of 'runes' inevitably leads to great mystery and speculation. In many contexts, this seems to be a natural result of a deliberate veil of secrecy on the part of the Scandinavians, since the runes were intimately bound with magical rituals of various sorts. But not always. The earliest runic inscriptions in the Germanic speaking community employed an alphabet of some 24 characters, but later this was reduced to 16. Their origin is typically ascribed to divine intervention, as is true of writing in many cultures -- in Norse culture authority is ascribed to Odin. Rognvald's phrasing suggests that 'runes' be interpreted as 'spell', so that his implication is that he knows a wealth of incantations of all sorts. But a more strictly utilitarian interpretation is possible, since by that time runes were used in more pedestrian situations. Often runes were employed for burial inscriptions, or even for marks of ownership such as 'this belongs to...'. In this sense, Rognvald's statement may merely refer to knowledge of the alphabet.

It is telling, nevertheless, that 'reading' is not equated with runes. This comes as no surprise, since we find no sagas or the like etched out in runes. But it lends credence to the idea that 'runes' is better understood as 'spells', since 'reading' itself implies 'knowing an alphabet' (of whatever sort). (See Lesson 10 for more about runes.)

'Smith-craft' properly includes a whole host of skills, and it is not clear if Rognvald meant any one in particular. Excavations show clear remnants of metal-working, wood-carving, carpentry, and bone-carving, among others. The most finely wrought examples certainly would have been made by professional craftsmen, but especially those relating to carving readily available materials such as wood or bone could be expected to be practiced by the non-professional with some high degree of skill. Metal weapons with intricately carved designs are a common reference in the earliest Germanic literature, highly valued and often magically created. But intricate designs are also found in the woodwork of homes, on roof-posts and wall panels. Several picture-stones in Gotland contain figures carved in relief, with background and foreground originally painted in various colors.

Skiing, archery, and rowing. Certainly there is no surprise when such physical prowess is listed among the essential skills of Scandinavian culture. One wonders why these in particular were singled out by Rognvald, when certainly other physical contests were also popular. Wrestling was a common sport, evidently practiced at times in a fairly brutal fashion if we are to take anything from the story of two wrestlers who heartily thanked Grettir for the bloody beating they received at his hands. One may suspect, however, that a skill such as archery, though originally cultivated for deadly results, may have been elevated above such a utilitarian purpose and its more exacting nuances deemed an esoteric skill worthy of devoted practice. Similar ideas about archery are found in cultures of the Far East. Perhaps skiing and rowing were held in a similar regard.

Fortunately poetry and recitation were skills of extreme importance in Scandinavian culture. Were they not, this series of lessons would be quite a bit thinner. Early on, and apparently throughout Scandinavian culture, poetic composition and recitation was a professional occupation, the purview of sklds, or 'court poets'. Remnants of this era are presevered in quotes scattered throughout the literature. But as the heyday of the court poet was nearing its end, Snorri produced the Skldskaparml, or 'Treatise on Poetic Composition'. This work gives a detailed description of the technical principles underlying skaldic poetry, and it can be stated with little exaggeration that this literature was among the most complex achieved anywhere in Europe. What is more, Snorri adds a wealth of pertinent mythological information, since by this time, the poetic skill had become so ornate that the allusions made were often confusing or unknown to the listener of Snorri's time. The skalds had cultivated a penchant for 'kennings', whereby a sentiment such as 'the generous king gave me a gold arm-ring' was conveyed by 'the scatterer of riches hung the burden of Grani upon the falcon's tree'. The intended meaning only becomes clear if one knows that Sigurd's horse Grani toted gold from a dragon's lair, and that the 'falcon's tree' is a man's forearm, where the falcon comes to rest.

Poetry by Snorri's time, however, was not solely meant for professionals. Noblemen often displayed an affinity for composing verse, all the more interesting because some of the instances occur on the battlefield. The verses might encapsulate a boast, or even a prediction of doom. And as in the story of Egil, it is clear that a well-composed poem eloquently delivered at the right moment might just save your neck.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The following selection comes from Hrlfs saga, which dates to some time in the late 14th century. The saga contains remnants of the legend of the Skjldungs, known as the Scyldings in the epic Beowulf. Their story is not told in the poetic style of Beowulf, but rather in a much more direct and viscerally entertaining narrative style. Emphasis is placed on amusing anecdote, rather than on the pan-Germanic theme of tragic heroism. The episode of Bvarr Bjarki at the Danish court is linked by many researchers to the story of Beowulf at Hrothgar's court. In each story the hero arrives to rid the court of the beast which has been ravaging the land.

In the passage below, Bvarr comes to Hrlf's court after staying with a peasant couple living in the area. The couple tells of their son, Httr, who is up at the court and has been continually harassed by Hrlf's retainers. They have taken up the habit of throwing bones at the poor youth. The peasant couple asks that, in return for their hospitality, Bvarr should only throw small bones at their son, so as not to excessively hurt the boy.

The present tense is used throughout the Old Norse passage to lend dramatic effect to the narrative. Old Norse tolerates this sort of historical present much more than Modern English. The translation therefore usually renders present tense verbs by past tenses, though the English present is employed in certain situations where it seems natural.

San fr Bvarr lei sna til Hleiargars. hann kmr til konungs atsetu. Bvarr leiir san hest sinn stall hj konungs hestum hinum beztu ok spyrr engan at; gekk san inn hllina, ok var ar ftt manna.

  • san -- adverb; <san> afterwards, since then -- then
  • fr -- verb; 3rd singular past of <fara> fare, happen, turn out; go, move, travel -- made
  • Bvarr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • lei -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <lei> way, journey; road, path; manner, fashion -- way
  • sna -- possessive adjective; accusative singular feminine of <snn> own, one's own -- his
  • til -- preposition; <til> in; of, concerning; on; as, for, to obtain; until, to, up to the time -- to
  • Hleiargars -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Hleiargarr> Hleithargarth, Lejre -- Hleithargarth
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • kmr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <koma> come, arrive; reach; obtain; occur -- came
  • til -- preposition; <til> in; of, concerning; on; as, for, to obtain; until, to, up to the time -- to
  • konungs -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <konungr> king -- the king's
  • atsetu -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <atseta> residence -- residence
  • Bvarr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • leiir -- verb; 3rd singular present of <leia (dd)> lead -- led
  • san -- adverb; <san> afterwards, since then -- then
  • hest -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <hestr> stallion, horse -- horse
  • sinn -- possessive adjective; accusative singular masculine of <snn> own, one's own -- his
  • -- preposition; <> on, upon; at, in; to, towards; by means of; during; in the manner of -- to
  • stall -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <stallr> stall; perch (for hawks) -- the stall
  • hj -- preposition; <hj> beside, at the side of; compared with; close by -- near
  • konungs -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <konungr> king -- the king's
  • hestum -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <hestr> stallion, horse -- horses
  • hinum -- demonstrative used as adjective; dative plural masculine of <hinn> this one; that; the -- ...
  • beztu -- adjective; weak <beztr> best -- best # weak dat. pl. -u is a Norwegian innovation which is also found in late Old Icelandic
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • spyrr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <spyrja (spuri)> trace, find out (about); hear; ask -- asked
  • engan -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <engi> no, none, no one -- no one
  • at -- preposition; <at> to, towards, against; at, in; from; according to; regarding; concerning; after -- about (it)
  • gekk -- verb; 3rd singular past of <ganga> go, walk; advance; take place; extend; go on, last; turn out -- he went
  • san -- adverb; <san> afterwards, since then -- then
  • inn -- adverb; <inn> in, within -- ...
  • -- preposition; <> in, within; among; during; into, onto -- into
  • hllina -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <hll> hall + definite article; accusative singular feminine of <inn> the -- the hall
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- ...
  • var -- verb; 3rd singular past of <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- there were
  • ar -- adverb; <ar> there, in that place -- where
  • ftt -- adjective used as substantive; accusative singular neuter of <fr> few -- a few
  • manna -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <mar> man, person; husband; henchman -- men

Hann sezk tarliga, ok sem hann hefir verit ar ltla hr, heyrir hann rausk nkkut tar hornit einhverjum sta.

  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • sezk -- verb; 3rd singular present reflexive of <setja> set, place, put; seat; set up; establish; endow; direct; hurl; adorn -- set himself
  • tarliga -- adverb; <tarliga> far out -- at a distance
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • sem -- relative particle; <sem> as; as if, that; while; when; where -- when
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • hefir -- verb; 3rd singular present of <hafa ()> have, keep; hold; accept -- had
  • verit -- past participle; accusative singular neuter of <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- been
  • ar -- adverb; <ar> there, in that place -- there
  • ltla -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <ltill> little, short -- a little
  • hr -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <hr> while, time; storm, attack -- while
  • heyrir -- verb; 3rd singular present of <heyra ()> hear, hear of -- heard
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • rausk -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <rausk> rummaging -- rummaging
  • nkkut -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <nakkvarr, nkkurr> a, a certain; any -- some
  • tar -- comparative adverb; <tar> farther out -- over
  • -- preposition; <> in, within; among; during; into, onto -- in
  • hornit -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <horn> horn; drinking horn; corner + definite article; accusative singular neuter of <inn> the -- the corner
  • -- preposition; <> in, within; among; during; into, onto -- in
  • einhverjum -- adjective; dative singular masculine of <einnhverr> a certain, some, any -- a certain
  • sta -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <star> place, spot, dwelling; part; way, respect -- spot

Bvarr ltr angat ok sr at mannshnd kmr upp r mikilli beinahrgu, er ar l; hndin var svrt mjk. Bvarr gengr angat til ok spyrr hverr ar vri beinahrgunni.

  • Bvarr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • ltr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <lta> look; see; regard -- looked
  • angat -- adverb; <angat> thither -- there
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • sr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <sj> see, perceive; find; understand; look -- saw
  • at -- conjunction; <at> that -- that
  • mannshnd -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <mar> man, person; husband; henchman + noun, feminine; accusative singular of <hnd> hand, arm and hand; side, part -- a man's hand
  • kmr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <koma> come, arrive; reach; obtain; occur -- was coming
  • upp -- adverb; <upp> up -- up
  • r -- preposition; <r> out of, from; of; with the material of -- out of
  • mikilli -- adjective; dative singular feminine of <mikill> great, large, big; severe -- a great
  • beinahrgu -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <beinahrga> heap of bones -- pile of bones
  • er -- relative particle; <er> who, which; when -- which
  • ar -- adverb; <ar> there, in that place -- there
  • l -- verb; 3rd singular past of <liggja> be situated; lie (down); be slain -- was lying
  • hndin -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <hnd> hand, arm and hand; side, part + definite article; nominative singular feminine of <inn> the -- the hand
  • var -- verb; 3rd singular past of <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- was
  • svrt -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <svartr> black -- black
  • mjk -- adverb; <mjk> much; very -- quite
  • Bvarr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • gengr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <ganga> go, walk; advance; take place; extend; go on, last; turn out -- went
  • angat -- adverb; <angat> thither -- ...
  • til -- preposition; <til> in; of, concerning; on; as, for, to obtain; until, to, up to the time -- over
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • spyrr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <spyrja (spuri)> trace, find out (about); hear; ask -- asked
  • hverr -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hverr> who, which, what; each, every -- who
  • ar -- adverb; <ar> there, in that place -- there
  • vri -- verb; 3rd singular past subjunctive of <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- was
  • -- preposition; <> in, within; among; during; into, onto -- in
  • beinahrgunni -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <beinahrga> heap of bones + definite article; dative singular feminine of <inn> the -- the bone pile

var honum svarat ok heldr framliga: "Httr heiti ek, bokki sll." "Hv ertu hr", segir Bvarr, "ea hvat grir ?" Httr segir, "Ek gri mr skjaldborg, bokki sll."

  • -- adverb; <> then -- then
  • var -- verb; 3rd singular past of <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- came
  • honum -- demonstrative used as pronoun; dative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- ...
  • svarat -- past participle; nominative singular neuter of <svara (a)> answer -- a reply
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- ...
  • heldr -- adverb; <heldr> rather, any the more -- rather
  • framliga -- adverb; <framliga> timidly -- timidly
  • Httr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Httr> Hott -- Hott
  • heiti -- verb; 1st singular present of <heita> to call, name; promise; be called, be named -- am called # See Section 36 for 1st sg. ending in -i.
  • ek -- pronoun; nominative singular of <ek> I -- I
  • bokki -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <bokki> buck; fellow -- sir
  • sll -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <sll> fortunate, happy -- dear
  • hv -- interrogative adverb; <hv> why? -- why
  • ertu -- verb; 2nd singular present of <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- are you # ertu = ert +
  • hr -- adverb; <hr> here -- here
  • segir -- verb; 3rd singular present of <segja (saga)> say, speak; tell, tell of; relate -- said
  • Bvarr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • ea -- conjunction; <ea> or; and; but -- and
  • hvat -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <hverr> who, which, what; each, every -- what
  • grir -- verb; 2nd singular present of <gra> make, build; write, compose -- are... doing
  • -- pronoun; nominative singular of <> thou, you -- you
  • Httr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Httr> Hott -- Hott
  • segir -- verb; 3rd singular present of <segja (saga)> say, speak; tell, tell of; relate -- said
  • ek -- pronoun; nominative singular of <ek> I -- I
  • gri -- verb; 1st singular present of <gra> make, build; write, compose -- am arranging
  • mr -- pronoun; dative singular of <ek> I -- for myself
  • skjaldborg -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <skjaldborg> wall of shields; protection -- protection
  • bokki -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <bokki> buck; fellow -- sir
  • sll -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <sll> fortunate, happy -- dear

Bvarr sagi, "Vesall ertu innar skjaldborgar!" Bvarr rfir til hans ok hnykkir honum upp r beinahrgunni.

  • Bvarr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • sagi -- verb; 3rd singular past of <segja (saga)> say, speak; tell, tell of; relate -- said
  • vesall -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <vesall> wretched, miserable -- pitiful
  • ertu -- verb; 2nd singular present of <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- you're # ertu = ert +
  • innar -- possessive adjective; genitive singular feminine of <inn> thy, thine, of you -- yourself
  • skjaldborgar -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <skjaldborg> wall of shields; protection -- protecting
  • Bvarr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • rfir -- verb; 3rd singular present of <rfa> grasp -- seized
  • til -- preposition; <til> in; of, concerning; on; as, for, to obtain; until, to, up to the time -- ...
  • hans -- demonstrative used as pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <hann> this one -- him
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • hnykkir -- verb; 3rd singular present of <hnykkja (, t)> pull violently -- snatched
  • honum -- demonstrative used as pronoun; dative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- him
  • upp -- adverb; <upp> up -- up
  • r -- preposition; <r> out of, from; of; with the material of -- out of
  • beinahrgunni -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <beinahrga> heap of bones + definite article; dative singular feminine of <inn> the -- the bone pile

Httr kva htt vi ok mlti, "N viltu mr bana! Gr eigi etta, sv sem ek hefi n vel um bizk r, en hefir n rtat sundr skjaldborg minni, ok hafa ek n sv grt hana hva tan at mr, at hon hefir hlft mr vi llum hggum ykkar, sv at engi hgg hafa komit mik lengi, en ekki var hon enn sv bin sem ek tlai hon skyldi vera."

  • Httr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Httr> Hott -- Hott
  • kva -- verb; 3rd singular past of <kvea> say, declare; utter, say in verse; recite; utter a cry -- cried
  • -- adverb; <> then -- ...
  • htt -- adjective used as substantive; accusative singular neuter of <hr> tall, high; loud -- loud
  • vi -- preposition; <vi> reaching to, against, with; towards, at; in exchange for; by; (together) with, close to; because of -- ...
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • mlti -- verb; 3rd singular past of <mla (t)> speak -- said
  • n -- adverb; <n> now -- now
  • viltu -- verb; 2nd singular present of <vilja> will, wish, be willing; intend -- you'll # viltu = vilt +
  • mr -- pronoun; dative singular of <ek> I -- to me
  • bana -- verb; infinitive of <bana (a)> kill -- kill
  • gr -- verb; 2nd singular imperative of <gra> make, build; write, compose -- do-...do
  • eigi -- adverb; <eigi> not -- -n't
  • etta -- demonstrative used as pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <sj> this -- that
  • sv -- adverb; <sv> so, thus, in this way; also; as, as if -- ...
  • sem -- relative particle; <sem> as; as if, that; while; when; where -- ...
  • ek -- pronoun; nominative singular of <ek> I -- I
  • hefi -- verb; 1st singular present of <hafa ()> have, keep; hold; accept -- was
  • n -- adverb; <n> now -- just
  • vel -- adverb; <vel> well, readily, easily -- quite
  • um -- preposition; <um> over, across; through, throughout; round, about; concerning -- ...
  • bizk -- past participle; accusative singular neuter middle of <ba> be ready, prepare, secure -- secure
  • r -- adverb; <r> before, first; until -- before
  • en -- conjunction; <en> but, and; than -- but
  • -- pronoun; nominative singular of <> thou, you -- you
  • hefir -- verb; 2nd singular present of <hafa ()> have, keep; hold; accept -- have
  • n -- adverb; <n> now -- now
  • rtat -- past participle; accusative singular neuter of <rta (a)> throw into disorder, upset -- thrown
  • -- preposition; <> in, within; among; during; into, onto -- ...
  • sundr -- adverb; <sundr> asunder -- asunder
  • skjaldborg -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <skjaldborg> wall of shields; protection -- protecting
  • minni -- possessive adjective; dative singular feminine of <minn> my, mine, of me -- my
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • hafa -- verb; infinitive of <hafa ()> have, keep; hold; accept -- had
  • ek -- pronoun; nominative singular of <ek> I -- I
  • n -- adverb; <n> now -- just
  • sv -- adverb; <sv> so, thus, in this way; also; as, as if -- so
  • grt -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <grr (van)> made, built; done; ready; sent; done for, finished off -- made # grr is used as the past participle of gra
  • hana -- demonstrative used as pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <hann> this one -- it
  • hva -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <hr> tall, high; loud -- high
  • tan -- preposition; <tan> outside (of); beyond; without -- ...
  • at -- preposition; <at> to, towards, against; at, in; from; according to; regarding; concerning; after -- about
  • mr -- pronoun; dative singular of <ek> I -- me
  • at -- conjunction; <at> that -- that
  • hon -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <hann> this one -- it
  • hefir -- verb; 3rd singular present of <hafa ()> have, keep; hold; accept -- had
  • hlft -- past participle; accusative singular neuter of <hlfa ()> shelter, protect -- protected
  • mr -- pronoun; dative singular of <ek> I -- me
  • vi -- preposition; <vi> reaching to, against, with; towards, at; in exchange for; by; (together) with, close to; because of -- against
  • llum -- adjective; dative plural neuter of <allr> all, whole; every -- all
  • hggum -- noun, neuter; dative plural of <hgg> stroke, blow -- blows
  • ykkar -- pronoun; genitive dual of <> thou, you -- your
  • sv -- adverb; <sv> so, thus, in this way; also; as, as if -- so
  • at -- conjunction; <at> that -- ...
  • engi -- pronoun; nominative plural neuter of <engi> no, none, no one -- no
  • hgg -- noun, neuter; nominative plural of <hgg> stroke, blow -- strikes
  • hafa -- verb; 3rd plural present of <hafa ()> have, keep; hold; accept -- had
  • komit -- past participle; accusative singular neuter of <koma> come, arrive; reach; obtain; occur -- landed
  • -- preposition; <> on, upon; at, in; to, towards; by means of; during; in the manner of -- on
  • mik -- pronoun; accusative singular of <ek> I -- me
  • lengi -- adverb; <lengi> long; far; for a long time -- for some time
  • en -- conjunction; <en> but, and; than -- though
  • ekki -- adverb; <ekki> not, by no means -- not
  • var -- verb; 3rd singular past of <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- was
  • hon -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <hann> this one -- it
  • enn -- adverb; <enn> still; also; yet; further; again; moreover; even -- ...
  • sv -- adverb; <sv> so, thus, in this way; also; as, as if -- so
  • bin -- past participle; nominative singular feminine of <ba> be ready, prepare, secure -- secure
  • sem -- relative particle; <sem> as; as if, that; while; when; where -- as
  • ek -- pronoun; nominative singular of <ek> I -- I
  • tlai -- verb; 1st singular past of <tla (a)> think, consider (to be); expect, look for; intend (to do) -- had intended # a\tlad/i instead of expected a\tlad/a
  • hon -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <hann> this one -- it
  • skyldi -- verb; 3rd singular past subjunctive of <skulu> shall, must, ought -- should
  • vera -- verb; infinitive of <vera> happen, come to pass; befall; chance to be; become -- be

Bvarr mlti: "Ekki muntu f skjaldborgina lengr." Httr mlti ok grt: "Skaltu n bana mr, bokki sll?"

  • Bvarr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • mlti -- verb; 3rd singular past of <mla (t)> speak -- said
  • ekki -- adverb; <ekki> not, by no means -- no
  • muntu -- verb; 2nd singular present of <munu> will, be about to; will be; must; might -- you'll # muntu = munt +
  • f -- verb; infinitive of <f> get, take; catch; have, make use of; put; give; receive; suffer; (with ppart.) be able to, get accomplished; (mid.) take place; struggle -- have use of
  • skjaldborgina -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <skjaldborg> wall of shields; protection + definite article; accusative singular feminine of <inn> the -- this protection
  • lengr -- adverb; comparative of <lengi> long; far; for a long time -- longer
  • Httr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Httr> Hott -- Hott
  • mlti -- verb; 3rd singular past of <mla (t)> speak -- said
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • grt -- verb; 3rd singular past of <grta> weep -- wept
  • skaltu -- verb; 2nd singular present of <skulu> shall, must, ought -- will you # skaltu = skalt +
  • n -- adverb; <n> now -- now
  • bana -- verb; infinitive of <bana (a)> kill -- kill
  • mr -- pronoun; dative singular of <ek> I -- me
  • bokki -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <bokki> buck; fellow -- sir
  • sll -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <sll> fortunate, happy -- dear

Bvarr ba hann ekki hafa htt, tk hann upp san ok bar hann t r hllinni ok til vatns nkkurs sem ar var nnd, ok gfu fir at essu gaum, ok hann upp allan.

  • Bvarr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • ba -- verb; 3rd singular past of <bija> ask; beg; pray; bid -- told
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- him
  • ekki -- adverb; <ekki> not, by no means -- not
  • hafa -- verb; infinitive of <hafa ()> have, keep; hold; accept -- to be
  • htt -- adjective used as substantive; accusative singular neuter of <hr> tall, high; loud -- so loud
  • tk -- verb; 3rd singular past of <taka> take, take hold of; seize, capture; take to oneself, undertake; choose; accept, receive; begin (with infin.); reach, touch, strike against; happen, come to pass -- took
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- him
  • upp -- adverb; <upp> up -- up
  • san -- adverb; <san> afterwards, since then -- then
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • bar -- verb; 3rd singular past of <bera> bear, bring, carry; wear; give birth to; overcome; endure; bear (witness) -- carried
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- him
  • t -- adverb; <t> out; from abroad -- out
  • r -- preposition; <r> out of, from; of; with the material of -- of
  • hllinni -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <hll> hall + definite article; dative singular feminine of <inn> the -- the hall
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • til -- preposition; <til> in; of, concerning; on; as, for, to obtain; until, to, up to the time -- to
  • vatns -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <vatn> water; lake; waterway; river -- water
  • nkkurs -- adjective; genitive singular neuter of <nakkvarr, nkkurr> a, a certain; any -- some
  • sem -- relative particle; <sem> as; as if, that; while; when; where -- which
  • ar -- adverb; <ar> there, in that place -- ...
  • var -- verb; 3rd singular past of <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- was
  • -- preposition; <> in, within; among; during; into, onto -- ...
  • nnd -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <nnd> proximity -- nearby
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- ...
  • gfu -- verb; 3rd plural past of <gefa> give; give in marriage; (impers.) be obtainable -- took
  • fir -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <fr> few -- few
  • at -- preposition; <at> to, towards, against; at, in; from; according to; regarding; concerning; after -- of
  • essu -- demonstrative used as pronoun; dative singular neuter of <sj> this -- this
  • gaum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <gaumr> heed, attention -- notice
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • -- verb; 3rd singular past of <v> wash -- washed
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- him
  • upp -- adverb; <upp> up -- up
  • allan -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <allr> all, whole; every -- all

San gekk Bvarr til ess rms sem hann hafi r tekit, ok leiddi eptir sr Htt ok ar setr hann Htt hj sr. En hann er sv hrddr at skelfr honum leggr ok lir, en ykkisk hann skilja at essi mar vill hjlpa sr.

  • san -- adverb; <san> afterwards, since then -- then
  • gekk -- verb; 3rd singular past of <ganga> go, walk; advance; take place; extend; go on, last; turn out -- went (back)
  • Bvarr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • til -- preposition; <til> in; of, concerning; on; as, for, to obtain; until, to, up to the time -- to
  • ess -- demonstrative used as pronoun; genitive singular neuter of <s> that -- the
  • rms -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <rm> room, space; seat; bed -- place
  • sem -- relative particle; <sem> as; as if, that; while; when; where -- which
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • hafi -- verb; 3rd singular past of <hafa ()> have, keep; hold; accept -- had
  • r -- adverb; <r> before, first; until -- before
  • tekit -- past participle; accusative singular neuter of <taka> take, take hold of; seize, capture; take to oneself, undertake; choose; accept, receive; begin (with infin.); reach, touch, strike against; happen, come to pass -- taken up
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • leiddi -- verb; 3rd singular past of <leia (dd)> lead -- led
  • eptir -- preposition; <eptir> after, behind; for, to obtain; along; according to; in succession to -- behind
  • sr -- reflexive pronoun; dative of <sik> him-, her-, it-self; them-selves; one-self -- him
  • Htt -- proper noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Httr> Hott -- Hott
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • ar -- adverb; <ar> there, in that place -- ...
  • setr -- verb; 3rd singular present reflexive of <setja> set, place, put; seat; set up; establish; endow; direct; hurl; adorn -- set
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- ...
  • Htt -- proper noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Httr> Hott -- Hott
  • hj -- preposition; <hj> beside, at the side of; compared with; close by -- next to
  • sr -- reflexive pronoun; dative of <sik> him-, her-, it-self; them-selves; one-self -- himself
  • en -- conjunction; <en> but, and; than -- but
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • er -- verb; 3rd singular present of <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- was
  • sv -- adverb; <sv> so, thus, in this way; also; as, as if -- so
  • hrddr -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <hrddr> afraid, frightened -- frightened
  • at -- conjunction; <at> that -- that
  • skelfr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <skjlfa> shake, tremble -- shook
  • -- preposition; <> on, upon; at, in; to, towards; by means of; during; in the manner of -- ...
  • honum -- demonstrative used as pronoun; dative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- his
  • leggr -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <leggr> hollow bone (of arms and legs); leg -- limbs
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • lir -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <lir> joint -- joints
  • en -- conjunction; <en> but, and; than -- even
  • -- adverb; <> yet, and yet; however, nevertheless -- though
  • ykkisk -- verb; 3rd singular present middle of <ykkja (tti)> seem, be thought -- seemed # form could be either indicative or subjunctive
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • skilja -- verb; infinitive of <skilja (, d)> divide, separate; disband; understand, perceive -- to understand
  • at -- conjunction; <at> that -- that
  • essi -- demonstrative used as adjective; nominative singular masculine of <sj> this -- this
  • mar -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <mar> man, person; husband; henchman -- man
  • vill -- verb; 3rd singular present of <vilja> will, wish, be willing; intend -- would
  • hjlpa -- verb; infinitive of <hjlpa> help -- help
  • sr -- reflexive pronoun; dative of <sik> him-, her-, it-self; them-selves; one-self -- him

Eptir at kveldar ok drfa menn hllina ok sj Hrlfs kappar at Httr er settr bekk upp, ok ykkir eim s mar hafa grt sik rit djarfan, er etta hefir til tekit.

  • eptir -- preposition; <eptir> after, behind; for, to obtain; along; according to; in succession to -- soon
  • at -- demonstrative used as pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <s> that -- ...
  • kveldar -- verb; 3rd singular present of <kvelda (a)> (impers.) evening draws in -- evening came on
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • drfa -- verb; 3rd plural present of <drfa> drive; crowd, throng; rush -- entered
  • menn -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <mar> man, person; husband; henchman -- men
  • -- preposition; <> in, within; among; during; into, onto -- ...
  • hllina -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <hll> hall + definite article; accusative singular feminine of <inn> the -- the hall
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • sj -- verb; 3rd plural present of <sj> see, perceive; find; understand; look -- see
  • Hrlfs -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Hrlfr> Hrolf -- Hrolf's
  • kappar -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <kappi> champion, hero -- troop
  • at -- conjunction; <at> that -- that
  • Httr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Httr> Hott -- Hott
  • er -- verb; 3rd singular present of <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- was
  • settr -- past participle; nominative singular masculine of <setja> set, place, put; seat; set up; establish; endow; direct; hurl; adorn -- set
  • -- preposition; <> on, upon; at, in; to, towards; by means of; during; in the manner of -- on
  • bekk -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <bekkr> bench -- a bench
  • upp -- adverb; <upp> up -- up
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • ykkir -- verb; 3rd singular present of <ykkja (tti)> seem, be thought -- (it) seemed... (that)
  • eim -- demonstrative used as pronoun; dative plural neuter of <s> that -- to them
  • s -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <s> that -- this
  • mar -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <mar> man, person; husband; henchman -- man
  • hafa -- verb; infinitive of <hafa ()> have, keep; hold; accept -- had
  • grt -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <grr (van)> made, built; done; ready; sent; done for, finished off -- become # grr is used as the past participle of gra
  • sik -- reflexive pronoun; accusative of <sik> him-, her-, it-self; them-selves; one-self -- ...
  • rit -- adjective used as substantive; accusative singular neuter of <rinn> sufficient, enough -- rather
  • djarfan -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <djarfr> bold, daring -- daring
  • er -- relative particle; <er> who, which; when -- ...
  • etta -- demonstrative used as pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <sj> this -- so
  • hefir -- verb; 3rd singular present of <hafa ()> have, keep; hold; accept -- to have
  • til -- preposition; <til> in; of, concerning; on; as, for, to obtain; until, to, up to the time -- ...
  • tekit -- past participle; accusative singular neuter of <taka> take, take hold of; seize, capture; take to oneself, undertake; choose; accept, receive; begin (with infin.); reach, touch, strike against; happen, come to pass -- done

Ilt tillit hefir Httr, er hann sr kunningja sna, v at hann hefir ilt eitt at eim reynt; hann vill lifa gjarnan ok fara aptr beinahrgu sna, en Bvarr heldr honum, sv at hann nir ekki brottu at fara, v at hann ttisk ekki jafnberr fyrir hggum eira, ef hann ni angat at komask, sem hann er n.

  • ilt -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <illr> bad, evil; ugly, unpleasing; difficult -- of contempt
  • tillit -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <tillit> glance, look -- an expression
  • hefir -- verb; 3rd singular present of <hafa ()> have, keep; hold; accept -- made
  • Httr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Httr> Hott -- Hott
  • -- adverb; <> then -- ...
  • er -- relative particle; <er> who, which; when -- when
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • sr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <sj> see, perceive; find; understand; look -- saw
  • kunningja -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <kunningi> acquiantance -- acquaintances
  • sna -- possessive adjective; accusative plural masculine of <snn> own, one's own -- his
  • v -- demonstrative used as pronoun; dative singular neuter of <s> that -- ...
  • at -- conjunction; <at> that -- since
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • hefir -- verb; 3rd singular present of <hafa ()> have, keep; hold; accept -- had
  • ilt -- adjective used as substantive; accusative singular neuter of <illr> bad, evil; ugly, unpleasing; difficult -- ill
  • eitt -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <einn> one; a certain, particular -- ...
  • at -- preposition; <at> to, towards, against; at, in; from; according to; regarding; concerning; after -- at... (hands)
  • eim -- demonstrative used as pronoun; dative plural neuter of <s> that -- their
  • reynt -- past participle; accusative singular neuter of <reyna (d)> try, prove -- met
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • vill -- verb; 3rd singular present of <vilja> will, wish, be willing; intend -- was
  • lifa -- verb; infinitive of <lifa ()> live -- to leave
  • gjarnan -- adverb; <gjarna, gjarnan> willingly -- eager
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • fara -- verb; infinitive of <fara> fare, happen, turn out; go, move, travel -- go
  • aptr -- adverb; <aptr> back; aft -- back
  • -- preposition; <> in, within; among; during; into, onto -- to
  • beinahrgu -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <beinahrga> heap of bones -- bone pile
  • sna -- possessive adjective; accusative singular feminine of <snn> own, one's own -- his
  • en -- conjunction; <en> but, and; than -- but
  • Bvarr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • heldr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <halda> hold; hold fast, grip; keep; steer; protect; last, hold good, remain -- held
  • honum -- demonstrative used as pronoun; dative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- him
  • sv -- adverb; <sv> so, thus, in this way; also; as, as if -- so
  • at -- conjunction; <at> that -- ...
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • nir -- verb; 3rd singular present of <n ()> get, obtain -- could
  • ekki -- adverb; <ekki> not, by no means -- -n't
  • -- preposition; <> in, within; among; during; into, onto -- a-
  • brottu -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <braut> road -- -way
  • at -- preposition; <at> to, towards, against; at, in; from; according to; regarding; concerning; after -- ...
  • fara -- verb; infinitive of <fara> fare, happen, turn out; go, move, travel -- get
  • v -- demonstrative used as pronoun; dative singular neuter of <s> that -- ...
  • at -- conjunction; <at> that -- since
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • ttisk -- verb; 3rd singular past middle of <ykkja (tti)> seem, be thought -- it seemed
  • ekki -- adverb; <ekki> not, by no means -- less
  • jafnberr -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <jafnberr> equally exposed -- exposed
  • fyrir -- preposition; <fyrir> before, in front of; against; because of, for -- to
  • hggum -- noun, neuter; dative plural of <hgg> stroke, blow -- blows
  • eira -- demonstrative used as pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <s> that -- their
  • ef -- conjunction; <ef> if; whether; (to see) if; lest -- than if
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • ni -- verb; 3rd singular past subjunctive of <n ()> get, obtain -- be allowed
  • angat -- adverb; <angat> thither -- thither
  • at -- preposition; <at> to, towards, against; at, in; from; according to; regarding; concerning; after -- to
  • komask -- verb; infinitive middle of <koma> come, arrive; reach; obtain; occur -- go
  • sem -- relative particle; <sem> as; as if, that; while; when; where -- as
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • er -- verb; 3rd singular present of <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- was
  • n -- adverb; <n> now -- now

Hirmenn hafa n sama vanda, ok kasta fyrst beinum smm um vert glfit til Bvars ok Hattar. Bvarr ltr sem hann sji eigi etta.

  • hirmenn -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <hirmar> retainer -- the retainers
  • hafa -- verb; 3rd plural present of <hafa ()> have, keep; hold; accept -- took up
  • n -- adverb; <n> now -- now
  • sama -- adjective; weak accusative singular masculine of <samr> same -- their usual
  • vanda -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <vandi> custom, habit -- custom
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • kasta -- verb; 3rd plural present of <kasta (a)> cast, throw -- cast
  • fyrst -- adverb; <fyrst> first -- forth
  • beinum -- noun, neuter; dative plural of <bein> bone; ivory -- bones
  • smm -- adjective; dative plural neuter of <smr> small, little -- small
  • um -- preposition; <um> over, across; through, throughout; round, about; concerning -- across
  • vert -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <verr> athwart; adverse, contrary -- ...
  • glfit -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <glf> floor + definite article; accusative singular neuter of <inn> the -- the floor
  • til -- preposition; <til> in; of, concerning; on; as, for, to obtain; until, to, up to the time -- at
  • Bvars -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • Hattar -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Httr> Hott -- Hott
  • Bvarr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • ltr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <lta> put, place; let, allow; concede, yield; leave, leave off; lose; cause to be done, command; behave (as if); declare; sound -- acts
  • sem -- relative particle; <sem> as; as if, that; while; when; where -- as if
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • sji -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <sj> see, perceive; find; understand; look -- does... notice
  • eigi -- adverb; <eigi> not -- -n't
  • etta -- demonstrative used as pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <sj> this -- it

Httr er sv hrddr at hann tekr eigi mat n drykk, ok ykkir honum ok sem hann muni vera lostinn. Ok n mlti Httr til Bvars: "Bokki sll, n ferr at r str knta, ok mun etta tlat okkr til naua."

  • Httr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Httr> Hott -- Hott
  • er -- verb; 3rd singular present of <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- is
  • sv -- adverb; <sv> so, thus, in this way; also; as, as if -- so
  • hrddr -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <hrddr> afraid, frightened -- frightened
  • at -- conjunction; <at> that -- that
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • tekr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <taka> take, take hold of; seize, capture; take to oneself, undertake; choose; accept, receive; begin (with infin.); reach, touch, strike against; happen, come to pass -- takes
  • eigi -- adverb; <eigi> not -- neiter
  • mat -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <matr> food; meal -- food
  • n -- adverb; <n> not; nor -- nor
  • drykk -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <drykkr> draught, drink -- drink
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • ykkir -- verb; 3rd singular present of <ykkja (tti)> seem, be thought -- it seems
  • honum -- demonstrative used as pronoun; dative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- to him
  • -- adverb; <> then -- time
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • -- adverb; <> then -- again
  • sem -- relative particle; <sem> as; as if, that; while; when; where -- that
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • muni -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <munu> will, be about to; will be; must; might -- might
  • vera -- verb; infinitive of <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- get
  • lostinn -- past participle; nominative singular masculine of <ljsta> strike -- hit
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • n -- adverb; <n> now -- then
  • mlti -- verb; 3rd singular past of <mla (t)> speak -- said
  • Httr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Httr> Hott -- Hott
  • til -- preposition; <til> in; of, concerning; on; as, for, to obtain; until, to, up to the time -- to
  • Bvars -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • bokki -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <bokki> buck; fellow -- sir
  • sll -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <sll> fortunate, happy -- dear
  • n -- adverb; <n> now -- now
  • ferr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <fara> fare, happen, turn out; go, move, travel -- is coming
  • at -- preposition; <at> to, towards, against; at, in; from; according to; regarding; concerning; after -- at
  • r -- pronoun; dative singular of <> thou, you -- you
  • str -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <strr> great, huge -- a great
  • knta -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <knta> knuckle-bone -- knuckle-bone
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • mun -- verb; 3rd singular present of <munu> will, be about to; will be; must; might -- might
  • etta -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <sj> this -- it
  • tlat -- past participle; nominative singular neuter of <tla (a)> think, consider (to be); expect, look for; intend (to do) -- mean to do
  • okkr -- pronoun; accusative dual of <ek> I -- us
  • til -- preposition; <til> in; of, concerning; on; as, for, to obtain; until, to, up to the time -- ...
  • naua -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <nau(r)> distress, harm; poverty -- harm

Bvarr ba hann egja. Hann setr vi holan lfann ok tekr sv vi kntunni; ar fylgir leggrinn me. Bvarr sendi aptr kntuna ok setr ann sem kastai, ok rtt framan hann me sv harri svipan at hann fekk bana. Sl miklum tta yfir hirmennina.

  • Bvarr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • ba -- verb; 3rd singular past of <bija> ask; beg; pray; bid -- told
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- him
  • egja -- verb; infinitive of <egja (aga)> be silent -- to be quiet
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • setr -- verb; 3rd singular present reflexive of <setja> set, place, put; seat; set up; establish; endow; direct; hurl; adorn -- set
  • vi -- preposition; <vi> reaching to, against, with; towards, at; in exchange for; by; (together) with, close to; because of -- out
  • holan -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <holr> hollow -- an open
  • lfann -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <lfi> palm of the hand + definite article; accusative singular masculine of <inn> the -- palm
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • tekr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <taka> take, take hold of; seize, capture; take to oneself, undertake; choose; accept, receive; begin (with infin.); reach, touch, strike against; happen, come to pass -- received
  • sv -- adverb; <sv> so, thus, in this way; also; as, as if -- ...
  • vi -- preposition; <vi> reaching to, against, with; towards, at; in exchange for; by; (together) with, close to; because of -- ...
  • kntunni -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <knta> knuckle-bone + definite article; dative singular feminine of <inn> the -- the knuckle-bone
  • ar -- adverb; <ar> there, in that place -- ...
  • fylgir -- verb; 3rd singular present of <fylgja (g)> belong to, attend to, accompany, serve, appertain to -- followed
  • leggrinn -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <leggr> hollow bone (of arms and legs); leg + definite article; nominative singular masculine of <inn> the -- leg-bone
  • me -- preposition; <me> with; by means of; among; along -- ...
  • Bvarr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • sendi -- verb; 3rd singular past of <senda (d)> send -- sent
  • aptr -- adverb; <aptr> back; aft -- back
  • kntuna -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <knta> knuckle-bone + definite article; accusative singular feminine of <inn> the -- the knuckle-bone
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • setr -- verb; 3rd singular present reflexive of <setja> set, place, put; seat; set up; establish; endow; direct; hurl; adorn -- directed
  • -- preposition; <> on, upon; at, in; to, towards; by means of; during; in the manner of -- at
  • ann -- demonstrative used as adjective; accusative singular masculine of <s> that -- the one
  • sem -- relative particle; <sem> as; as if, that; while; when; where -- who
  • kastai -- verb; 3rd singular past of <kasta (a)> cast, throw -- threw (it)
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- ...
  • rtt -- adjective used as substantive; accusative singular neuter of <rttr> right, correct; just, fair; unswerving; direct -- straight
  • framan -- adverb; <framan> from the front side; forward -- ...
  • -- preposition; <> in, within; among; during; into, onto -- at
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- him
  • me -- preposition; <me> with; by means of; among; along -- with
  • sv -- adverb; <sv> so, thus, in this way; also; as, as if -- so
  • harri -- adjective; dative singular feminine of <harr> hard, severe, sharp -- hard
  • svipan -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <svipan> swing, sweep, blow -- a blow
  • at -- conjunction; <at> that -- that
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • fekk -- verb; 3rd singular past of <f> get, take; catch; have, make use of; put; give; receive; suffer; (with ppart.) be able to, get accomplished; (mid.) take place; struggle -- caught
  • bana -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <bani> death; cause of death, slayer -- (his) death
  • sl -- verb; 3rd singular past of <sl> smite, strike -- came
  • -- adverb; <> then -- ...
  • miklum -- adjective; dative singular masculine of <mikill> great, large, big; severe -- a great
  • tta -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <tti> fear, dread -- fear
  • yfir -- preposition; <yfir> above, over, at; across, upon -- over
  • hirmennina -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <hirmar> retainer + definite article; accusative plural masculine of <inn> the -- the retainers

Kmr n essi fregn fyrir Hrlf konung ok kappa hans upp kastalann, at mar mikilligr s kominn til hallarinnar ok hafi drepit einn hirmann hans, ok vildu eir lta drepa manninn.

  • kmr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <koma> come, arrive; reach; obtain; occur -- came
  • n -- adverb; <n> now -- now
  • essi -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <sj> this -- this
  • fregn -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <fregn> news, information -- news
  • fyrir -- preposition; <fyrir> before, in front of; against; because of, for -- to
  • Hrlf -- proper noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Hrlfr> Hrolf -- Hrolf
  • konung -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <konungr> king -- king
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • kappa -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <kappi> champion, hero -- champions
  • hans -- demonstrative used as pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <hann> this one -- his
  • upp -- adverb; <upp> up -- up
  • -- preposition; <> in, within; among; during; into, onto -- in
  • kastalann -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <kastali> castle + definite article; accusative singular masculine of <inn> the -- the castle
  • at -- conjunction; <at> that -- that
  • mar -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <mar> man, person; husband; henchman -- man
  • mikilligr -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <mikilligr> imposing, of distinguished appearance -- an imposing
  • s -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- had
  • kominn -- past participle; nominative singular masculine of <koma> come, arrive; reach; obtain; occur -- arrived
  • til -- preposition; <til> in; of, concerning; on; as, for, to obtain; until, to, up to the time -- at
  • hallarinnar -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <hll> hall + definite article; genitive singular feminine of <inn> the -- the hall
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • hafi -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <hafa ()> have, keep; hold; accept -- had
  • drepit -- past participle; accusative singular neuter of <drepa> smite, strike; knock; kill, slay -- slain
  • einn -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <einn> one; a certain, particular -- one
  • hirmann -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <hirmar> retainer + definite article; accusative singular masculine of <inn> the -- of... retainers
  • hans -- demonstrative used as pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <hann> this one -- his
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • vildu -- verb; 3rd plural past of <vilja> will, wish, be willing; intend -- wanted
  • eir -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <s> that -- they
  • lta -- verb; infinitive of <lta> put, place; let, allow; concede, yield; leave, leave off; lose; cause to be done, command; behave (as if); declare; sound -- to be permitted
  • drepa -- verb; infinitive of <drepa> smite, strike; knock; kill, slay -- to kill
  • manninn -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <mar> man, person; husband; henchman + definite article; accusative singular masculine of <inn> the -- the man

Hrlfr konungr spurisk eptir, hvrt hirmarinn hefi verit saklauss drepinn. "v var nsta", sgu eir. Kmusk fyrir Hrlf konung ll sannindi hr um.

  • Hrlfr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Hrlfr> Hrolf -- Hrolf
  • konungr -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <konungr> king -- king
  • spurisk -- verb; 3rd singular past middle of <spyrja (spuri)> trace, find out (about); hear; ask -- asked
  • eptir -- preposition; <eptir> after, behind; for, to obtain; along; according to; in succession to -- in return
  • hvrt -- conjunction; <hvrt> whether; (introduces direct question); however -- whether
  • hirmarinn -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <hirmar> retainer + definite article; nominative singular masculine of <inn> the -- the retainer
  • hefi -- verb; 3rd singular past subjunctive of <hafa ()> have, keep; hold; accept -- had
  • verit -- past participle; accusative singular neuter of <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- been # Note the use of the neuter form of the participle (supine), even though it functions as a copula for a masculine nominative subject.
  • saklauss -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <saklauss> innocent, guiltless -- without cause
  • drepinn -- past participle; nominative singular masculine of <drepa> smite, strike; knock; kill, slay -- slain
  • v -- demonstrative used as pronoun; dative singular neuter of <s> that -- so
  • var -- verb; 3rd singular past of <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- ...
  • nsta -- adverb; <nsta> nearly -- nearly
  • sgu -- verb; 3rd plural past of <segja (saga)> say, speak; tell, tell of; relate -- said
  • eir -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <s> that -- they
  • kmusk -- verb; 3rd plural past of <koma> come, arrive; reach; obtain; occur -- came
  • -- adverb; <> then -- then
  • fyrir -- preposition; <fyrir> before, in front of; against; because of, for -- before
  • Hrlf -- proper noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Hrlfr> Hrolf -- Hrolf
  • konung -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <konungr> king -- king
  • ll -- adjective; nominative plural neuter of <allr> all, whole; every -- the whole
  • sannindi -- noun, neuter; nominative plural of <sannindi> (pl.) truth -- truth
  • hr -- adverb; <hr> here -- ...
  • um -- preposition; <um> over, across; through, throughout; round, about; concerning -- out

Hrlfr konungr sagi at skyldu fjarri, at drepa skyldi manninn -- "hafi it hr illan vanda upp tekit, at berja saklausa menn beinum; er mr v viring, en yr str skmm, at gra slkt.

  • Hrlfr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Hrlfr> Hrolf -- Hrolf
  • konungr -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <konungr> king -- king
  • sagi -- verb; 3rd singular past of <segja (saga)> say, speak; tell, tell of; relate -- said
  • at -- demonstrative used as pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <s> that -- it
  • skyldu -- verb; past infinitive of <skulu> shall, must, ought -- to be
  • fjarri -- adverb; <fjarri> far, far off; by no means -- far (from the case)
  • at -- conjunction; <at> that -- that
  • drepa -- verb; infinitive of <drepa> smite, strike; knock; kill, slay -- kill
  • skyldi -- verb; 3rd plural past subjunctive of <skulu> shall, must, ought -- they should
  • manninn -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <mar> man, person; husband; henchman + definite article; accusative singular masculine of <inn> the -- the man
  • hafi -- verb; 3rd plural present of <hafa ()> have, keep; hold; accept -- have # Note 3rd person verb and 2nd person pronoun hafi + it for earlier 2nd person verb with 2nd person pronoun hafi + it
  • it -- pronoun; nominative dual of <> thou, you -- you
  • hr -- adverb; <hr> here -- here
  • illan -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <illr> bad, evil; ugly, unpleasing; difficult -- a bad
  • vanda -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <vandi> custom, habit -- custom
  • upp -- adverb; <upp> up -- upp
  • tekit -- past participle; accusative singular neuter of <taka> take, take hold of; seize, capture; take to oneself, undertake; choose; accept, receive; begin (with infin.); reach, touch, strike against; happen, come to pass -- taken
  • at -- preposition; <at> to, towards, against; at, in; from; according to; regarding; concerning; after -- to
  • berja -- verb; infinitive of <berja (bari)> smite, beat; (refl.) fight -- strike
  • saklausa -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <saklauss> innocent, guiltless -- blameless
  • menn -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <mar> man, person; husband; henchman -- men
  • beinum -- noun, neuter; dative plural of <bein> bone; ivory -- with bones
  • er -- verb; 3rd singular present of <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- it is
  • mr -- pronoun; dative singular of <ek> I -- for me
  • -- preposition; <> in, within; among; during; into, onto -- ...
  • v -- demonstrative used as pronoun; dative singular neuter of <s> that -- ...
  • viring -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <viring> disgrace -- a disgrace
  • en -- conjunction; <en> but, and; than -- but
  • yr -- pronoun; dative plural of <> thou, you -- for you
  • str -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <strr> great, huge -- a great
  • skmm -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <skmm> shame -- shame
  • at -- preposition; <at> to, towards, against; at, in; from; according to; regarding; concerning; after -- to
  • gra -- verb; infinitive of <gra> make, build; write, compose -- do
  • slkt -- adjective used as substantive; accusative singular neuter of <slkr> such -- so

Hefi ek jafnan rtt um etta r, ok hafi it at essu engan gaum gefit, ok hygg ek at essi mar muni ekki allltill fyrir sr, er r hafi n leitat; ok kalli hann til mn, sv at ek viti hverr hann er."

  • hefi -- verb; 1st singular present of <hafa ()> have, keep; hold; accept -- have
  • ek -- pronoun; nominative singular of <ek> I -- I
  • jafnan -- adverb; <jafnan> ever, always -- often
  • rtt -- past participle; accusative singular neuter of <ra (dd)> speak -- spoken
  • um -- preposition; <um> over, across; through, throughout; round, about; concerning -- about
  • etta -- demonstrative used as pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <sj> this -- that
  • r -- adverb; <r> before, first; until -- before
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • hafi -- verb; 3rd plural present of <hafa ()> have, keep; hold; accept -- have # Note 3rd person verb and 2nd person pronoun hafi + it for earlier 2nd person verb with 2nd person pronoun hafi + it
  • it -- pronoun; nominative dual of <> thou, you -- you
  • at -- preposition; <at> to, towards, against; at, in; from; according to; regarding; concerning; after -- ...
  • essu -- demonstrative used as pronoun; dative singular neuter of <sj> this -- it
  • engan -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <engi> no, none, no one -- no
  • gaum -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <gaumr> heed, attention -- heed
  • gefit -- past participle; accusative singular neuter of <gefa> give; give in marriage; (impers.) be obtainable -- paid
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • hygg -- verb; 1st singular present of <hyggja (hugi, hugar)> think, believe -- suspect
  • ek -- pronoun; nominative singular of <ek> I -- I
  • at -- conjunction; <at> that -- that
  • essi -- demonstrative used as adjective; nominative singular masculine of <sj> this -- this
  • mar -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <mar> man, person; husband; henchman -- man
  • muni -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <munu> will, be about to; will be; must; might -- might be
  • ekki -- adverb; <ekki> not, by no means -- no
  • allltill -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <allltill> very little -- trifle
  • fyrir -- preposition; <fyrir> before, in front of; against; because of, for -- compared to
  • sr -- reflexive pronoun; dative of <sik> him-, her-, it-self; them-selves; one-self -- you
  • er -- relative particle; <er> who, which; when -- whom
  • r -- pronoun; nominative plural of <> thou, you -- you
  • hafi -- verb; 2nd plural present of <hafa ()> have, keep; hold; accept -- have # Compare r + hafi with hafi + it above.
  • n -- adverb; <n> now -- just
  • -- preposition; <> on, upon; at, in; to, towards; by means of; during; in the manner of -- ...
  • leitat -- past participle; accusative singular neuter of <leita (a)> seek, search for; find; try to go, go; attack -- attacked
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- so
  • kalli -- verb; 2nd plural imperative of <kalla> call, cry out; name; say, declare -- summon
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- him
  • til -- preposition; <til> in; of, concerning; on; as, for, to obtain; until, to, up to the time -- to
  • mn -- pronoun; genitive singular of <ek> I -- me
  • sv -- adverb; <sv> so, thus, in this way; also; as, as if -- so
  • at -- conjunction; <at> that -- ...
  • ek -- pronoun; nominative singular of <ek> I -- I
  • viti -- verb; 1st singular present subjunctive of <vita (ssi)> know, be aware of; understand; know how (to); know of; find out -- might know # viti for expected vita
  • hverr -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <hverr> who, which, what; each, every -- who
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • er -- verb; 3rd singular present of <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- is

Bvarr gengr fyrir konung ok kver hann kurteisliga. Konungr spyrr hann at nafni. "Hattargria kalla mik hirmenn yar, en Bvarr heiti ek." Konungr mlti, "Hverjar btr viltu bja mr fyrir hirmann minn?"

  • Bvarr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • gengr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <ganga> go, walk; advance; take place; extend; go on, last; turn out -- goes
  • fyrir -- preposition; <fyrir> before, in front of; against; because of, for -- before
  • konung -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <konungr> king -- the king
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • kver -- verb; 3rd singular present of <kvea> say, declare; utter, say in verse; recite; utter a cry -- greets
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- him
  • kurteisliga -- adverb; <kurteisliga> courteously, with dignity -- with courtesy
  • konungr -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <konungr> king -- the king
  • spyrr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <spyrja (spuri)> trace, find out (about); hear; ask -- asks
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- him
  • at -- preposition; <at> to, towards, against; at, in; from; according to; regarding; concerning; after -- for
  • nafni -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <nafn> name -- (his) name
  • Hattargria -- proper noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Hattargrii> Hott's guardian -- Hott's-guard
  • kalla -- verb; 3rd plural present of <kalla> call, cry out; name; say, declare -- call
  • mik -- pronoun; accusative singular of <ek> I -- me
  • hirmenn -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <hirmar> retainer -- retainers
  • yar -- pronoun; genitive plural of <> thou, you -- your
  • en -- conjunction; <en> but, and; than -- but
  • Bvarr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • heiti -- verb; 1st singular present of <heita> to call, name; promise; be called, be named -- am named # See Section 36 for 1st sg. ending in -i.
  • ek -- pronoun; nominative singular of <ek> I -- I
  • konungr -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <konungr> king -- the king
  • mlti -- verb; 3rd singular past of <mla (t)> speak -- said
  • hverjar -- adjective; accusative plural feminine of <hverr> who, which, what; each, every -- what
  • btr -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <bt> compensation, atonement -- compensation
  • viltu -- verb; 2nd singular present of <vilja> will, wish, be willing; intend -- will you # viltu = vilt +
  • bja -- verb; infinitive of <bja> offer, provide; command, summon -- give
  • mr -- pronoun; dative singular of <ek> I -- me
  • fyrir -- preposition; <fyrir> before, in front of; against; because of, for -- for
  • hirmann -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <hirmar> retainer -- retainer
  • minn -- possessive adjective; accusative singular masculine of <minn> my, mine, of me -- my

Bvarr segir, "Til ess gri hann, sem hann fekk." Konungr mlti, "Viltu vera minn mar ok skipa rm hans?" Bvarr segir, "Ekki neita ek at vera yarr mar, ok munu vit ekki skiljask sv bit, vit Httr, ok dveljask nr r bir, heldr en essi hefir setit; elligar vit frum brott bir."

  • Bvarr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • segir -- verb; 3rd singular present of <segja (saga)> say, speak; tell, tell of; relate -- said
  • til -- preposition; <til> in; of, concerning; on; as, for, to obtain; until, to, up to the time -- ...
  • ess -- demonstrative used as pronoun; genitive singular neuter of <s> that -- what
  • gri -- verb; 3rd singular past of <gra> make, build; write, compose -- deserved
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • sem -- relative particle; <sem> as; as if, that; while; when; where -- ...
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • fekk -- verb; 3rd singular past of <f> get, take; catch; have, make use of; put; give; receive; suffer; (with ppart.) be able to, get accomplished; (mid.) take place; struggle -- got
  • konungr -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <konungr> king -- the king
  • mlti -- verb; 3rd singular past of <mla (t)> speak -- said
  • viltu -- verb; 2nd singular present of <vilja> will, wish, be willing; intend -- will you # viltu = vilt +
  • vera -- verb; infinitive of <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- become
  • minn -- possessive adjective; nominative singular masculine of <minn> my, mine, of me -- my
  • mar -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <mar> man, person; husband; henchman -- one of... men
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • skipa -- verb; infinitive of <skipa (a)> array, draw up; assign (a seat); put in order; set; occupy -- take
  • rm -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <rm> room, space; seat; bed -- place
  • hans -- demonstrative used as pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <hann> this one -- his
  • Bvarr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • segir -- verb; 3rd singular present of <segja (saga)> say, speak; tell, tell of; relate -- said
  • ekki -- adverb; <ekki> not, by no means -- -n't
  • neita -- verb; 1st singular present subjunctive of <neita (tt)> refuse, deny -- would... refuse
  • ek -- pronoun; nominative singular of <ek> I -- I
  • at -- preposition; <at> to, towards, against; at, in; from; according to; regarding; concerning; after -- to
  • vera -- verb; infinitive of <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- be
  • yarr -- possessive adjective; nominative singular masculine of <y(v)arr> your, of you (pl.) -- of yours
  • mar -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <mar> man, person; husband; henchman -- one
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- but
  • munu -- verb; 3rd plural present of <munu> will, be about to; will be; must; might -- shall # 3rd pl. munu with 1st du. vit by analogy with munu + it for munu + it. Cf. hafi + it above.
  • vit -- pronoun; nominative dual of <ek> I -- we
  • ekki -- adverb; <ekki> not, by no means -- not
  • skiljask -- verb; infinitive middle of <skilja (, d)> divide, separate; disband; understand, perceive -- part
  • sv -- adverb; <sv> so, thus, in this way; also; as, as if -- as
  • bit -- past participle; nominative singular neuter of <ba> be ready, prepare, secure -- (matters) stand
  • vit -- pronoun; nominative dual of <ek> I -- and I
  • Httr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Httr> Hott -- Hott
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- but
  • dveljask -- verb; infinitive middle of <dveljask (dvalisk)> stay; be delayed -- will... stay
  • nr -- adverb; <nr> near -- nearer
  • r -- pronoun; dative singular of <> thou, you -- you
  • bir -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <bir> both -- both
  • heldr -- adverb; <heldr> rather, any the more -- ...
  • en -- conjunction; <en> but, and; than -- than
  • essi -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <sj> this -- that (man)
  • hefir -- verb; 3rd singular present of <hafa ()> have, keep; hold; accept -- had
  • setit -- past participle; accusative singular neuter of <sitja> sit; stay, remain; reside -- been sitting
  • elligar -- adverb; <elligar> otherwise -- otherwise
  • vit -- pronoun; nominative dual of <ek> I -- we
  • frum -- verb; 1st plural present of <fara> fare, happen, turn out; go, move, travel -- will... be on
  • brott -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <braut> road -- (our) way
  • bir -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <bir> both -- both

Konungr mlti, "Eigi s ek at honum smd, en ek spara ekki mat vi hann."

  • konungr -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <konungr> king -- the king
  • mlti -- verb; 3rd singular past of <mla (t)> speak -- said
  • eigi -- adverb; <eigi> not -- no
  • s -- verb; 1st singular present of <sj> see, perceive; find; understand; look -- see
  • ek -- pronoun; nominative singular of <ek> I -- I
  • at -- preposition; <at> to, towards, against; at, in; from; according to; regarding; concerning; after -- in
  • honum -- demonstrative used as pronoun; dative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- him
  • smd -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <sm, smd> honor; redress, compensation -- honor
  • en -- conjunction; <en> but, and; than -- but
  • ek -- pronoun; nominative singular of <ek> I -- I
  • spara -- verb; 1st singular present subjunctive of <spara (, a)> spare; grudge, deny -- would... deny # Form could also be indicative.
  • ekki -- adverb; <ekki> not, by no means -- not
  • mat -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <matr> food; meal -- food
  • vi -- preposition; <vi> reaching to, against, with; towards, at; in exchange for; by; (together) with, close to; because of -- ...
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- him

Bvarr gengr n til ess rms sem honum lkai, en ekki vill hann at skipa sem hinn hafi r.

  • Bvarr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • gengr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <ganga> go, walk; advance; take place; extend; go on, last; turn out -- goes
  • n -- adverb; <n> now -- now
  • til -- preposition; <til> in; of, concerning; on; as, for, to obtain; until, to, up to the time -- to
  • ess -- demonstrative used as adjective; genitive singular neuter of <s> that -- the
  • rms -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <rm> room, space; seat; bed -- spot
  • sem -- relative particle; <sem> as; as if, that; while; when; where -- which
  • honum -- demonstrative used as pronoun; dative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- him
  • lkai -- verb; 3rd singular past of <lka (a)> please, be pleasing -- pleases
  • en -- conjunction; <en> but, and; than -- but
  • ekki -- adverb; <ekki> not, by no means -- not
  • vill -- verb; 3rd singular present of <vilja> will, wish, be willing; intend -- does... wish
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • at -- demonstrative used as pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <s> that -- the one
  • skipa -- verb; infinitive of <skipa (a)> array, draw up; assign (a seat); put in order; set; occupy -- occupy
  • sem -- relative particle; <sem> as; as if, that; while; when; where -- which
  • hinn -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hinn> this one; that; the -- that (man)
  • hafi -- verb; 3rd singular past of <hafa ()> have, keep; hold; accept -- had
  • r -- adverb; <r> before, first; until -- before

Hann kippir upp einhverjum sta remr mnnum, ok san settusk eir Httr ar nir ok innar hllinni en eim var skipat. Heldr tti mnnum dlt vi Bvar, ok er eim hinn mesti hugi at honum.

  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • kippir -- verb; 3rd singular present of <kippa (, t)> pull, jerk; snatch, pick up; rend -- snatches
  • upp -- adverb; <upp> up -- up
  • -- preposition; <> in, within; among; during; into, onto -- in
  • einhverjum -- adjective; dative singular masculine of <einnhverr> a certain, some, any -- a certain
  • sta -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <star> place, spot, dwelling; part; way, respect -- spot
  • remr -- numeral adjective; dative plural masculine of <rr> three -- three # rimr and remr are variant forms for rim
  • mnnum -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <mar> man, person; husband; henchman -- men
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • san -- adverb; <san> afterwards, since then -- ...
  • settusk -- verb; 3rd plural past reflexive of <setja> set, place, put; seat; set up; establish; endow; direct; hurl; adorn -- set themselves
  • eir -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <s> that -- he and
  • Httr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Httr> Hott -- Hott
  • ar -- adverb; <ar> there, in that place -- there
  • nir -- adverb; <nir> down -- down
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- ...
  • innar -- adverb; comparative of <inn> in, within -- farther in
  • -- preposition; <> in, within; among; during; into, onto -- ...
  • hllinni -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <hll> hall + definite article; dative singular feminine of <inn> the -- the hall
  • en -- conjunction; <en> but, and; than -- than
  • eim -- demonstrative used as pronoun; dative plural neuter of <s> that -- for them
  • var -- verb; 3rd singular past of <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- was
  • skipat -- past participle; nominative singular neuter of <skipa (a)> array, draw up; assign (a seat); put in order; set; occupy -- designated
  • heldr -- adverb; <heldr> rather, any the more -- ...
  • tti -- verb; 3rd singular past of <ykkja (tti)> seem, be thought -- consider
  • mnnum -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <mar> man, person; husband; henchman -- the men
  • dlt -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of <dll> difficult, overbearing -- difficult to deal
  • vi -- preposition; <vi> reaching to, against, with; towards, at; in exchange for; by; (together) with, close to; because of -- with
  • Bvar -- proper noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • er -- verb; 3rd singular present of <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- hold
  • eim -- demonstrative used as pronoun; dative plural masculine of <s> that -- they
  • hinn -- demonstrative used as adjective; nominative singular masculine of <hinn> this one; that; the -- ...
  • mesti -- superlative adjective; weak nominative singular masculine of <mestr> most, greatest -- great
  • hugi -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <hugi> resentment -- resentment
  • at -- preposition; <at> to, towards, against; at, in; from; according to; regarding; concerning; after -- toward
  • honum -- demonstrative used as pronoun; dative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- him

Ok sem lei at jlum, grusk menn ktir. Bvarr spyrr Htt hverju etta stti; hann segir honum at dr eitt hafi ar komit tv vetr samt, mikit ok gurligt -- "ok hefir vngi bakinu ok flgr at jafnan.

  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • sem -- relative particle; <sem> as; as if, that; while; when; where -- as
  • lei -- verb; 3rd singular past of <la> move, go; pass, progress -- it came
  • at -- preposition; <at> to, towards, against; at, in; from; according to; regarding; concerning; after -- toward
  • jlum -- noun, neuter; dative plural of <jl> Yule, midwinter heathen feast, later applied to Christmas -- yule time
  • grusk -- verb; 3rd plural past of <gra> make, build; write, compose -- became
  • menn -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <mar> man, person; husband; henchman -- the men
  • ktir -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <ktr> depressed, gloomy -- depressed
  • Bvarr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • spyrr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <spyrja (spuri)> trace, find out (about); hear; ask -- asks
  • Htt -- proper noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Httr> Hott -- Hott
  • hverju -- pronoun; dative singular neuter of <hverr> who, which, what; each, every -- what
  • etta -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <sj> this -- this (all)
  • stti -- verb; 3rd singular past subjunctive of <sta (tt)> amount to, signify -- amounts to
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • segir -- verb; 3rd singular present of <segja (saga)> say, speak; tell, tell of; relate -- tells
  • honum -- demonstrative used as pronoun; dative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- him
  • at -- conjunction; <at> that -- that
  • dr -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <dr> (wild) animal -- animal
  • eitt -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of <einn> one; a certain, particular -- a certain
  • hafi -- verb; 3rd singular present subjunctive of <hafa ()> have, keep; hold; accept -- had # note use of hafa + komit rather than vera + kominn
  • ar -- adverb; <ar> there, in that place -- there
  • komit -- past participle; accusative singular neuter of <koma> come, arrive; reach; obtain; occur -- come
  • tv -- numeral; accusative plural masculine of <tveir> two -- two
  • vetr -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <vetr> winter -- years
  • -- preposition; <> in, within; among; during; into, onto -- in
  • samt -- adjective used as substantive; accusative singular neuter of <samr> same -- a row
  • mikit -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of <mikill> great, large, big; severe -- big
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • gurligt -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of <gurligr> terrible -- terrible
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • hefir -- verb; 3rd singular present of <hafa ()> have, keep; hold; accept -- it has
  • vngi -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <vngr> wing -- wings
  • -- preposition; <> on, upon; at, in; to, towards; by means of; during; in the manner of -- on
  • bakinu -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <bak> back + definite article; dative singular neuter of <inn> the -- its back
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • flgr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <flga> fly -- flies
  • at -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <s> that -- it
  • jafnan -- adverb; <jafnan> ever, always -- continuously

Tvau haust hefir at n hingat vitjat ok grt mikinn skaa. at bta ekki vpn, en kappar konungs koma ekki heim, eir sem at eru einna mestir."

  • tvau -- numeral; accusative plural neuter of <tveir> two -- for two
  • haust -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <haust> autumn -- autumns
  • hefir -- verb; 3rd singular present of <hafa ()> have, keep; hold; accept -- has
  • at -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <s> that -- it
  • n -- adverb; <n> now -- now
  • hingat -- adverb; <hingat> hither -- here
  • vitjat -- past participle; accusative singular neuter of <vitja (a)> go to, visit -- visited
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • grt -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <grr (van)> made, built; done; ready; sent; done for, finished off -- done # grr is used as the past participle of gra
  • mikinn -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <mikill> great, large, big; severe -- great
  • skaa -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <skai> damage, loss -- damage
  • -- preposition; <> on, upon; at, in; to, towards; by means of; during; in the manner of -- ...
  • at -- demonstrative used as pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <s> that -- it
  • bta -- verb; 3rd plural present of <bta> bite, cut -- cut
  • ekki -- adverb; <ekki> not, by no means -- no
  • vpn -- noun, neuter; nominative plural of <vpn> weapon -- weapons
  • en -- conjunction; <en> but, and; than -- -or
  • kappar -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <kappi> champion, hero -- champions
  • konungs -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <konungr> king -- the king's
  • koma -- verb; 3rd plural present of <koma> come, arrive; reach; obtain; occur -- come
  • ekki -- adverb; <ekki> not, by no means -- n-
  • heim -- adverb; <heim> home; to(wards) the house -- home
  • eir -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <s> that -- those
  • sem -- relative particle; <sem> as; as if, that; while; when; where -- who
  • at -- conjunction; <at> that -- ...
  • eru -- verb; 3rd plural present of <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- are
  • einna -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <einn> one -- of all
  • mestir -- superlative adjective; nominative plural masculine of <mestr> most, greatest -- greatest

Bvarr mlti, "Ekki er hllin sv vel skipu sem ek tlai, ef eitt dr skal hr eya rki ok f konungsins." Httr sagi, "at er ekki dr, heldr er at hit mesta trll."

  • Bvarr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • mlti -- verb; 3rd singular past of <mla (t)> speak -- said
  • ekki -- adverb; <ekki> not, by no means -- not
  • er -- verb; 3rd singular present of <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- is
  • hllin -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <hll> hall + definite article; nominative singular feminine of <inn> the -- the hall
  • sv -- adverb; <sv> so, thus, in this way; also; as, as if -- as
  • vel -- adverb; <vel> well, readily, easily -- well
  • skipu -- past participle; nominative singular feminine of <skipa (a)> array, draw up; assign (a seat); put in order; set; occupy -- built
  • sem -- relative particle; <sem> as; as if, that; while; when; where -- as
  • ek -- pronoun; nominative singular of <ek> I -- I
  • tlai -- verb; 1st singular past of <tla (a)> think, consider (to be); expect, look for; intend (to do) -- had thought # Note tlai for expected tlaa
  • ef -- conjunction; <ef> if; whether; (to see) if; lest -- if
  • eitt -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of <einn> one; a certain, particular -- one
  • dr -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <dr> (wild) animal -- animal
  • skal -- verb; 3rd singular present of <skulu> shall, must, ought -- will
  • hr -- adverb; <hr> here -- ...
  • eya -- verb; infinitive of <eya (dd)> lay waste -- destroy
  • rki -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <rki> kingdom; power, authority -- kingdom
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • f -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <f> cattle; sheep; money; possessions -- property
  • konungsins -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <konungr> king + definite article; genitive singular masculine of <inn> the -- the king's
  • Httr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Httr> Hott -- Hott
  • sagi -- verb; 3rd singular past of <segja (saga)> say, speak; tell, tell of; relate -- said
  • at -- demonstrative used as pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <s> that -- that
  • er -- verb; 3rd singular present of <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- is
  • ekki -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of <engi> no, none, no one -- no
  • dr -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <dr> (wild) animal -- animal
  • heldr -- adverb; <heldr> rather, any the more -- but
  • er -- verb; 3rd singular present of <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- ...
  • at -- demonstrative used as pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <s> that -- ...
  • hit -- demonstrative used as adjective; nominative singular neuter of <hinn> this one; that; the -- the
  • mesta -- superlative adjective; weak nominative singular neuter of <mestr> most, greatest -- greatest
  • trll -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <trll> troll -- troll

N kmr jla-aptann. mlti konungr, "N vil ek at menn s kyrrir ok hljir ntt, ok banna ek llum mnum mnnum at ganga nkkurn hska vi drit, en f ferr eptir v sem aunar; menn mna vil ek ekki missa." Allir heita hr gu um, at gra eptir v sem konungr bau.

  • n -- adverb; <n> now -- ...
  • kmr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <koma> come, arrive; reach; obtain; occur -- it came
  • jla-aptann -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <jla-aptann> Christmas Eve -- to Christmas Eve
  • -- adverb; <> then -- ...
  • mlti -- verb; 3rd singular past of <mla (t)> speak -- said
  • konungr -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <konungr> king -- the king
  • n -- adverb; <n> now -- now
  • vil -- verb; 1st singular present of <vilja> will, wish, be willing; intend -- want
  • ek -- pronoun; nominative singular of <ek> I -- I
  • at -- conjunction; <at> that -- that
  • menn -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <mar> man, person; husband; henchman -- (my) men
  • s -- verb; 3rd plural present subjunctive of <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- be
  • kyrrir -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <kyrr> quiet -- quiet
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • hljir -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <hljr> silent, quiet -- silent
  • -- preposition; <> in, within; among; during; into, onto -- during
  • ntt -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <ntt> night -- the night
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • banna -- verb; 1st singular present of <banna (a)> prohibit, forbid -- forbid
  • ek -- pronoun; nominative singular of <ek> I -- I
  • llum -- adjective; dative plural masculine of <allr> all, whole; every -- all
  • mnum -- possessive adjective; dative plural masculine of <minn> my, mine, of me -- my
  • mnnum -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <mar> man, person; husband; henchman -- men
  • at -- preposition; <at> to, towards, against; at, in; from; according to; regarding; concerning; after -- to
  • ganga -- verb; infinitive of <ganga> go, walk; advance; take place; extend; go on, last; turn out -- go
  • -- preposition; <> in, within; among; during; into, onto -- into
  • nkkurn -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <nakkvarr, nkkurr> a, a certain; any -- certain
  • hska -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <hski> danger, harm -- danger
  • vi -- preposition; <vi> reaching to, against, with; towards, at; in exchange for; by; (together) with, close to; because of -- against
  • drit -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <dr> (wild) animal + definite article; accusative singular neuter of <inn> the -- the animal
  • en -- conjunction; <en> but, and; than -- but
  • f -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <f> cattle; sheep; money; possessions -- the livestock
  • ferr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <fara> fare, happen, turn out; go, move, travel -- fares
  • eptir -- preposition; <eptir> after, behind; for, to obtain; along; according to; in succession to -- according to
  • v -- demonstrative used as pronoun; dative singular neuter of <s> that -- what-
  • sem -- relative particle; <sem> as; as if, that; while; when; where -- -ever
  • aunar -- verb; 3rd singular present of <auna (a)> (impers.) fall out by fate -- happens
  • menn -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <mar> man, person; husband; henchman -- men
  • mna -- possessive adjective; accusative plural masculine of <minn> my, mine, of me -- my
  • vil -- verb; 1st singular present of <vilja> will, wish, be willing; intend -- will
  • ek -- pronoun; nominative singular of <ek> I -- I
  • ekki -- adverb; <ekki> not, by no means -- not
  • missa -- verb; infinitive of <missa (t)> be without; lose -- lose
  • allir -- adjective used as substantive; nominative plural masculine of <allr> all, whole; every -- (they) all
  • heita -- verb; 3rd plural present of <heita> to call, name; promise; be called, be named -- promise
  • hr -- adverb; <hr> here -- ...
  • gu -- adjective used as substantive; dative singular neuter of <gr> good -- good (behavior)
  • um -- preposition; <um> over, across; through, throughout; round, about; concerning -- ...
  • at -- preposition; <at> to, towards, against; at, in; from; according to; regarding; concerning; after -- to
  • gra -- verb; infinitive of <gra> make, build; write, compose -- work
  • eptir -- preposition; <eptir> after, behind; for, to obtain; along; according to; in succession to -- according to
  • v -- demonstrative used as pronoun; dative singular neuter of <s> that -- what
  • sem -- relative particle; <sem> as; as if, that; while; when; where -- ...
  • konungr -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <konungr> king -- the king
  • bau -- verb; 3rd singular past of <bja> offer, provide; command, summon -- commanded

Bvarr leyndisk brott um nttina; hann ltr Htt fara me sr, ok grir hann at nauugr ok kallai hann sr strt til bana. Bvarr segir at betr mundi til takask.

  • Bvarr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • leyndisk -- verb; 3rd singular past middle of <leyna (d)> conceal -- stole
  • -- preposition; <> in, within; among; during; into, onto -- a-
  • brott -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <braut> road -- -way
  • um -- preposition; <um> over, across; through, throughout; round, about; concerning -- during
  • nttina -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <ntt> night + definite article; accusative singular feminine of <inn> the -- the night
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • ltr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <lta> put, place; let, allow; concede, yield; leave, leave off; lose; cause to be done, command; behave (as if); declare; sound -- makes
  • Htt -- proper noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Httr> Hott -- Hott
  • fara -- verb; infinitive of <fara> fare, happen, turn out; go, move, travel -- go
  • me -- preposition; <me> with; by means of; among; along -- with
  • sr -- reflexive pronoun; dative of <sik> him-, her-, it-self; them-selves; one-self -- him
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • grir -- verb; 3rd singular present of <gra> make, build; write, compose -- does
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • at -- demonstrative used as pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <s> that -- so
  • nauugr -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <nauigr, nauugr> unwilling, against one's will -- unwillingly
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • kallai -- verb; 3rd singular past of <kalla> call, cry out; name; say, declare -- claimed
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- ...
  • sr -- reflexive pronoun; dative of <sik> him-, her-, it-self; them-selves; one-self -- his
  • strt -- past participle; accusative singular neuter of <stra ()> steer, direct; wield; own -- it would be
  • til -- preposition; <til> in; of, concerning; on; as, for, to obtain; until, to, up to the time -- ...
  • bana -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <bani> death; cause of death, slayer -- death
  • Bvarr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • segir -- verb; 3rd singular present of <segja (saga)> say, speak; tell, tell of; relate -- says
  • at -- conjunction; <at> that -- that
  • betr -- comparative adverb; <betr> better; more -- better
  • mundi -- verb; 3rd singular past subjunctive of <munu> will, be about to; will be; must; might -- that might # form could also be indicative
  • til -- preposition; <til> in; of, concerning; on; as, for, to obtain; until, to, up to the time -- out
  • takask -- verb; infinitive middle of <taka> take, take hold of; seize, capture; take to oneself, undertake; choose; accept, receive; begin (with infin.); reach, touch, strike against; happen, come to pass -- turn

eir ganga brott fr hllinni, ok verr Bvarr at bera hann, sv er hann hrddr. N sj eir drit, ok v nst pir Httr slkt sem hann m ok kva drit mundu gleypa hann.

  • eir -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <hann> this one -- they
  • ganga -- verb; 3rd plural present of <ganga> go, walk; advance; take place; extend; go on, last; turn out -- go
  • -- preposition; <> in, within; among; during; into, onto -- a-
  • brott -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <braut> road -- -way
  • fr -- preposition; <fr> from; concerning -- from
  • hllinni -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <hll> hall + definite article; dative singular feminine of <inn> the -- the hall
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • verr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <vera> happen, come to pass; befall; chance to be; become -- ends
  • Bvarr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • at -- preposition; <at> to, towards, against; at, in; from; according to; regarding; concerning; after -- up
  • bera -- verb; infinitive of <bera> bear, bring, carry; wear; give birth to; overcome; endure; bear (witness) -- carrying
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- him
  • sv -- adverb; <sv> so, thus, in this way; also; as, as if -- so
  • er -- verb; 3rd singular present of <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- is
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- ...
  • hrddr -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <hrddr> afraid, frightened -- afraid
  • n -- adverb; <n> now -- suddenly
  • sj -- verb; 3rd plural present of <sj> see, perceive; find; understand; look -- see
  • eir -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <hann> this one -- they
  • drit -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <dr> (wild) animal + definite article; accusative singular neuter of <inn> the -- the animal
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • v -- demonstrative used as pronoun; dative singular neuter of <s> that -- then
  • nst -- adjective used as substantive; accusative singular neuter of <nstr> next -- right
  • pir -- verb; 3rd singular present of <pa (t)> cry out -- cried out
  • Httr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Httr> Hott -- Hott
  • slkt -- adjective used as substantive; accusative singular neuter of <slkr> such -- such
  • sem -- relative particle; <sem> as; as if, that; while; when; where -- as
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • m -- verb; 3rd singular present of <mega> be able to, can; may -- could
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • kva -- verb; 3rd singular past of <kvea> say, declare; utter, say in verse; recite; utter a cry -- said
  • drit -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <dr> (wild) animal + definite article; accusative singular neuter of <inn> the -- the animal
  • mundu -- verb; past infinitive of <munu> will, be about to; will be; must; might -- would
  • gleypa -- verb; infinitive of <gleypa (t)> swallow -- swallow
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- him

Bvarr ba bikkjuna hans egja ok kastar honum nir mosann, ok ar liggr hann ok eigi me llu hrddr. Eigi orir hann heim at fara heldr.

  • Bvarr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • ba -- verb; 3rd singular past of <bija> ask; beg; pray; bid -- commanded
  • bikkjuna -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <bikkja> bitch, dog + definite article; accusative singular feminine of <inn> the -- this dog
  • hans -- demonstrative used as pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <hann> this one -- of his
  • egja -- verb; infinitive of <egja (aga)> be silent -- to be silent
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • kastar -- verb; 3rd singular present of <kasta (a)> cast, throw -- cast
  • honum -- demonstrative used as pronoun; dative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- him
  • nir -- adverb; <nir> down -- down
  • -- preposition; <> in, within; among; during; into, onto -- upon
  • mosann -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <mosi> moss + definite article; accusative singular masculine of <inn> the -- the moss
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • ar -- adverb; <ar> there, in that place -- there
  • liggr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <liggja> be situated; lie (down); be slain -- lay
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- ...
  • eigi -- adverb; <eigi> not -- not
  • me -- preposition; <me> with; by means of; among; along -- ...
  • llu -- adjective; dative singular neuter of <allr> all, whole; every -- completely
  • hrddr -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <hrddr> unafraid, without fear -- unafraid
  • eigi -- adverb; <eigi> not -- n-
  • orir -- verb; 3rd singular present of <ora ()> dare -- did... dare
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • heim -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <heimr> region; world -- home
  • at -- preposition; <at> to, towards, against; at, in; from; according to; regarding; concerning; after -- to
  • fara -- verb; infinitive of <fara> fare, happen, turn out; go, move, travel -- go
  • heldr -- adverb; <heldr> rather, any the more -- -or

N gengr Bvarr mti drinu; at hfir honum, at sverit er fast umgjrinni, er hann vildi brega v. Bvarr eggjar n fast sverit ok bragar umgjrinni, ok n fr hann brugit umgjrinni sv at sverit gengr r slrunum, ok leggr egar undir bgi drsins ok sv fast at st hjartanu, ok datt drit til jarar dautt nir.

  • n -- adverb; <n> now -- then
  • gengr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <ganga> go, walk; advance; take place; extend; go on, last; turn out -- goes
  • Bvarr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • mti -- preposition; <mti> against; towards; to meet -- to meet
  • drinu -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <dr> (wild) animal + definite article; dative singular neuter of <inn> the -- the animal
  • at -- demonstrative used as pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <s> that -- it
  • hfir -- verb; 3rd singular present of <hfa ()> befall -- happens
  • honum -- demonstrative used as pronoun; dative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- ...
  • at -- conjunction; <at> that -- that
  • sverit -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <sver> sword + definite article; nominative singular neuter of <inn> the -- (his) sword
  • er -- verb; 3rd singular present of <vera> be; stay; be done; happen -- is
  • fast -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of <fastr> firm, fast; hard, severe; continuous -- stuck
  • -- preposition; <> in, within; among; during; into, onto -- in
  • umgjrinni -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <umgjr> scabbard + definite article; dative singular feminine of <inn> the -- the scabbard
  • er -- relative particle; <er> who, which; when -- as
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • vildi -- verb; 3rd singular past subjunctive of <vilja> will, wish, be willing; intend -- wishes # form may be subjunctive or indicative
  • brega -- verb; infinitive of <brega> move quickly; throw; draw (sword) -- to draw
  • v -- demonstrative used as pronoun; dative singular neuter of <s> that -- it
  • Bvarr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • eggjar -- verb; 3rd singular present of <eggja (a)> urge, whet -- tugs... on
  • n -- adverb; <n> now -- now
  • fast -- adverb; <fast> fast, strongly, hard; certainly -- hard
  • sverit -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <sver> sword + definite article; accusative singular neuter of <inn> the -- the sword
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • -- adverb; <> then -- ...
  • bragar -- verb; 3rd singular present of <braga (a)> move, stir -- shakes
  • -- preposition; <> in, within; among; during; into, onto -- ...
  • umgjrinni -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <umgjr> scabbard + definite article; dative singular feminine of <inn> the -- the scabbard
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • n -- adverb; <n> now -- now
  • fr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <f> get, take; catch; have, make use of; put; give; receive; suffer; (with ppart.) be able to, get accomplished; (mid.) take place; struggle -- tries
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- ...
  • brugit -- past participle; accusative singular neuter of <brega> move quickly; throw; draw (sword) -- a sudden jerk
  • umgjrinni -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <umgjr> scabbard + definite article; dative singular feminine of <inn> the -- of the scabbard
  • sv -- adverb; <sv> so, thus, in this way; also; as, as if -- so
  • at -- conjunction; <at> that -- that
  • sverit -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <sver> sword + definite article; nominative singular neuter of <inn> the -- the sword
  • gengr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <ganga> go, walk; advance; take place; extend; go on, last; turn out -- comes
  • r -- preposition; <r> out of, from; of; with the material of -- out of
  • slrunum -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <slrar, -ir> (pl.) sheath, scabbard + definite article; dative plural feminine of <inn> the -- the sheath
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • leggr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <leggja> lay, place, put; put down, lay down; move, bring; thrust, throw; make; give -- he thrusts (it)
  • egar -- adverb; <egar> at once -- quickly
  • undir -- preposition; <undir> under, below; beneath; up to; behind -- under
  • bgi -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <bgr> shoulder -- shoulder
  • drsins -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <dr> (wild) animal + definite article; genitive singular neuter of <inn> the -- the animal's
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- ...
  • sv -- adverb; <sv> so, thus, in this way; also; as, as if -- so
  • fast -- adverb; <fast> fast, strongly, hard; certainly -- hard
  • at -- conjunction; <at> that -- that
  • st -- verb; 3rd singular past of <standa> stand (firm); get up; take up a position; be in a place; remain valid; be in a specified condition; trend, flow; weigh -- it stuck
  • -- preposition; <> in, within; among; during; into, onto -- in
  • hjartanu -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <hjarta> heart + definite article; dative singular neuter of <inn> the -- its heart
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • datt -- verb; 3rd singular past of <detta> drop, fall -- dropped
  • -- adverb; <> then -- ...
  • drit -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <dr> (wild) animal + definite article; nominative singular neuter of <inn> the -- the animal
  • til -- preposition; <til> in; of, concerning; on; as, for, to obtain; until, to, up to the time -- to
  • jarar -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <jr> earth, world; ground, soil -- the earth
  • dautt -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of <daur> dead -- dead
  • nir -- adverb; <nir> down -- down

Eptir at ferr hann angat sem Httr liggr. Bvarr tekr upp ok berr angat sem drit liggr dautt. Httr skelfr kaft. Bvarr mlti: "N skaltu drekka bl drsins."

  • eptir -- preposition; <eptir> after, behind; for, to obtain; along; according to; in succession to -- after
  • at -- demonstrative used as pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <s> that -- that
  • ferr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <fara> fare, happen, turn out; go, move, travel -- goes
  • hann -- demonstrative used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hann> this one -- he
  • angat -- adverb; <angat> thither -- back
  • sem -- relative particle; <sem> as; as if, that; while; when; where -- where
  • Httr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Httr> Hott -- Hott
  • liggr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <liggja> be situated; lie (down); be slain -- is lying
  • Bvarr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • tekr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <taka> take, take hold of; seize, capture; take to oneself, undertake; choose; accept, receive; begin (with infin.); reach, touch, strike against; happen, come to pass -- takes (him)
  • upp -- adverb; <upp> up -- up
  • ok -- conjunction; <ok> and, also; but, though -- and
  • berr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <bera> bear, bring, carry; wear; give birth to; overcome; endure; bear (witness) -- carries (him)
  • angat -- adverb; <angat> thither -- to
  • sem -- relative particle; <sem> as; as if, that; while; when; where -- where
  • drit -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <dr> (wild) animal + definite article; nominative singular neuter of <inn> the -- the animal
  • liggr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <liggja> be situated; lie (down); be slain -- lies
  • dautt -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of <daur> dead -- dead
  • Httr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Httr> Hott -- Hott
  • skelfr -- verb; 3rd singular present of <skjlfa> shake, tremble -- shakes
  • kaft -- adverb; <kaft> greatly -- violently
  • Bvarr -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bvarr> battle, Bothvar -- Bothvar
  • mlti -- verb; 3rd singular past of <mla (t)> speak -- said
  • n -- adverb; <n> now -- now
  • skaltu -- verb; 2nd singular present of <skulu> shall, must, ought -- you shall # skaltu = skalt +
  • drekka -- verb; infinitive of <drekka> drink -- drink
  • bl -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <bl> blood -- blood
  • drsins -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <dr> (wild) animal + definite article; genitive singular neuter of <inn> the -- the animal's

Lesson Text

San fr Bvarr lei sna til Hleiargars. hann kmr til konungs atsetu. Bvarr leiir san hest sinn stall hj konungs hestum hinum beztu ok spyrr engan at; gekk san inn hllina, ok var ar ftt manna. Hann sezk tarliga, ok sem hann hefir verit ar ltla hr, heyrir hann rausk nkkut tar hornit einhverjum sta. Bvarr ltr angat ok sr at mannshnd kmr upp r mikilli beinahrgu, er ar l; hndin var svrt mjk. Bvarr gengr angat til ok spyrr hverr ar vri beinahrgunni. var honum svarat ok heldr framliga: "Httr heiti ek, bokki sll." "Hv ertu hr", segir Bvarr, "ea hvat grir ?" Httr segir, "Ek gri mr skjaldborg, bokki sll." Bvarr sagi, "Vesall ertu innar skjaldborgar!" Bvarr rfir til hans ok hnykkir honum upp r beinahrgunni. Httr kva htt vi ok mlti, "N viltu mr bana! Gr eigi etta, sv sem ek hefi n vel um bizk r, en hefir n rtat sundr skjaldborg minni, ok hafa ek n sv grt hana hva tan at mr, at hon hefir hlft mr vi llum hggum ykkar, sv at engi hgg hafa komit mik lengi, en ekki var hon enn sv bin sem ek tlai hon skyldi vera." Bvarr mlti: "Ekki muntu f skjaldborgina lengr." Httr mlti ok grt: "Skaltu n bana mr, bokki sll?" Bvarr ba hann ekki hafa htt, tk hann upp san ok bar hann t r hllinni ok til vatns nkkurs sem ar var nnd, ok gfu fir at essu gaum, ok hann upp allan.

San gekk Bvarr til ess rms sem hann hafi r tekit, ok leiddi eptir sr Htt ok ar setr hann Htt hj sr. En hann er sv hrddr at skelfr honum leggr ok lir, en ykkisk hann skilja at essi mar vill hjlpa sr. Eptir at kveldar ok drfa menn hllina ok sj Hrlfs kappar at Httr er settr bekk upp, ok ykkir eim s mar hafa grt sik rit djarfan, er etta hefir til tekit. Ilt tillit hefir Httr, er hann sr kunningja sna, v at hann hefir ilt eitt at eim reynt; hann vill lifa gjarnan ok fara aptr beinahrgu sna, en Bvarr heldr honum, sv at hann nir ekki brottu at fara, v at hann ttisk ekki jafnberr fyrir hggum eira, ef hann ni angat at komask, sem hann er n. Hirmenn hafa n sama vanda, ok kasta fyrst beinum smm um vert glfit til Bvars ok Hattar. Bvarr ltr sem hann sji eigi etta. Httr er sv hrddr at hann tekr eigi mat n drykk, ok ykkir honum ok sem hann muni vera lostinn. Ok n mlti Httr til Bvars: "Bokki sll, n ferr at r str knta, ok mun etta tlat okkr til naua." Bvarr ba hann egja. Hann setr vi holan lfann ok tekr sv vi kntunni; ar fylgir leggrinn me. Bvarr sendi aptr kntuna ok setr ann sem kastai, ok rtt framan hann me sv harri svipan at hann fekk bana. Sl miklum tta yfir hirmennina.

Kmr n essi fregn fyrir Hrlf konung ok kappa hans upp kastalann, at mar mikilligr s kominn til hallarinnar ok hafi drepit einn hirmann hans, ok vildu eir lta drepa manninn. Hrlfr konungr spurisk eptir, hvrt hirmarinn hefi verit saklauss drepinn. "v var nsta", sgu eir. Kmusk fyrir Hrlf konung ll sannindi hr um. Hrlfr konungr sagi at skyldu fjarri, at drepa skyldi manninn -- "hafi it hr illan vanda upp tekit, at berja saklausa menn beinum; er mr v viring, en yr str skmm, at gra slkt. Hefi ek jafnan rtt um etta r, ok hafi it at essu engan gaum gefit, ok hygg ek at essi mar muni ekki allltill fyrir sr, er r hafi n leitat; ok kalli hann til mn, sv at ek viti hverr hann er."

Bvarr gengr fyrir konung ok kver hann kurteisliga. Konungr spyrr hann at nafni. "Hattargria kalla mik hirmenn yar, en Bvarr heiti ek." Konungr mlti, "Hverjar btr viltu bja mr fyrir hirmann minn?" Bvarr segir, "Til ess gri hann, sem hann fekk." Konungr mlti, "Viltu vera minn mar ok skipa rm hans?" Bvarr segir, "Ekki neita ek at vera yarr mar, ok munu vit ekki skiljask sv bit, vit Httr, ok dveljask nr r bir, heldr en essi hefir setit; elligar vit frum brott bir." Konungr mlti, "Eigi s ek at honum smd, en ek spara ekki mat vi hann."

Bvarr gengr n til ess rms sem honum lkai, en ekki vill hann at skipa sem hinn hafi r. Hann kippir upp einhverjum sta remr mnnum, ok san settusk eir Httr ar nir ok innar hllinni en eim var skipat. Heldr tti mnnum dlt vi Bvar, ok er eim hinn mesti hugi at honum.

Ok sem lei at jlum, grusk menn ktir. Bvarr spyrr Htt hverju etta stti; hann segir honum at dr eitt hafi ar komit tv vetr samt, mikit ok gurligt -- "ok hefir vngi bakinu ok flgr at jafnan. Tvau haust hefir at n hingat vitjat ok grt mikinn skaa. at bta ekki vpn, en kappar konungs koma ekki heim, eir sem at eru einna mestir." Bvarr mlti, "Ekki er hllin sv vel skipu sem ek tlai, ef eitt dr skal hr eya rki ok f konungsins." Httr sagi, "at er ekki dr, heldr er at hit mesta trll."

N kmr jla-aptann. mlti konungr, "N vil ek at menn s kyrrir ok hljir ntt, ok banna ek llum mnum mnnum at ganga nkkurn hska vi drit, en f ferr eptir v sem aunar; menn mna vil ek ekki missa." Allir heita hr gu um, at gra eptir v sem konungr bau.

Bvarr leyndisk brott um nttina; hann ltr Htt fara me sr, ok grir hann at nauugr ok kallai hann sr strt til bana. Bvarr segir at betr mundi til takask. eir ganga brott fr hllinni, ok verr Bvarr at bera hann, sv er hann hrddr. N sj eir drit, ok v nst pir Httr slkt sem hann m ok kva drit mundu gleypa hann. Bvarr ba bikkjuna hans egja ok kastar honum nir mosann, ok ar liggr hann ok eigi me llu hrddr. Eigi orir hann heim at fara heldr. N gengr Bvarr mti drinu; at hfir honum, at sverit er fast umgjrinni, er hann vildi brega v. Bvarr eggjar n fast sverit ok bragar umgjrinni, ok n fr hann brugit umgjrinni sv at sverit gengr r slrunum, ok leggr egar undir bgi drsins ok sv fast at st hjartanu, ok datt drit til jarar dautt nir. Eptir at ferr hann angat sem Httr liggr. Bvarr tekr upp ok berr angat sem drit liggr dautt. Httr skelfr kaft. Bvarr mlti: "N skaltu drekka bl drsins."

Translation

Then Bothvar made his way to Hleithargarth. He came to the king's residence. Bothvar then led his horse to the stall near the king's best horses and asked no one about it; he then went into the hall, where there were a few men. He set himself at a distance, and when he had been there a little while, he heard some rummaging over in a certain spot in the corner. Bothvar looked there and saw that a man's hand was coming up out of a great pile of bones which was lying there; the hand was quite black. Bothvar went over and asked who was there in the bone pile. Then came a reply, rather timidly: 'I'm called Hott, dear sir.' 'Why are you here', said Bothvar, 'and what are you doing?' Hott said, 'I'm arranging protection for myself, dear sir.' Bothvar said, 'You're pitiful at protecting yourself!' Bothvar seized him and snatched him up out of the bone pile. Hott cried aloud and said, 'Now you'll kill me! Don't do that -- just before I was quite secure, but now you've thrown asunder my protection; and I had just made it so high about me that it had protected me against all your blows, so no strikes had landed on me for some time, though it was not so secure as I had intended it should be.' Bothvar said, 'You'll no longer have use of this protection.' Hott wept and said, 'Will you kill me now, dear sir?' Bothvar told him not to be so loud, then took him up and carried him out of the hall and to some water which was nearby -- few took notice of this -- and washed him all up.
Then Bothvar went back to the place he had taken up before, and led Hott behind him and set Hott next to himself. But he was so frightened that his limbs and joints shook, even though he seemed to understand that this man would help him. Soon evening came on and men entered the hall, and Hrolf's troop saw that Hott was set up on a bench, and it seemed to them that this man had become rather daring to have done so. Hott made an expression of contempt when he saw his acquaintances, since he had met ill at their hands. He was eager to leave and go back to his bone pile, but Bothvar held him so he couldn't get away, since he seemed less exposed to their blows as he was now than if he be allowed to go thither. The retainers now took up their usual custom, and cast forth small bones across the floor at Bothvar and Hott. Bothvar acts as if he doesn't notice it. Hott is so frightened that he takes neither food nor drink, and it seems to him time and again that he might get hit. And then Hott says to Bothvar: 'Dear sir, now a great knuckle-bone is coming at you, and it might mean to do us harm.' Bothvar told him to be quiet. He set out an open palm and received the knuckle-bone -- the leg-bone followed. Bothvar sent back the knuckle-bone and directed it at the one who threw it -- straight at him with so hard a blow that he caught his death. A great fear came over the retainers.
Now this news came to king Hrolf and his champions up in the castle, that an imposing man had arrived at the hall and had slain one of his retainers, and they wanted to be permitted to slay the man. King Hrolf asked in return whether the retainer had been slain without cause. 'Nearly so,' they said. Then the whole truth came out before king Hrolf. King Hrolf said it to be far from the case that they should kill the man -- 'You have taken up a bad habit here, to strike blameless men with bones; it is a disgrace for me, but a great shame for you, to do so. I have spoken often about that before, and you have paid it no heed, and I suspect this man, whom you have just attacked, might be no trifle compared to you. So summon him to me, so I might know who he is.'
Bothvar goes before the king and greets him with courtesy. The king asks him for his name. 'Your retainers call me Hott's-guard, but I'm named Bothvar.' The king said, 'What compensation will you give me for my retainer?' Bothvar said, 'He got what he deserved.' The king said, 'Will you become one of my men and take his place?' Bothvar said, 'I wouldn't refuse to be one of yours, but we shall not part as matters stand, Hott and I, but will both stay nearer you than that man had been sitting; otherwise we'll both be on our way.' The king said, 'I see no honor in him, but I would not deny him food.'
Bothvar now goes to the spot which pleases him, but he does not wish to occupy the one which that man had before. He snatches up three men in a certain spot and he and Hott set themselves down there farther in the hall than was designated for them. The men consider Bothvar difficult to deal with, and they hold great resentment toward him.
And as it came toward yule time, the men became depressed. Bothvar asks Hott what this all amounts to; he tells him that a certain animal had come there two winters in a row, big and terrible -- 'and it has wings on its back and it flies continuously. For two autumns now it has visited here and done great damage. No weapons cut it, nor do the king's champions come home, those who are greatest of all.' Bothvar said, 'The hall is not as well built as I had thought, if one animal will destroy the king's kingdom and property.' Hott said, 'That is no animal, but the greatest troll.'
It came to Christmas Eve. The king said, 'Now I want that my men be quiet and silent during the night, and I forbid all my men to go into certain danger against the animal, but the livestock fares according to whatever happens; I will not lose my men.' They all promise good behavior, to work according to what the king commanded.
Bothvar stole away during the night; he makes Hott go with him, and he does so unwillingly, and claimed it would be his death. Bothvar says that that might turn out better. They go away from the hall, and Bothvar ends up carrying him, so afraid is he. Suddenly they see the animal, and right then Hott cried out such as he could and said the animal would swallow him. Bothvar commanded this dog of his to be silent and cast him down upon the moss, and there he lay , not completely unafraid. Nor did he dare to go home. Then Bothvar goes to meet the animal; it happens that his sword is stuck fast in the scabbard as he wishes to draw it. Bothvar now tugs hard on the sword and shakes the scabbard, and now tries a sudden jerk of the scabbard so that the sword comes out of the sheath and he thrusts it quickly under the animal's shoulder so hard that it stuck in its heart, and the animal dropped down dead to the earth. After that he goes back where Hott is lying. Bothvar takes him up and carries him to where the animal lies dead. Hott shakes violently. Bothvar said: 'Now you shall drink the animal's blood.'
[N.B. Hott comes back from the escapade a changed man, with a renewed sense of confidence.]

Grammar

26. The Third Strong Conjugation

The third strong conjugation comprises verbs whose stem ends in two consonants, and whose present stem vowel is e or i. The ablaut series is as follows.

    e, i -- a -- u, o, from Proto-Germanic e, i -- a -- u, o.

The typical present stem vowel is e, but this appears as i when immediately followed by n. Vowel alternation also shows itself in the past participle: the usual stem vowel is u, but this becomes o when it immediately precedes l or r. Several other sound changes occur frequently in verbs belonging to this class. The most important are listed below.

Stem-final ng > kk and nd > tt in past singular. Thus the common verb binda 'bind' has past singular forms ek batt, batzt (< *battst); likewise springa 'spring, jump' has past singular form sprakk.

Stem-final ld > lt in past singular. For example, gjalda 'pay' has past singular forms ek galt, galzt, hann galt; compare these to the plural forms vr guldum, r guldu, eir guldu.

e > ja before l or r + consonant. This rule only applies to the infinitive and present plural forms of verbs whose stem ends in a consonant cluster beginning with l or r. In these situations, the stem vowel e diphthonizes to ja. For example, gjalda has the following present forms: ek geld, geldr, hann geldr; vr gjldum, r gjaldi, eir gjalda. Similarly hann bergr, but r bjargi, from bjarga 'rescue'. No other forms show the diphthong, hence hann galt, eir burgu, etc. The verb skjlfa 'shiver' retains a long vowel in the present plural and infinitive, e.g. vr skjlfum, but other forms parallel gjalda, e.g. ek skelf, ek skalf, vr skulfum, skolfinn.

v > zero before o or u. This rule is regular in ON, but is particularly important in reference to the principal parts of several Class III verbs. For example, vera 'become' has stems ver-, var-, ur-, or-. Compare the following forms: ek ver, vr verum, ek var, vr urum, orinn.

v-augment shifts a > , i > y, e > . Some verbs add a v-augment to the root-final consonants of the first and second principal parts. This augment causes u-umlaut of the root vowel when applicable. Consider the following forms of skkva 'sink': stem sekkv- gives hann skkr, eir skkva; stem sakkv- gives hann skk; stem sukk- gives eir sukku; sokkinn (irregular). Similarly, consider forms of syngva 'sing': singv- gives hann syngr, eir syngva; stem sangv- gives hann sng (note ng does not become kk here); stem sung- gives eir sungu; sunginn.

Some verbs show peculiarities other than those mentioned above. The verbs brenna 'burn' and renna 'run' show e rather than i in the present stem. The verb finna 'find' had an earlier stem *fin-, which led to the stems finn-, fann-, fund-, fund- in ON. The verb brega 'hasten', similar to verbs of Class II, has the past singular stem br-: ek br, brtt, hann br; vr brugum, r brugu, eir brugu.

The verb springa 'shoot', with principal parts springa -- springr -- sprakk -- sprungu -- spryngi -- sprunginn, illustrates the conjugation. The active forms are as follows.

Class III   Indicative   Subjunctive   Imperative
Present            
1 Sg.   spring   springa    
2   springr   springir   spring
3   springr   springi    
             
1 Pl.   springum   springim   springum
2   springi   springi   springi
3   springa   springi    
             
Past            
1 Sg.   sprakk   sprynga    
2   sprakkt   spryngir    
3   sprakk   spryngi    
             
1 Pl.   sprungum   spryngim    
2   sprungu   spryngi    
3   sprungu   spryngi    
             
Infinitive   springa        
             
Pres. Ptc.   springandi        
             
Past Ptc.   sprunginn        

The middle forms are listed below.

Class III   Indicative   Subjunctive   Imperative
Present            
1 Sg.   springumk   springumk    
2   springsk   springisk   springsk
3   springsk   springisk    
             
1 Pl.   springumsk   springimsk   springumsk
2   springizk   springizk   springizk
3   springask   springisk    
             
Past            
1 Sg.   sprungumk   spryngumk    
2   sprakkzk   spryngisk    
3   sprakksk   spryngisk    
             
1 Pl.   sprungumsk   spryngimsk    
2   sprunguzk   spryngizk    
3   sprungusk   spryngisk    
             
Infinitive   springask        
             
Pres. Ptc.   springandisk        
             
Past Ptc.   sprungizk        
27. The Fourth Strong Conjugation

The fourth strong conjugation consists of a small group of verbs whose stem ends in a single resonant (l, r, m, n) and with present stem vowel e. The ablaut series is

    e, i -- a -- -- u, o, from Proto-Germanic e -- a -- -- u.

The past participle most often shows o as the stem vowel, less often u. For example, the verb bera 'carry' has principal parts bera -- berr -- bar -- bru -- bri -- borinn; likewise stela 'steal' has principal parts stela -- stelr -- stal -- stlu -- stli -- stolinn. The verb nema 'take' shows u in the fourth principal part: nema -- nemr -- nam -- nmu -- nmi -- numinn.

The verb bera 'carry', with principal parts bera -- berr -- bar -- bru -- bri -- borinn, illustrates the conjugation. The active forms are as follows.

Class IV   Indicative   Subjunctive   Imperative
Present            
1 Sg.   ber   bera    
2   berr   berir   ber
3   berr   beri    
             
1 Pl.   berum   berim   berum
2   beri   beri   beri
3   bera   beri    
             
Past            
1 Sg.   bar   bra    
2   bart   brir    
3   bar   bri    
             
1 Pl.   brum   brim    
2   bru   bri    
3   bru   bri    
             
Infinitive   bera        
             
Pres. Ptc.   berandi        
             
Past Ptc.   borinn        

The middle forms are listed below.

Class IV   Indicative   Subjunctive   Imperative
Present            
1 Sg.   berumk   berumk    
2   bersk   berisk   bersk
3   bersk   berisk    
             
1 Pl.   berumsk   berimsk   berumsk
2   berizk   berizk   berizk
3   berask   berisk    
             
Past            
1 Sg.   brumk   brumk    
2   barzk   brisk    
3   barsk   brisk    
             
1 Pl.   brumsk   brimsk    
2   bruzk   brizk    
3   brusk   brisk    
             
Infinitive   berask        
             
Pres. Ptc.   berandisk        
             
Past Ptc.   borizk        
28. Subject Agreement and Verbal Complements

The subject of a verb stands in the nominative case. Any adjective predicated to the subject also stands in the nominative, and agrees with the subject in gender and number. If the subject is of mixed gender, the adjective is neuter. Though complements to vera 'be' and vera 'become' are typically adjectives, sometimes adverbs are used in ON, particularly vel 'well' and illa 'badly'. For example, at er vel 'it is good' (literally: 'it is well'); konungr segir at at var illa at Arnljtr hafi eigi farit hans fund 'the king says that it was bad(ly) that Arnljot had not gone to meet him.' On the other hand, ON often uses adjectives as complements where Modern English uses adverbs or adverbial phrases: var Eyjlfr framarlega 'then Eyjolf (be)came frontward'; skulut it brr fyrstir fara 'you two brothers shall go first'; rym drap hann fyrstan 'he killed Thrym first' (literally: 'he killed Thrym (the) first (one)').

Verb and subject generally agree in number, so that a singular subject has a singular verb, and a plural subject has a plural verb. When there is a compound subject, the verb often agrees in number with the nearest subject member only, even if this is singular. Adjectives may function in a similar fashion, agreeing in gender and number with the nearest referent. Consider the following example: var Ulfr ok allir stafnbarnir komnir at lyptingunni 'then Ulf and all the forecastle men got to the poopdeck.' In this example var is singular by proximity to Ulfr, but komnir is plural by proximity to stafnbarnir. The sentence konungr var allmjk drukkinn ok bi au 'the king was quite drunk, as was she' shows how a neuter adjective (bi au) is used to refer to a group containing different genders. Verb and subject may disagree in number if separated by several words: eptir at dreif at eim fstbrrum vinir eira r Firafylki 'after that their friends from Firthafylki rushed to the foster-brothers.' When a copula links subject and predicate, the verb often agrees in number with the predicate, e.g. vru at ltil sr ok mrg literally 'that were small wounds and many.' A past participle often agrees with the verbal complement: var at mikill fjli orinn 'it had become a great multitude.'

29. The Accusative Case

The accusative case is the case of the direct object. More generally, the case denotes extent in time or space, e.g. hann siglde dag ok ntt 'he sailed day and night'. Such uses of the accusative are particularly common with expressions of time: einn dag '(for) one day'; laugardag '(on) Sunday'; nstu ntt epter 'the next night'; annat sinn '(for) a second time'; aptan dags '(on) the day's evening'. Often when the substantive is not modified a preposition is used: ntt 'that night'.

The -sk suffix of middle verbs often fills the role of the direct object (it in fact derives from sik, the accusative of the reflexive pronoun). Some middle verbs may nevertheless take a direct object, unrelated to the -sk suffix. For example, hann undraisk etta 'he wondered about that' (literally: 'he wondered himself that').

Many verbs take objects that are cognate with the verb, e.g. ra r 'give counsel' (literally: 'to counsel counsel'); telja tlu 'tell a tale'. Intransitive verbs may take a substantive as direct object when the substantive's meaning reiterates or specifies the basic meaning of the verb. Typically such substantives are cognate with the verb itself: sofa svefn 'sleep a sleep'; hann fell fall mikit 'he fell a great fall.' Occasionally an adjective is used in this position, its referent coming from the verb itself: hann rr mikinn 'he rides hard' (literally: 'he rides a big (one), he rides a big (ride)'). Collectively such accusatives are termed internal accusatives.

In some situations ON employs a double accusative. There are three primary situations in which this occurs:

(1) Personal Object + Predicate: This usually denotes a change of state of the object. For example: ek settak ik mikinn mann 'I established you (as) a great man'; ann skal dma skgarmann 'one should reckon him a woodsman.'

(2) Personal Object + Internal Accusative: Examples are konungr hj hann banahgg 'the king dealt him a deathblow'; dreymi (impersonal) hann (acc.) inn rija draum, literally 'it dreamed him the third dream.'

(3) Personal + Material Object: This generally occurs with impersonal verbs denoting lack or want. For example, skortir ik eigi metno 'you have no lack of pride' (literally: 'it lacks you no pride'); ef fur minn rtr drengskapinn 'if manliness ends for my father' (literally: 'if it ends my father manliness'); skall oss aldregi skmm henda 'this dishonor shall not touch us' (literally: 'it shall not hit us this dishonor').

The noun vegr 'way' is often used in the accusative to express manner. For example, heyru eir lragang alla vega fr sr 'they heard the sound of horns around them in every direction'; hinn veg dreymi mik literally 'it dreamed me this (other) way'.

30. Pronouns, Adverbs, and Conjunctions Introducing Subordinate Clauses

The following pronouns and adverbs may introduce indirect questions.

Interrogative   Translation
     
hverr   who, which
hvat   what, what kind of
hvrr   which (of two)
     
hv   why
hvert   whither, to where
hvrt   whether, if
     
hvar   where
hvaan   whence, from where
hv   how
hversu   how
hvern-(v)eg   how
hvernog   how
     
nr   when
hvnr   when
     

These pronouns and adverbs are used for indirect questions, not for relative clauses. There are extremely rare instances in which hverr or hvat are used as relative pronouns, e.g. s ek mann til, hverr bera skal xina 'I am looking at the man who shall carry the axe', but this sort of use seems to be in imitation of Latin usage, and is confined to the Icelandic language.

Sometimes a separate deictic pronoun is used to point to the indirect question. This pronoun is typically at, less frequently etta or hitt. For example, at vil ek vita, hvat vill veita oss 'I want to know this, (namely) what you will give us.' Most often this deictic is not present: hann spuri, hvaan at kvmi 'he asked whence it came.'

The conjunction at 'that' often introduces indirect statements. Occasionally it is used with indirect questions, and in such circumstances it may follow the interrogative introducing the question. For example, lafr spuri nund, hvern styrk at hann myndi f honum 'Olaf asked Onund (that) what assistance he might provide him.' The particle er which introduces relative clauses may be used in a similar fashion: eir hfu spurt, hvern mannskaa ok fjrskaa er hann hafi ar grt 'they asked which crimes against man and property he had done there.' The particle er, in its generalizing use with interrogatives (e.g. hverr er 'whoever') may also be used in indirect questions: veiztu eigi, vi hvern er tt um 'don't you know with whom you have to go at it?'

The primary subordinating conjunctions are given below.

r 'before'. r en 'earlier than' is also common in prose.

at 'that'. The range of use closely parallels the Modern English conjunction 'that'. It may be combined with other adverbs: sv at 'so that', introducing either a consecutive or modal clause; at, tt 'although', introducing a concessive clause. at is used with comparatives, e.g. ert skau at meiri, at getr eigi stt tv menn 'you are all the more chicken, that you do not go after two men.' It is also used with demonstratives. The demonstrative may stand for the clause as a whole: en at vil ek ra r, at gefir eigi hringinn 'but this I will counsel you, that you do not give up the ring'. Some combinations are particularly common, such as til ess at 'so that'; v at 'because'; ess at 'yet so that'. See also Section 35.

ef 'if, whether, when (conditional)'.

en, an 'than, than that'. The use of en is often triggered by a comparative, e.g. at hann s yngri, en lgum es mlt 'though he be younger than is stated in the laws.' en is frequently used in conjunction with heldr 'rather': heldr en farir brott, vil ek gefa r... 'rather than you go on your way, I will give you...'.

es, er. This conjunction has no specific meaning, but is used as a general marker introducing a relative clause. Its uses are treated in Section 35.

mean 'as long as, while'. mean er is also common in prose.

nema 'if not, unless'.

ok 'and; as'. The sense '(the same) as' is used within a clause or to join two clauses. Compare the following two examples: svarar enn inu sama ok fyrr 'he gives the same answer as before'; etta var samsumars, ok Steingerr gekk fr Bersa 'that was the same summer as (when) Steingerth went from Bersa'.

sem 'like, as, as if'. This frequently correlates with sv 'so', e.g. eigi eru r slikir, sem r snezk 'you are not as you seem.' In the later language this begins to take the role of er as a general relative particle, perhaps beginning with constructions that could be interpreted in alternate ways: mun at hr sannask, sem mlt er, at... 'that shall be here affirmed, as is said, that...' or 'that shall be here affirmed, which is said, that...'.

utan 'except'.