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New Testament Greek Online

Lesson 10

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

St. Paul left Antioch in 46 A.D. on his first missionary journey, working in Galatia for two years, and then in the summer of 48 A.D. going to Macedonia until April 50 A.D. From there he went briefly to Athens, and then to Corinth in June of 50 A.D., staying until September of 51 A.D., when he left for a conference in Jerusalem. In the latter part of that year he went to Antioch and from there to Ephesus where he stayed from August, 52 A.D. to October, 54 A.D. During the early part of 54 A.D. a delegation consisting of Stephanas, Fortunatus and Achaicus arrived from Corinth, with a letter (1 Corinthians 16:17) that informed Paul of problems with the church there (1 Corinthians 7:1). Paul then wrote his first letter to the church at Corinth, sending it to them with the returning delegation. In the letter, he is primarily concerned with healing the factionalism that was reported to him. Reviewing the problems would be too lengthy for treatment here. The core of his answer is found in the remarkable Chapter 13.

Reading and Textual Analysis

1 Corinthians 13:1-13, and 2 Thessalonians 3:16 (memory verse)

This chapter is one of the great pieces of world literature. St. Paul sees agapê as the basis of Christianity and of life in the church, as well as the path to future blessedness. At the time of the King James translation, English still had two words for the emotion. These days the basic meaning of the term used to translate agapê in Chapter 13 has become the effects of love directed to others, leaving English with only one general term. Paul used several words, as in Romans 12. In verse nine he uses the general term in the statement: hê agapê anupokritos 'let love be without hypocrisy'; he then goes on with a more specific term: philadelphia 'brotherly love'. The Latin translation uses dilectio for the first, and caritatem fraternitatis for the second. Dilectio is also the translation for 'love' as defined by Jesus in St. John 15:9 and 13: "Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends," where the Greek has agapê. Agapê is clearly the general term, with implications as indicated by St. Paul in this chapter.

13:1 - Ean tais glôssais tôn anthrôpôn lalô kai tôn aggelôn, agapên de mê echô, gegona chalkos êchôn ê kumbalon alalazon.

  • ean -- conjunction; <ean> if -- if
  • tais -- article; dative plural feminine of <ho> the -- (with) the
  • glôssais -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <glôssa> tongue, language -- languages
  • tôn -- article; genitive plural masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • anthrôpôn -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <anthrôpos> human being -- of humans
  • lalô -- verb; 1st person singular present of <laleô> speak -- I speak
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • tôn -- article; genitive plural masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • aggelôn -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <aggelos> angel -- of angels
  • agapên -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <agapê> love -- love
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- but
  • -- particle; <> not -- not
  • echô -- verb; 1st person singular present of <echô> have -- do ...have
  • gegona -- deponent verb; 1st person singular perfect of <gignomai> happen, become -- I have become
  • chalkos -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <chalkos> brass -- brass
  • êchôn -- verb; nominative singular masculine of participle of <êcheô> sound, ring -- sounding
  • ê -- conjunction; <ê> or, than -- or
  • kumbalon -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <kumbalon> cymbal -- cymbal
  • alalazon -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of participle of <alalazô> tinkle -- tinkling

13:2 - kai ean echô prophêteian kai eidô ta mustêria panta kai pasan tên gnôsin, kan echô pasan tên pistin hôste orê methistanai, agapên de mê echô, outhen eimi.

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • ean -- conjunction; <ean> if -- if
  • echô -- verb; 1st person singular present of <echô> have -- I have
  • prophêteian -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <prophêteia> prophecy -- (the gift of) prophecy
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • eidô -- verb; 1st person singular present of <eidô> know -- I know
  • ta -- article; accusative plural neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • mustêria -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <mustêrion> mystery -- mysteries
  • panta -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <pas> all, every -- all
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • pasan -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <pas> all, every -- all
  • tên -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ho> the -- ...
  • gnôsin -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <gnôsis> knowledge -- knowledge
  • kan -- conjunction; <kan> and if -- and if
  • echô -- verb; 1st person singular present of <echô> have -- I have
  • pasan -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <pas> all, every -- all
  • tên -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ho> the -- ...
  • pistin -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <pistis> faith -- faith
  • hôste -- conjunction; <hôste> like, so that -- so that
  • orê -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <oros> mountain -- mountains
  • methistanai -- verb; infinitive of <methistêmi> move -- to move
  • agapên -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <agapê> love -- love
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- but
  • -- particle; <> not -- not
  • echô -- verb; 1st person singular present of <echô> have -- do ...have
  • outhen -- pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <oudeis, oudemia, ouden> no one, nothing -- nothing
  • eimi -- verb; 1st person singular present of <eimi> I am -- I am

13:3 - kan psômisô panta ta huparchonta mou, kai ean paradô to sôma mou hina kauthêsomai, agapên de mê echô, ouden ôpheloumai.

  • kan -- conjunction; <kan> and if -- and if
  • psômisô -- verb; 1st person singular future of <psômizô> feed with sops -- I will feed...in driblets
  • panta -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <pas> all, every -- all
  • ta -- article; accusative plural neuter of <ho> the -- ...
  • huparchonta -- participle used as substantive; accusative plural neuter of participle of <huparchô> belong to -- belongings
  • mou -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <egô> I -- my
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • ean -- conjunction; <ean> if -- if
  • paradô -- verb; 1st person plural future of <paradidômi> give to -- give
  • to -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ho> the -- ...
  • sôma -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <sôma> body -- body
  • mou -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <egô> I -- my
  • hina -- conjunction; <hina> so that -- so that
  • kauthêsomai -- verb; 1st person singular future passive of <kaiô> burn (up) -- I will be burned up
  • agapên -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <agapê> love -- love
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- but
  • -- particle; <> not -- not
  • echô -- verb; 1st person singular present of <echô> have -- I do ...have
  • ouden -- pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <oudeis, oudemia, ouden> no one, nothing -- nothing
  • ôpheloumai -- verb; 1st person singular present passive of <ôpheleô> to help, be of use -- I am helped in (I profit)

13:4 - Hê agapê makrothumei, chrêsteuetai hê agapê, ou zêloi, hê agapê ou perpereuetai, ou phusioutai,

  • -- article; nominative singular feminine of <ho> the -- ...
  • agapê -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <agapê> love -- love
  • makrothumei -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <makrothumeô> to be longsuffering -- is longsuffering
  • chrêsteuetai -- verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <chrêsteuomai> to be kind and good -- is kind and good
  • -- article; nominative singular feminine of <ho> the -- ...
  • agapê -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <agapê> love -- love
  • ou -- particle; <ou> not -- not
  • zêloi -- verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive of <zêloô> envy, be jealous -- is ...envious
  • -- article; nominative singular feminine of <ho> the -- ...
  • agapê -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <agapê> love -- love
  • ou -- particle; <ou> not -- not
  • perpereuetai -- verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <perpereuomai> boast -- does ... boast
  • ou -- particle; <ou> not -- not
  • phusioutai -- verb; 3rd person singular present passive of <phusioô> puff up -- is ... puffed up

13:5 - ouk aschêmonei, ou zêtei ta heautês, ou paroxunetai, ou logizetai to kakon,

  • ouk -- particle; <ouk> not -- not
  • aschêmonei -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <aschêmoneô> behave unseemly -- does ...behave unseemly
  • ou -- particle; <ou> not -- not
  • zêtei -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <zêteô> seek -- does ...seek
  • ta -- article; accusative plural neuter of <ho> the -- the (things)
  • heautês -- reflexive pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <heautou> oneself -- of its own
  • ou -- particle; <ou> not -- not
  • paroxunetai -- verb; 3rd person singular present passive of <paroxunô> anger, provoke -- is ...provoked
  • ou -- particle; <ou> not -- not
  • logizetai -- verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <logizomai> calculate, think -- does ... think
  • to -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ho> the -- ...
  • kakon -- adjective used as substantive; accusative singular neuter of <kakos> evil; poor -- evil

13:6 - ou chairei epi tê adikia, sugchairei de tê alêtheia.

  • ou -- particle; <ou> not -- not
  • chairei -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <chairô> rejoice -- does ...rejoice
  • epi -- preposition; <epi> on, about -- over
  • -- article; dative singular feminine of <ho> the -- ...
  • adikia -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <adikia> wrong-doing -- in wrong-doing
  • sugchairei -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <sugchairô> rejoice with -- joins in rejoicing
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- but
  • -- article; dative singular feminine of <ho> the -- in the
  • alêtheia -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <alêtheia> truth -- truth

13:7 - panta stegei, panta pisteuei, panta elpizei, panta hupomenei.

  • panta -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural neuter of <pas> all, every -- all things
  • stegei -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <stegô> endure -- endures
  • panta -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural neuter of <pas> all, every -- all things
  • pisteuei -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <pisteuô> believe -- believes
  • panta -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural neuter of <pas> all, every -- all things
  • elpizei -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <elpizô> hope -- hopes
  • panta -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural neuter of <pas> all, every -- all things
  • hupomenei -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <hupomenô> be patient under -- is patient under

13:8 - Hê agapê oudepote piptei? eite de prophêteiai, katargêthêsontai? eite glôssai, pausontai? eite gnôsis, katargêthêsetai.

  • -- article; nominative singular feminine of <ho> the -- ...
  • agapê -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <agapê> love -- love
  • oudepote -- adverb; <oudepote> never -- never
  • piptei -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <piptô> fall -- fails
  • eite -- conjunction; <eite> whether...or -- whether
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- but
  • prophêteiai -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <prophêteia> prophecy -- (there are) prophecies
  • katargêthêsontai -- verb; 3rd person plural future passive of <katargeô> make of no effect -- they will fail
  • eite -- conjunction; <eite> whether...or -- or
  • glôssai -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <glôssa> tongue, language -- (there are) tongues
  • pausontai -- verb; 3rd person plural future passive of <pauô> stop, cease -- they will cease
  • eite -- conjunction; <eite> whether...or -- or
  • gnôsis -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <gnôsis> knowledge -- (there is) knowledge
  • katargêthêsetai -- verb; 3rd person singular future passive of <katargeô> make of no effect -- (it will) vanish

13:9 - ek merous gar ginôskomen kai ek merous prophêteuomen.

  • ek -- preposition; <ek> from, out of -- in
  • merous -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <meros> part -- part
  • gar -- conjunction; <gar> for -- for
  • ginôskomen -- verb; 1st person plural present of <ginôskô> know, learn -- we know
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • ek -- preposition; <ek> from, out of -- in
  • merous -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <meros> part -- part
  • prophêteuomen -- verb; 1st person plural present of <prophêteuô> prophesy -- we prophesy

13:10 - hotan de elthê to teleion, to ek merous katargêthêsetai.

  • hotan -- conjunction; <hotan> when, every time -- when
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- but
  • elthê -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist subjunctive middle of <erchomai> come, go -- shall come
  • to -- article; nominative singular neuter of <ho> the -- that which is
  • teleion -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <teleion> fulfilled, perfect -- perfect
  • to -- article; nominative singular neuter of <ho> the -- that (which is)
  • ek -- preposition; <ek> from, out of -- in
  • merous -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <meros> part -- part
  • katargêthêsetai -- verb; 3rd person singular future passive of <katargeô> make of no effect -- will be abolished

13:11 - hote êmên nêpios, elaloun hôs nêpios, ephronoun hôs nêpios, elogizomên hôs nêpios.

  • hote -- conjunction; <hote> when -- when
  • êmên -- verb; 1st person plural imperfect of <eimi> I am -- (we) I was
  • nêpios -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <nêpios> childish, foolish -- a child
  • elaloun -- verb; 1st person singular imperfect of <laleô> speak -- I spoke
  • hôs -- conjunction; <hôs> as, thus -- like
  • nêpios -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <nêpios> childish, foolish -- a child
  • ephronoun -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <phroneô> understand -- I understood
  • hôs -- conjunction; <hôs> as, thus -- like
  • nêpios -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <nêpios> childish, foolish -- a child
  • elogizomên -- verb; 1st person plural imperfect of <elogizô> think -- I thought
  • hôs -- conjunction; <hôs> as, thus -- like
  • nêpios -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <nêpios> childish, foolish -- a child

hote gegona anêr, katêgorêka ta tou nêpiou.

  • hote -- conjunction; <hote> when -- when
  • gegona -- deponent verb; 1st person singular perfect of <gignomai> happen, become -- I became
  • anêr -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <anêr> man -- a man
  • katêgorêka -- verb; 1st person singular perfect of <katêgoreô> speak against -- I spoke against
  • ta -- article used as pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <ho> the -- the (things)
  • tou -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ho> the -- of the
  • nêpiou -- adjective; genitive singular masculine of <nêpios> childish, foolish -- child

13:12 - blepomen gar arti di' esoptrou en ainigmati, tote de prosôpon pros prosôpon? arti ginôskô ek merous, tote de epignôsomai kathôs kai epegnôsthên.

  • blepomen -- verb; 1st person plural present of <blepô> see -- we see
  • gar -- conjunction; <gar> for -- for
  • arti -- adverb; <arti> now -- now
  • di' -- preposition; <dia> through, by -- through
  • esoptrou -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <esoptron> mirror -- a mirror
  • en -- preposition; <en> in -- in
  • ainigmati -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <ainigma> riddle -- riddle(s)
  • tote -- adverb; <tote> then -- then
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- but
  • prosôpon -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <prosôpon> face -- face
  • pros -- preposition; <pros> to -- to
  • prosôpon -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <prosôpon> face -- face
  • arti -- adverb; <arti> now -- now
  • ginôskô -- verb; 1st person singular present of <ginôskô> know, learn -- I know
  • ek -- preposition; <ek> from, out of -- in
  • merous -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <meros> part -- part
  • tote -- adverb; <tote> then -- then
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- but
  • epignôsomai -- verb; 1st person singular future of <epigignôskô> know, discover -- I shall know
  • kathôs -- conjunction; <kathôs> as -- as
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- also
  • epegnôsthên -- verb; 1st person singular aorist passive of <epigignôskô> know, discover -- I have been known

13:13 - nuni de menei pistis, elpis, agapê, ta tria tauta? meizôn de toutôn hê agapê.

  • nuni -- adverb; <nuni> now -- now
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- but
  • menei -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <menô> remain -- (there) remain
  • pistis -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <pistis> faith -- faith
  • elpis -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <elpis> hope -- hope
  • agapê -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <agapê> love -- love
  • ta -- article; nominative plural neuter of <ho> the -- ...
  • tria -- number; nominative plural neuter of <treis> three -- three
  • tauta -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural neuter of <houtos> this -- these
  • meizôn -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of comparative of <megas> great -- greatest
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- but
  • toutôn -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive plural neuter of <houtos> this -- of these
  • -- article; nominative singular feminine of <ho> the -- ...
  • agapê -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <agapê> love -- (is)love

2 Thessalonians 3:16 (memory verse) - Autos de ho kurios tês eirênês dôê humin tên eirênên dia pantos en panti tropô. Ho kurios meta pantôn humôn.

  • autos -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- himself
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- but
  • ho -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • kurios -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <kurios> lord -- Lord
  • tês -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ho> the -- ...
  • eirênês -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <eirênê> peace -- peace
  • dôê -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist optative of <didômi> give -- may . . .give
  • humin -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <su> you -- you
  • tên -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ho> the -- ...
  • eirênên -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <eirênê> peace -- peace
  • dia -- preposition; <dia> through, by -- ...
  • pantos -- adjective; genitive singular neuter of <pas> all, every -- continually
  • en -- preposition; <en> in -- in
  • panti -- adjective; dative singular masculine of <pas> all, every -- every
  • tropô -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <tropos> manner -- manner
  • ho -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • kurios -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <kurios> lord -- Lord
  • meta -- preposition; <meta> after, with -- (be) with
  • pantôn -- adjective; genitive plural masculine of <pas> all, every -- all
  • humôn -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <su> you -- you

Lesson Text

13:1 Ean tais glôssais tôn anthrôpôn lalô kai tôn aggelôn, agapên de mê echô, gegona chalkos êchôn ê kumbalon alalazon. 13:2 kai ean echô prophêteian kai eidô ta mustêria panta kai pasan tên gnôsin, kan echô pasan tên pistin hôste orê methistanai, agapên de mê echô, outhen eimi. 13:3 kan psômisô panta ta huparchonta mou, kai ean paradô to sôma mou hina kauthêsomai, agapên de mê echô, ouden ôpheloumai.

13:4 Hê agapê makrothumei, chrêsteuetai hê agapê, ou zêloi, hê agapê ou perpereuetai, ou phusioutai, 13:5 ouk aschêmonei, ou zêtei ta heautês, ou paroxunetai, ou logizetai to kakon, 13:6 ou chairei epi tê adikia, sugchairei de tê alêtheia. 13:7 panta stegei, panta pisteuei, panta elpizei, panta hupomenei. 13:8 Hê agapê oudepote piptei? eite de prophêteiai, katargêthêsontai? eite glôssai, pausontai? eite gnôsis, katargêthêsetai. 13:9 ek merous gar ginôskomen kai ek merous prophêteuomen. 13:10 hotan de elthê to teleion, to ek merous katargêthêsetai.

13:11 hote êmên nêpios, elaloun hôs nêpios, ephronoun hôs nêpios, elogizomên hôs nêpios. hote gegona anêr, katêgorêka ta tou nêpiou. 13:12 blepomen gar arti di' esoptrou en ainigmati, tote de prosôpon pros prosôpon? arti ginôskô ek merous, tote de epignôsomai kathôs kai epegnôsthên.

13:13 nuni de menei pistis, elpis, agapê, ta tria tauta? meizôn de toutôn hê agapê.

2 Thessalonians 3:16 (memory verse) - Autos de ho kurios tês eirênês dôê humin tên eirênên dia pantos en panti tropô. Ho kurios meta pantôn humôn.

Translation

From the King James version:
13:1 Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not charity, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal. 2 And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge; and though I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not charity, I am nothing. 3 And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and though I give my body to be burned, and have not charity, it profiteth me nothing.
4 Charity suffereth long, and is kind; charity envieth not; charity vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up, 5 Doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil; 6 Rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth; 7 Beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things. 8 Charity never faileth: but whether there be prophecies, they shall fail; whether there be tongues, they shall cease; whether there be knowledge, it shall vanish away. 9 For we know in part, and we prophesy in part. 10 But when that which is perfect is come, then that which is in part shall be done away.
11 When I was a child, I spake as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child: but when I became a man, I put away childish things. 12 For now we see through a glass, darkly; but then face to face: now I know in part; but then shall I know even as also I am known.
13 And now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three; but the greatest of these is charity.
2 Thessalonians 3:16 (memory verse) --
Now the Lord of peace himself give you peace always by all means. The Lord be with you all.

References

46. Texts.

The text of the New Testament has probably been examined like no other. It is based on numerous manuscripts. There are four important ones: Codex Vaticanus in Rome; Codex Sinaiticus in Leningrad; Codex Alexandrinus in the British Museum; Codex Ephraemi rescriptus in Paris. These were prepared in the fourth and fifth centuries. There are numerous others, some with Greek and Latin in parallel pages or columns, as well as Syrian and Egyptian versions, and also quotations in the church fathers. The variants among these are slight, so that current editions of the text are comparable.

A convenient modern text is that of Brooke Foss Westcott and Fenton John Anthony Hort, The New Testament in the Original Greek (New York: Macmillan, 1893), often reprinted. It includes notes and a Greek-English lexicon. The text used here is that of D. Eberhard Nestle, Novum Testamentum Graece (Stuttgart: Wuerttembergische Bibelanstalt, 1898), often reprinted.

47. Grammars.

Similarly, the grammar of the language has been thoroughly and repeatedly presented. For a large work one may consult A Grammar of New Testament Greek Vol. I, 3rd ed. (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1908) by James Hope Moulton; Vol. II (1928) by James Hope Moulton and Wilbert Francis Howard; and Vol. III (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1963) by Nigel Turner, all often reprinted. A shorter work is A New Short Grammar of the Greek Testament (New York: Smith, 1931) by A. T. Robertson and W. Hersey Davis, with a useful bibliography and credit to Moulton. While the language has undergone changes since the classical period, as the bibliography of Robertson and Davis implies, a grammar of the classical language is satisfactory for understanding the grammar of the language except for specific details that are not essential in interpreting the texts. The most comprehensive grammar is that of Eduard Schwyzer, Griechische Grammatik I-III (Munich: Beck, 1939-53).

48. Dictionaries.

There are dictionaries devoted specifically to New Testament Greek, such as that in the Wetcott-Hort edition, but general dictionaries also cover the language. Accordingly, one may conveniently use An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, founded upon the seventh edition of Lidddell and Scott's Greek-English lexicon (Oxford: Clarendon, 1889), often reprinted.

49. Specialized handbooks.

The number of works on the New Testament is enormous. For example, a short book of 220 pages: A Preface to Mark, by Christopher Bryan (New York: Oxford, 1993), includes a bibliography of sixteen pages, concluding with two items on videotape, one distributed by the American Bible Society (1865 Broadway, New York, NY, 10023). As another example of their age, extent, and diversity, we may cite the translation of the Commentary on Saint Paul's Epistle to the Galatians by St. Thomas Aquinas by F. R. Larcher (Albany, NY: Magi, 211 pages).

For a general work in a "historical nontheological approach," one may consult The New Testament. A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings by Bart D. Ehrman (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000, 2nd ed., 465 pages), with suggestions for further readings in the text but no bibliography. A work written to encourage "a maximum of observation of the text itself" is The Word of the Lord Grows: A First Historical Introduction to the New Testament by Martin H. Franzmann (St. Louis: Concordia, 1961). Among more specialized works of interest is Paul: A Critical Life by Jerome Murphy-O'Connor (New York: Oxford, 1996). Encyclopedias should not be overlooked when seeking information on the major figures and the Christian church itself.

It is hardly necessary to state that there are many translations. Choice among them may be left to the interest of individuals. One produced by a classicist may be of interest, not only for its treatment of each of the gospels as continuous works rather than made up of chapters and verses: The Four Gospels: a new translation from the Greek by E.V. Rieu, (Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1953, 250 pages), subsequently reprinted. The tone of Rieu's translation may be indicated by the end of his Introduction: "They are the Magna Charta of the human spirit. Were we to devote to their comprehension a little of the selfless enthusiasms that is now expended on the riddle of our physical surroundings, we should cease to say that Christianity is coming to an end -- we might even feel that it has only just begun."

50. The Legacy of the New Testament.

The legacy of the New Testament is evident in the spiritual and cultural history of the western world, and subsequently far beyond it. Its early extent is foreshadowed in the account of the Pentecost, with citizens of many of the Mediterranean countries present. And shortly thereafter the letters of St. Paul confirm the widespread reception of its teachings. Christianity became firmly established when Constantine the Great (306-337) made it the official religion of the Roman Empire. Many of our early texts in the languages of Europe resulted from its adoption. Among the earliest is the Gothic translation of the fourth century ascribed to Bishop Wulfila. With the appearance of the Latin version in the Vulgate, 404 A.D., it became accessible to the literate community of Europe.

The growing influence of the Bishop of Rome led to a center for its continued influence. With the election of Gregory the Great as pope in 590 A.D. the papacy was well-established, and provided spiritual and intellectual guidance for much of Europe. The current situation as well as the recent history of Christianity are so obvious that further discussion here is unnecessary.