The University of Texas at Austin; College of Liberal Arts
Hans C. Boas, Director :: PCL 5.556, 1 University Station S5490 :: Austin, TX 78712 :: 512-471-4566
LRC Links: Home | About | Books Online | EIEOL | IE Doc. Center | IE Lexicon | IE Maps | IE Texts | Pub. Indices | SiteMap

New Testament Greek Online

Lesson 2

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

The first gospel clearly had a Jewish author, as may be noted from his stress on the genealogy of Jesus given in his first chapter and from his many references to Old Testament prophecies, such as the quotation in verse 6 of this text as well as others in this chapter and later. By tradition the author was Matthew (a.k.a. Levi), the tax collector whom Jesus called to be a disciple in Chapter 9, verse 9 of the book. But modern scholars consider the identification unlikely because nowhere throughout the book does the disciple provide evidence that he was its author. Rather it is assumed that the author was a Jew who wrote the book for Christians outside Israel. Because there are passages that seem to be based on Mark's account, such as the baptism of Jesus by John, it is assumed that the Gospel according to Matthew was written after that of Mark, possibly in the eighties.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Matthew 2:1-12, and Mark 10:14b (memory verse)

The Gospel according to Matthew has been especially valued, as indicated by its position as the first gospel, and also because of its remarkable passages. Among these are realistic accounts of the life of Jesus, such as his baptism by John in Chapter 3 and his temptation by the devil in Chapter 4. These are followed by passages that have been central to Christian worship ever since--the Sermon on the Mount, which includes the Beatitudes and the Lord's Prayer. And his exhortation in Chapter 10 to his disciples when he sent them out as well as his instructions in Chapters 18 and 19 are readily applicable to the life of his followers at the time and later. The selection here, which also illustrates the author's literary capabilities, is a central part of the annual celebration of his birth at Christmas.

2:1 - Τοῦ δὲ Ἰησοῦ γεννηθέντος ἐν Βηθλέεμ τῆς Ἰουδαίας ἐν ἡμέραις Ἡρῴδου τοῦ βασιλέως, ἰδοὺ μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα λέγοντες,

  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <> the -- ...
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- now (when)
  • Ἰησοῦ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Ἰησοῦς> Jesus -- Jesus
  • γεννηθέντος -- deponent verb; genitive singular masculine of aorist passive participle of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- was born
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • Βηθλέεμ -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <Βηθλέεμ> Bethlehem -- Bethlehem
  • τῆς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <> the -- ...
  • Ἰουδαίας -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Ἰουδαία> Judea -- Judea
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • ἡμέραις -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <ἡμέρα> day -- (the) days
  • Ἡρῴδου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Ἡρῴδης> Herod -- of Herod
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <> the -- the
  • βασιλέως -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <βασιλεύς> king -- king
  • ἰδοὺ -- adverb; <ἰδού> behold -- behold
  • μάγοι -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <μάγος> wise man -- wise men
  • ἀπὸ -- preposition; <ἀπό> from -- from
  • ἀνατολῶν -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <ἀνατολή> east -- (the) East
  • παρεγένοντο -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist middle of <παραγίγνομαι> come -- came
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- to
  • Ἱεροσόλυμα -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <Ἱεροσόλυμα> Jerusalem -- Jerusalem
  • λέγοντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <λέγω> say -- saying

2:2 - ποῦ ἐστιν ὁ τεχθεὶς βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων;

  • ποῦ -- adverb; <ποῦ> where -- where
  • ἐστιν -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- is
  • -- article; nominative singular masculine of <> the -- the
  • τεχθεὶς -- verb; nominative singular masculine of passive participle of <τίκτω> give birth -- (who was) born
  • βασιλεὺς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <βασιλεύς> king -- king
  • τῶν -- article; genitive plural masculine of <> the -- of the
  • Ἰουδαίων -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <Ἰουδαῖος> Jew -- Jews

εἴδομεν γὰρ αὐτοῦ τὸν ἀστέρα ἐν τῇ ἀνατολῇ, καὶ ἤλθομεν προσκυνῆσαι αὐτῷ.

  • εἴδομεν -- verb; 1st person plural aorist of <ὁράω> see -- we have seen
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • αὐτοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- his
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <> the -- ...
  • ἀστέρα -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <ἀστήρ> star -- star
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • τῇ -- article; dative singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • ἀνατολῇ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <ἀνατολή> east -- east
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἤλθομεν -- verb; 1st person plural aorist of <ἔρχομαι> come -- we have come
  • προσκυνῆσαι -- verb; aorist infinitive of <προσκυνέω> worship -- to worship
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him

2:3 - ἀκούσας δὲ ὁ βασιλεὺς Ἡρῴδης ἐταράχθη, καὶ πᾶσα Ἱεροσόλυμα κατ' αὐτοῦ.

  • ἀκούσας -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <ἀκούω> hear, listen -- having heard
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • -- article; nominative singular masculine of <> the -- ...
  • βασιλεὺς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <βασιλεύς> king -- King
  • Ἡρῴδης -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ἡρῴδης> Herod -- Herod
  • ἐταράχθη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <ταράσσω> trouble -- was troubled
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • πᾶσα -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <πᾶς> all, every -- all
  • Ἱεροσόλυμα -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <Ἱεροσόλυμα> Jerusalem -- Jerusalem
  • κατ' -- preposition; <κατά> completely, down, under -- with
  • αὐτοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him

2:4 - καὶ συναγαγὼν πάντας τοὺς ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ γραμματεῖς τοῦ λαοῦ ἐπυνθάνετο παρ' αὐτῶν ποῦ ὁ χριστὸς γεννᾶται.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • συναγαγὼν -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <συνάγω> bring together -- having brought together
  • πάντας -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <πᾶς> all, every -- all
  • τοὺς -- article; accusative plural masculine of <> the -- the
  • ἀρχιερεῖς -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <ἀρχιερεύς> chief priest -- chief priests
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • γραμματεῖς -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <γραμματεύς> scribe -- scribes
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <> the -- of the
  • λαοῦ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <λαός> people -- people
  • ἐπυνθάνετο -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular imperfect middle of <πυνθάνομαι> inquire -- he inquired
  • παρ' -- preposition; <παρά> from, of -- of
  • αὐτῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- them
  • ποῦ -- adverb; <ποῦ> where -- where
  • -- article; nominative singular masculine of <> the -- the
  • χριστὸς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <χριστός> Christ -- Christ
  • γεννᾶται -- verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive passive of <γεννάω> beget, bring forth -- would be born

2:5 - οἱ δὲ εἶπαν αὐτῷ

  • οἱ -- article used as pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <> the -- they
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • εἶπαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <λέγω> say -- said
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to him

ἐν Βηθλέεμ τῆς Ἰουδαίας. οὕτως γὰρ γέγραπται διὰ τοῦ προφήτου,

  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • Βηθλέεμ -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <Βηθλέεμ> Bethlehem -- Bethlehem
  • τῆς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <> the -- ...
  • Ἰουδαίας -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Ἰουδαία> Judea -- of Judea
  • οὕτως -- adverb; <οὕτως> so, thus -- so
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • γέγραπται -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect passive of <γράφω> write -- it is written
  • διὰ -- preposition; <διά> through, by -- by
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <> the -- the
  • προφήτου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <προφήτης> prophet -- prophet

2:6 - καὶ σὺ Βηθλέεμ, γῆ Ἰούδα,
        οὐδαμῶς ἐλαχίστη εἶ ἐν τοῖς ἡγεμόσιν Ἰούδα

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • σὺ -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • Βηθλέεμ -- noun, neuter; vocative singular of <Βηθλέεμ> Bethlehem -- Bethlehem
  • γῆ -- noun, feminine; vocative singular of <γῆ> earth, land -- (in the) land
  • Ἰούδα -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Ἰούδα> Juda -- of Juda
  • οὐδαμῶς -- adverb; <οὐδαμῶς> by no means -- by no means
  • ἐλαχίστη -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of superlative of <μικρός> small -- the smallest
  • εἶ -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- you are
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- among
  • τοῖς -- article; dative plural masculine of <> the -- the
  • ἡγεμόσιν -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <ἡγεμών> leader -- leaders
  • Ἰούδα -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Ἰούδα> Juda -- of Juda

ἐκ σοῦ γὰρ ἐξελεύσεται ἡγούμενος,
        ὅστις ποιμανεῖ τὸν λαόν μου τὸν Ἰσραήλ

  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- out of
  • σοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <σύ> you -- you
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • ἐξελεύσεται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular future of <ἐξέρχομαι> come out -- will come
  • ἡγούμενος -- verb; nominative singular masculine of present participle of <ἡγέομαι> lead, regard, rule -- a ruler
  • ὅστις -- relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <ὅστις> whoever, whatever -- who
  • ποιμανεῖ -- verb; 3rd person singular future of <ποιμαίνω> to be shepherd, rule over -- will rule over
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <> the -- ...
  • λαόν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <λαός> people -- people
  • μου -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <ἐγώ> I -- my
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <> the -- ...
  • Ἰσραήλ -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Ἰσραήλ> Israel -- Israel

2:7 - Τότε Ἡρῴδης λάθρα καλέσας τοὺς μάγους ἠκρίβωσεν παρ' αὐτῶν τὸν χρόνον τοῦ φαινομένου ἀστέρος.

  • τότε -- adverb; <τότε> then -- then
  • Ἡρῴδης -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ἡρῴδης> Herod -- Herod
  • λάθρα -- adverb; <λάθρα> secretly -- secretly
  • καλέσας -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <καλέω> call, summon -- having summoned
  • τοὺς -- article; accusative plural masculine of <> the -- the
  • μάγους -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <μάγος> wise man -- wise men
  • ἠκρίβωσεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ἀκριβόω> investigate thoroughly -- inquired thoroughly
  • παρ' -- preposition; <παρά> from, of -- of
  • αὐτῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- them
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <> the -- the
  • χρόνον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <χρόνος> time -- time
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <> the -- of the
  • φαινομένου -- deponent verb; genitive singular masculine of present participle of <φαίνομαι> see -- seen
  • ἀστέρος -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ἀστήρ> star -- star

2:8 - καὶ πέμψας αὐτοὺς εἰς Βηθλέεμ εἶπεν

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • πέμψας -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <πέμπω> send -- sending
  • αὐτοὺς -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- them
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- to
  • Βηθλέεμ -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <Βηθλέεμ> Bethlehem -- Bethlehem
  • εἶπεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- he said

πορευθέντες ἐξετάσατε ἀκριβῶς περὶ τοῦ παιδίου.

  • πορευθέντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist participle passive of <πορεύω> go, make go -- having gone
  • ἐξετάσατε -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative aorist of <ἐξετάζω> inquire -- inquire
  • ἀκριβῶς -- adverb; <ἀκριβῶς> sharply, diligently -- diligently
  • περὶ -- preposition; <περί> around -- concerning
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular neuter of <> the -- the
  • παιδίου -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <παιδίον> young child -- young child

ἐπὰν δὲ εὕρητε, ἀπαγγείλατέ μοι, ὅπως κάγὼ ἐλθὼν προσκυνήσω αὐτῷ.

  • ἐπὰν -- conjunction; <ἐπάν> whenever -- whenever
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • εὕρητε -- verb; 2nd person plural aorist subjunctive of <εὑρίσκω> find -- find out
  • ἀπαγγείλατέ -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative aorist of <ἀπαγγέλλω> report -- report
  • μοι -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <ἐγώ> I -- to me
  • ὅπως -- adverb; <ὅπως> so that -- so that
  • κάγὼ -- conjunction; <καί> and + pronoun; nominative singular of <ἐγώ> I -- I too
  • ἐλθὼν -- deponent verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <ἔρχομαι> come, go -- going
  • προσκυνήσω -- verb; 1st person singular future of <προσκυνέω> worship -- may worship
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him

2:9 - οἱ δὲ ἀκούσαντες τοῦ βασιλέως ἐπορεύθησαν.

  • οἱ -- article used as pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <> the -- they
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • ἀκούσαντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist participle of <ἀκούω> hear, listen -- having heard
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <> the -- the
  • βασιλέως -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <βασιλεύς> king -- king
  • ἐπορεύθησαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist passive of <πορεύω> go, make go -- departed

καὶ ἰδοὺ ὁ ἀστήρ, ὃν εἶδον ἐν τῇ ἀνατολῇ, προῆγεν αὐτοὺς ἕως ἐλθὼν ἐστάθη ἐπάνω οὗ ἦν τὸ παιδίον.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἰδοὺ -- adverb; <ἰδού> behold -- behold
  • -- article; nominative singular masculine of <> the -- the
  • ἀστήρ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ἀστήρ> star -- star
  • ὃν -- relative pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <ὅς> who, which -- which
  • εἶδον -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <ὁράω> see -- they saw
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • τῇ -- article; dative singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • ἀνατολῇ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <ἀνατολή> east -- east
  • προῆγεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <προάγω> proceed, go before -- went before
  • αὐτοὺς -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- them
  • ἕως -- conjunction; <ἕως> until -- until
  • ἐλθὼν -- deponent verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <ἔρχομαι> come, go -- moving
  • ἐστάθη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ἵστημι> put, place, stand -- it stood
  • ἐπάνω -- adverb; <ἐπάνω> above -- above
  • οὗ -- relative pronoun; genitive singular neuter of <ὅς> who, which -- where
  • ἦν -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <εἰμί> I am -- was
  • τὸ -- article; nominative singular neuter of <> the -- the
  • παιδίον -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <παιδίον> young child -- young child

2:10 - ἰδόντες δὲ τὸν ἀστέρα ἐχάρησαν χαρὰν μεγάλην σφόδρα.

  • ἰδόντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist participle of <ὁράω> see -- seeing
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <> the -- the
  • ἀστέρα -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <ἀστήρ> star -- star
  • ἐχάρησαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <χαίρω> rejoice -- they rejoiced (with)
  • χαρὰν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <χαρά> joy -- joy
  • μεγάλην -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <μέγας> great -- great
  • σφόδρα -- adverb; <σφόδρα> very -- very

2:11 - καὶ ἐλθόντες εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν εἶδον τὸ παιδίον μετὰ Μαρίας τῆς μητρὸς αὐτοῦ.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐλθόντες -- deponent verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist participle of <ἔρχομαι> come, go -- going
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- into
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • οἰκίαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <οἰκία> house -- building
  • εἶδον -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <ὁράω> see -- they saw
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <> the -- the
  • παιδίον -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <παιδίον> young child -- young child
  • μετὰ -- preposition; <μετά> after, with -- with
  • Μαρίας -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Μαρία> Mary -- Mary
  • τῆς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <> the -- ...
  • μητρὸς -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <μήτηρ> mother -- mother
  • αὐτοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- his

καὶ πεσόντες προσεκύνησαν αὐτῷ, καὶ ἀνοίξαντες τοὺς θησαυροὺς αὐτῶν προσήνεγκαν αὐτῷ δῶρα, χρυσὸν καὶ λίβανον καὶ σμύρναν.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • πεσόντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist participle of <πίπτω> fall -- falling down
  • προσεκύνησαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <προσκυνέω> worship -- worshipped
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἀνοίξαντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist participle of <ἀνοίγνυμι> open -- having opened
  • τοὺς -- article; accusative plural masculine of <> the -- ...
  • θησαυροὺς -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <θησαυρός> treasure -- treasures
  • αὐτῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- their
  • προσήνεγκαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <προσφέρω> offer, present -- they presented
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to him
  • δῶρα -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <δῶρον> gift -- gifts
  • χρυσὸν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <χρυσός> gold -- gold
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • λίβανον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <λίβανος> frankincense, frankincense tree -- frankincense
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • σμύρναν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <σμύρνα> myrrh -- myrrh

2:12 - καὶ χρηματισθέντες κατ' ὄναρ μὴ ἀνακάμψαι πρὸς Ἡρῴδην, δι' ἄλλης ὁδοῦ ἀνεχώρησαν εἰς τὴν χώραν αὐτῶν.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • χρηματισθέντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist participle passive of <χρηματίζω> negotiate, warn -- having been warned
  • κατ' -- preposition; <κατά> completely, down, under -- in
  • ὄναρ -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <ὄναρ> dream -- (a) dream
  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- not
  • ἀνακάμψαι -- verb; aorist infinitive of <ἀνακάμπτω> return -- (to) return
  • πρὸς -- preposition; <πρός> to -- to
  • Ἡρῴδην -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Ἡρῴδης> Herod -- Herod
  • δι' -- preposition; <διά> through, by -- by
  • ἄλλης -- adjective; genitive singular feminine of <ἄλλος> other -- (an) other
  • ὁδοῦ -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <ὁδός> way, road -- way
  • ἀνεχώρησαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <ἀνακάμπτω> return -- returned
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- to
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <> the -- ...
  • χώραν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <χώρα> land, country -- land
  • αὐτῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- their

Mark 10:14b (memory verse) -

        Ἄφετε τὰ παιδία ἔρχεσθαι πρός με,
        μὴ κωλύετε αὐτά·
        τῶν γὰρ τοιούτων ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ.

  • ἄφετε -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative of <ἀφίημι> send forth, throw down, permit, forgive -- suffer
  • τὰ -- article; accusative plural neuter of <> the -- the
  • παιδία -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <παιδίον> young child -- little children
  • ἔρχεσθαι -- deponent verb; infinitive of <ἔρχομαι> come, go -- (to) come
  • πρός -- preposition; <πρός> to -- to
  • με -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <ἐγώ> I -- me
  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- not
  • κωλύετε -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative of <κωλύω> hinder, prevent -- (do) . . .hinder
  • αὐτά -- pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- them
  • τῶν -- article; genitive plural masculine of <> the -- ...
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • τοιούτων -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <τοιοῦτος> such -- of such
  • ἐστὶν -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- is
  • -- article; nominative singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • βασιλεία -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <βασιλεία> kingdom -- kingdom
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <> the -- ...
  • θεοῦ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <θεός> god -- god

Lesson Text

2:1 Τοῦ δὲ Ἰησοῦ γεννηθέντος ἐν Βηθλέεμ τῆς Ἰουδαίας ἐν ἡμέραις Ἡρῴδου τοῦ βασιλέως, ἰδοὺ μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν παρεγένοντο εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα λέγοντες, 2:2 ποῦ ἐστιν ὁ τεχθεὶς βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων; εἴδομεν γὰρ αὐτοῦ τὸν ἀστέρα ἐν τῇ ἀνατολῇ, καὶ ἤλθομεν προσκυνῆσαι αὐτῷ.

2:3 ἀκούσας δὲ ὁ βασιλεὺς Ἡρῴδης ἐταράχθη, καὶ πᾶσα Ἱεροσόλυμα κατ' αὐτοῦ. 2:4 καὶ συναγαγὼν πάντας τοὺς ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ γραμματεῖς τοῦ λαοῦ ἐπυνθάνετο παρ' αὐτῶν ποῦ ὁ χριστὸς γεννᾶται. 2:5 οἱ δὲ εἶπαν αὐτῷ ἐν Βηθλέεμ τῆς Ἰουδαίας. οὕτως γὰρ γέγραπται διὰ τοῦ προφήτου,

        2:6 καὶ σὺ Βηθλέεμ, γῆ Ἰούδα,
        οὐδαμῶς ἐλαχίστη εἶ ἐν τοῖς ἡγεμόσιν Ἰούδα

        ἐκ σοῦ γὰρ ἐξελεύσεται ἡγούμενος,
        ὅστις ποιμανεῖ τὸν λαόν μου τὸν Ἰσραήλ


2:7 Τότε Ἡρῴδης λάθρα καλέσας τοὺς μάγους ἠκρίβωσεν παρ' αὐτῶν τὸν χρόνον τοῦ φαινομένου ἀστέρος. 2:8 καὶ πέμψας αὐτοὺς εἰς Βηθλέεμ εἶπεν πορευθέντες ἐξετάσατε ἀκριβῶς περὶ τοῦ παιδίου. ἐπὰν δὲ εὕρητε, ἀπαγγείλατέ μοι, ὅπως κάγὼ ἐλθὼν προσκυνήσω αὐτῷ.

2:9 οἱ δὲ ἀκούσαντες τοῦ βασιλέως ἐπορεύθησαν. καὶ ἰδοὺ ὁ ἀστήρ, ὃν εἶδον ἐν τῇ ἀνατολῇ, προῆγεν αὐτοὺς ἕως ἐλθὼν ἐστάθη ἐπάνω οὗ ἦν τὸ παιδίον. 2:10 ἰδόντες δὲ τὸν ἀστέρα ἐχάρησαν χαρὰν μεγάλην σφόδρα. 2:11 καὶ ἐλθόντες εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν εἶδον τὸ παιδίον μετὰ Μαρίας τῆς μητρὸς αὐτοῦ. καὶ πεσόντες προσεκύνησαν αὐτῷ, καὶ ἀνοίξαντες τοὺς θησαυροὺς αὐτῶν προσήνεγκαν αὐτῷ δῶρα, χρυσὸν καὶ λίβανον καὶ σμύρναν. 2:12 καὶ χρηματισθέντες κατ' ὄναρ μὴ ἀνακάμψαι πρὸς Ἡρῴδην, δι' ἄλλης ὁδοῦ ἀνεχώρησαν εἰς τὴν χώραν αὐτῶν.

Mark 10:14b (memory verse) -

        Ἄφετε τὰ παιδία ἔρχεσθαι πρός με,
        μὴ κωλύετε αὐτά·
        τῶν γὰρ τοιούτων ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ.

Translation

From the King James version:
2:1 Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem, 2 Saying, Where is he that is born King of the Jews? for we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him.
3 When Herod the king had heard these things, he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him. 4 And when he had gathered all the chief priests and scribes of the people together, he demanded of them where Christ should be born. 5 And they said unto him, In Bethlehem of Judaea: for thus it is written by the prophet,
6 And thou Bethlehem, in the land of Juda,
art not the least among the princes of Juda:
for out of thee shall come a Governor,
that shall rule my people Israel.
7 Then Herod, when he had privily called the wise men, enquired of them diligently what time the star appeared. 8 And he sent them to Bethlehem, and said, Go and search diligently for the young child; and when ye have found him, bring me word again, that I may come and worship him also.
9 When they had heard the king, they departed; and, lo, the star, which they saw in the east, went before them, till it came and stood over where the young child was. 10 When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceeding great joy. 11 And when they were come into the house, they saw the young child with Mary his mother, and fell down, and worshipped him: and when they had opened their treasures, they presented unto him gifts; gold, and frankincense and myrrh. 12 And being warned of God in a dream that they should not return to Herod, they departed into their own country another way.
Mark 10:14b (memory verse) --
Suffer the little children to come unto me,
and forbid them not:
for of such is the kingdom of God.

Grammar

6. Conjunctions and Particles.

As these texts exemplify, Greek makes great use of conjunctions and particles. These may have basic meanings, but many of them simply suggest relationships between syntactic units, so that they vary in use and may even not need to be translated.

The most common conjunction is καί, with a basic meaning of 'and' but also 'even' and at times 'but'. Another common conjunction is γάρ, with a basic meaning of 'for' but also 'now', or it may be added simply to strengthen questions.

Particles typically stand right after the first content word in sentences. Among the particles, δέ is very common, as in our texts; it has a basic adversative meaning and may often be translated 'but' or 'on the other hand', but is often redundant. In a different meaning it is attached to names of places that are in the accusative, and then means 'to'. In addition it may be added to pronouns to strengthen their meaning. The particle τε is also very common, and has the meaning 'and'; it is often used after both nouns that are conjoined. The particle μέν often stands in clauses that are followed by other clauses including δέ, where it means something like 'on the one hand'; it may also be combined with other particles, as in μὲν ἄρα, where it means 'and'. The particle δή indicates emphasis, as on the word preceding it. In short, particles often supply meaning much as intonation does in English. The meaning of the content words in sentences may be a guide to interpretation of the particles included in them.

7. Participles.

Participles are often used to function as verbs of modifying clauses. These modifying clauses may correspond to relative clauses, as does τεχθαὶς in 2:2. The relationship to a principal clauses may require a further interpretation, as does that of the participle ἀκούσας in 2:3 or that of συναγαγὼν in 2:4. On the other hand, they may be treated as participles in English, for example πέμψας in 2:8. They may also be nominal; an example is ἡγούμενος in 2:6. The interpretations will generally be clear from the contexts in which they are found.

8. Nouns in consonantal declension.

Nouns in the consonantal declension often have the final consonant elided before the nominative ending, so that their stem form must be determined from the genitive or other oblique cases. Examples are given here of nouns with stems ending in -δ- and -ρ-.

    Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   ὁ παῖς 'child'   ἡ θυγάτηρ 'daughter'
Gen sg   τοῦ παιδός   τῆς θυγατέρος
Dat sg   τῷ παιδί   τῇ θυγατέρι
Acc sg   τὸν παῖδα   τῆν θυγατέρα
         
Nom pl   οἱ παῖδες   αἱ θυγατέρες
Gen pl   τῶν παίδων   τῶν θυγατέρων
Dat pl   τοῖς παῖσι   ταῖς θυγατέρσι
Acc pl   τοὺς παῖδας   τὰς θυγατέρας
9. Personal pronouns.

The first and second personal pronouns have enclitic forms in the oblique cases of the singular, which are given here after the regular forms; they have no accent. The third person forms, for 'he, she, it', are supplied by the intensive pronoun meaning 'self'; the genitive singular forms would have the meanings 'of him, of her, of it', the dative singular forms would have the meanings 'to him, to her, to it', and so on.

    1st Person   2nd Person   3rd Person
            Masc.   Fem.   Neut.
Nom sg   ἐγώ   σύ   αὐτός   αὐτή   αὐτό
Gen sg   ἐμοῦ, μου   σοῦ, σου   αὐτοῦ   αὐτῆς   αὐτοῦ
Dat sg   ἐμοί, μοι   σοί, σοι   αὐτῷ   αὐτῇ   αὐτῷ
Acc sg   ἐμέ, με   σέ, σε   αὐτόν   αὐτήν   αὐτό
                     
Nom pl   ἡμεῖς   ὑμεῖς   αὐτοῖ   αὐταῖ   αὐτά
Gen pl   ἡμῶν   ὑμῶν   αὐτῶν   αὐτῶν   αὐτῶν
Dat pl   ἡμῖν   ὑμῖν   αὐτοῖς   αὐταῖς   αὐτοῖς
Acc pl   ἡμᾶς   ὑμᾶς   αὐτούς   αὐτάς   αὐτά
10. The Present System of verbs.

The present system includes five categories of forms: the present indicative, the imperfect, the subjunctive, the optative, and the imperative. In addition there is an infinitive and also a participle. The first two categories have been given in Lesson 1; the others are given here using the verb [infinitive] πιστεύειν.

    Subjunctive   Optative   Imperative
1 sg   πιστεύω   πιστεύοιμι    
2 sg   πιστεύῃς   πιστεύοις   πίστευε
3 sg   πιστεύῃ   πιστεύοι   πιστευέτω
             
1 pl   πιστεύωμεν   πιστεύοιμεν    
2 pl   πιστεύητε   πιστεύοιτε   πιστεύετε
3 pl   πιστεύωσι(ν)   πιστεύοιεν   πιστευόντων

The participial forms, nominative and genitive singular, are as follows.

    Masculine   Feminine   Neuter
Nom sg   πιστεύων   πιστεύουσα   πιστεῦον
Gen sg   πιστεύοντος   πιστευούσης   πιστεύοντος