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New Testament Greek Online

Lesson 2

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

The first gospel clearly had a Jewish author, as may be noted from his stress on the genealogy of Jesus given in his first chapter and from his many references to Old Testament prophecies, such as the quotation in verse 6 of this text as well as others in this chapter and later. By tradition the author was Matthew (a.k.a. Levi), the tax collector whom Jesus called to be a disciple in Chapter 9, verse 9 of the book. But modern scholars consider the identification unlikely because nowhere throughout the book does the disciple provide evidence that he was its author. Rather it is assumed that the author was a Jew who wrote the book for Christians outside Israel. Because there are passages that seem to be based on Mark's account, such as the baptism of Jesus by John, it is assumed that the Gospel according to Matthew was written after that of Mark, possibly in the eighties.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Matthew 2:1-12, and Mark 10:14b (memory verse)

The Gospel according to Matthew has been especially valued, as indicated by its position as the first gospel, and also because of its remarkable passages. Among these are realistic accounts of the life of Jesus, such as his baptism by John in Chapter 3 and his temptation by the devil in Chapter 4. These are followed by passages that have been central to Christian worship ever since--the Sermon on the Mount, which includes the Beatitudes and the Lord's Prayer. And his exhortation in Chapter 10 to his disciples when he sent them out as well as his instructions in Chapters 18 and 19 are readily applicable to the life of his followers at the time and later. The selection here, which also illustrates the author's literary capabilities, is a central part of the annual celebration of his birth at Christmas.

2:1 - Του̂ δὲ ʼΙησου̂ γεννηθέντος ἐν Βηθλέεμ τη̂ς ʼΙουδαίας ἐν ἡμέραις ʽΗρῴδου του̂ βασιλέως, ἰδοὺ μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολω̂ν παρεγένοντο εἰς ʽΙεροσόλυμα λέγοντες,

  • του̂ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- now (when)
  • ʼΙησου̂ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ʼΙησου̂ς> Jesus -- Jesus
  • γεννηθέντος -- deponent verb; genitive singular masculine of aorist passive participle of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- was born
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • Βηθλέεμ -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <Βηθλέεμ> Bethlehem -- Bethlehem
  • τη̂ς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • ʼΙουδαίας -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <ʼΙουδαία> Judea -- Judea
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • ἡμέραις -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <ἡμέρα> day -- (the) days
  • ʽΗρῴδου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ʽΗρῴδης> Herod -- of Herod
  • του̂ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • βασιλέως -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <βασιλεύς> king -- king
  • ἰδοὺ -- adverb; <ἰδού> behold -- behold
  • μάγοι -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <μάγος> wise man -- wise men
  • ἀπὸ -- preposition; <ἀπό> from -- from
  • ἀνατολω̂ν -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <ἀνατολή> east -- (the) East
  • παρεγένοντο -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist middle of <παραγίγνομαι> come -- came
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- to
  • ʽΙεροσόλυμα -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <ʽΙεροσόλυμα> Jerusalem -- Jerusalem
  • λέγοντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <λέγω> say -- saying

2:2 - που̂ ἐστιν ὁ τεχθεὶς βασιλεὺς τω̂ν ʼΙουδαίων;

  • που̂ -- adverb; <που̂> where -- where
  • ἐστιν -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- is
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • τεχθεὶς -- verb; nominative singular masculine of passive participle of <τίκτω> give birth -- (who was) born
  • βασιλεὺς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <βασιλεύς> king -- king
  • τω̂ν -- article; genitive plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- of the
  • ʼΙουδαίων -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <ʼΙουδαι̂ος> Jew -- Jews

εʼίδομεν γὰρ αὐτου̂ τὸν ἀστέρα ἐν τῃ̂ ἀνατολῃ̂, καὶ ʼήλθομεν προσκυνη̂σαι αὐτῳ̂.

  • εʼίδομεν -- verb; 1st person plural aorist of <ὁράω> see -- we have seen
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • αὐτου̂ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- his
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • ἀστέρα -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <ἀστήρ> star -- star
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • τῃ̂ -- article; dative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἀνατολῃ̂ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <ἀνατολή> east -- east
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ʼήλθομεν -- verb; 1st person plural aorist of <ʼέρχομαι> come -- we have come
  • προσκυνη̂σαι -- verb; aorist infinitive of <προσκυνέω> worship -- to worship
  • αὐτῳ̂ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him

2:3 - ἀκούσας δὲ ὁ βασιλεὺς ʽΗρῴδης ἐταράχθη, καὶ πα̂σα ʽΙεροσόλυμα κατ' αὐτου̂.

  • ἀκούσας -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <ἀκούω> hear, listen -- having heard
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • βασιλεὺς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <βασιλεύς> king -- King
  • ʽΗρῴδης -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ʽΗρῴδης> Herod -- Herod
  • ἐταράχθη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <ταράσσω> trouble -- was troubled
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • πα̂σα -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <πα̂ς> all, every -- all
  • ʽΙεροσόλυμα -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <ʽΙεροσόλυμα> Jerusalem -- Jerusalem
  • κατ' -- preposition; <κατά> completely, down, under -- with
  • αὐτου̂ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him

2:4 - καὶ συναγαγὼν πάντας τοὺς ἀρχιερει̂ς καὶ γραμματει̂ς του̂ λαου̂ ἐπυνθάνετο παρ' αὐτω̂ν που̂ ὁ χριστὸς γεννα̂ται.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • συναγαγὼν -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <συνάγω> bring together -- having brought together
  • πάντας -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <πα̂ς> all, every -- all
  • τοὺς -- article; accusative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἀρχιερει̂ς -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <ἀρχιερεύς> chief priest -- chief priests
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • γραμματει̂ς -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <γραμματεύς> scribe -- scribes
  • του̂ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- of the
  • λαου̂ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <λαός> people -- people
  • ἐπυνθάνετο -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular imperfect middle of <πυνθάνομαι> inquire -- he inquired
  • παρ' -- preposition; <παρά> from, of -- of
  • αὐτω̂ν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- them
  • που̂ -- adverb; <που̂> where -- where
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • χριστὸς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <χριστός> Christ -- Christ
  • γεννα̂ται -- verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive passive of <γεννάω> beget, bring forth -- would be born

2:5 - οἱ δὲ εʼι̂παν αὐτῳ̂

  • οἱ -- article used as pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- they
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • εʼι̂παν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <λέγω> say -- said
  • αὐτῳ̂ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to him

ἐν Βηθλέεμ τη̂ς ʼΙουδαίας. οʽύτως γὰρ γέγραπται διὰ του̂ προφήτου,

  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • Βηθλέεμ -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <Βηθλέεμ> Bethlehem -- Bethlehem
  • τη̂ς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • ʼΙουδαίας -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <ʼΙουδαία> Judea -- of Judea
  • οʽύτως -- adverb; <οʽύτως> so, thus -- so
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • γέγραπται -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect passive of <γράφω> write -- it is written
  • διὰ -- preposition; <διά> through, by -- by
  • του̂ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • προφήτου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <προφήτης> prophet -- prophet

2:6 - καὶ σὺ Βηθλέεμ, γη̂ ʼΙούδα,
        οὐδαμω̂ς ἐλαχίστη εʼι̂ ἐν τοι̂ς ἡγεμόσιν ʼΙούδα

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • σὺ -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • Βηθλέεμ -- noun, neuter; vocative singular of <Βηθλέεμ> Bethlehem -- Bethlehem
  • γη̂ -- noun, feminine; vocative singular of <γη̂> earth, land -- (in the) land
  • ʼΙούδα -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <ʼΙούδα> Juda -- of Juda
  • οὐδαμω̂ς -- adverb; <οὐδαμω̂ς> by no means -- by no means
  • ἐλαχίστη -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of superlative of <μικρός> small -- the smallest
  • εʼι̂ -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- you are
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- among
  • τοι̂ς -- article; dative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἡγεμόσιν -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <ἡγεμών> leader -- leaders
  • ʼΙούδα -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <ʼΙούδα> Juda -- of Juda

ἐκ σου̂ γὰρ ἐξελεύσεται ἡγούμενος,
        ʽόστις ποιμανει̂ τὸν λαόν μου τὸν ʼΙσραήλ

  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- out of
  • σου̂ -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <σύ> you -- you
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • ἐξελεύσεται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular future of <ἐξέρχομαι> come out -- will come
  • ἡγούμενος -- verb; nominative singular masculine of present participle of <ἡγέομαι> lead, regard, rule -- a ruler
  • ʽόστις -- relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <ʽόστις> whoever, whatever -- who
  • ποιμανει̂ -- verb; 3rd person singular future of <ποιμαίνω> to be shepherd, rule over -- will rule over
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • λαόν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <λαός> people -- people
  • μου -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <ἐγώ> I -- my
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • ʼΙσραήλ -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <ʼΙσραήλ> Israel -- Israel

2:7 - Τότε ʽΗρῴδης λάθρα καλέσας τοὺς μάγους ἠκρίβωσεν παρ' αὐτω̂ν τὸν χρόνον του̂ φαινομένου ἀστέρος.

  • τότε -- adverb; <τότε> then -- then
  • ʽΗρῴδης -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ʽΗρῴδης> Herod -- Herod
  • λάθρα -- adverb; <λάθρα> secretly -- secretly
  • καλέσας -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <καλέω> call, summon -- having summoned
  • τοὺς -- article; accusative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • μάγους -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <μάγος> wise man -- wise men
  • ἠκρίβωσεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ἀκριβόω> investigate thoroughly -- inquired thoroughly
  • παρ' -- preposition; <παρά> from, of -- of
  • αὐτω̂ν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- them
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • χρόνον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <χρόνος> time -- time
  • του̂ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- of the
  • φαινομένου -- deponent verb; genitive singular masculine of present participle of <φαίνομαι> see -- seen
  • ἀστέρος -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ἀστήρ> star -- star

2:8 - καὶ πέμψας αὐτοὺς εἰς Βηθλέεμ εʼι̂πεν

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • πέμψας -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <πέμπω> send -- sending
  • αὐτοὺς -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- them
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- to
  • Βηθλέεμ -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <Βηθλέεμ> Bethlehem -- Bethlehem
  • εʼι̂πεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- he said

πορευθέντες ἐξετάσατε ἀκριβω̂ς περὶ του̂ παιδίου.

  • πορευθέντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist participle passive of <πορεύω> go, make go -- having gone
  • ἐξετάσατε -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative aorist of <ἐξετάζω> inquire -- inquire
  • ἀκριβω̂ς -- adverb; <ἀκριβω̂ς> sharply, diligently -- diligently
  • περὶ -- preposition; <περί> around -- concerning
  • του̂ -- article; genitive singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • παιδίου -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <παιδίον> young child -- young child

ἐπὰν δὲ εʽύρητε, ἀπαγγείλατέ μοι, ʽόπως κάγὼ ἐλθὼν προσκυνήσω αὐτῳ̂.

  • ἐπὰν -- conjunction; <ἐπάν> whenever -- whenever
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • εʽύρητε -- verb; 2nd person plural aorist subjunctive of <εὑρίσκω> find -- find out
  • ἀπαγγείλατέ -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative aorist of <ἀπαγγέλλω> report -- report
  • μοι -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <ἐγώ> I -- to me
  • ʽόπως -- adverb; <ʽόπως> so that -- so that
  • κάγὼ -- conjunction; <καί> and + pronoun; nominative singular of <ἐγώ> I -- I too
  • ἐλθὼν -- deponent verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <ʼέρχομαι> come, go -- going
  • προσκυνήσω -- verb; 1st person singular future of <προσκυνέω> worship -- may worship
  • αὐτῳ̂ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him

2:9 - οἱ δὲ ἀκούσαντες του̂ βασιλέως ἐπορεύθησαν.

  • οἱ -- article used as pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- they
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • ἀκούσαντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist participle of <ἀκούω> hear, listen -- having heard
  • του̂ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • βασιλέως -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <βασιλεύς> king -- king
  • ἐπορεύθησαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist passive of <πορεύω> go, make go -- departed

καὶ ἰδοὺ ὁ ἀστήρ, ʽὸν εʼι̂δον ἐν τῃ̂ ἀνατολῃ̂, προη̂γεν αὐτοὺς ʽέως ἐλθὼν ἐστάθη ἐπάνω οʽυ̂ ʼη̂ν τὸ παιδίον.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἰδοὺ -- adverb; <ἰδού> behold -- behold
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἀστήρ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ἀστήρ> star -- star
  • ʽὸν -- relative pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <ʽός> who, which -- which
  • εʼι̂δον -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <ὁράω> see -- they saw
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • τῃ̂ -- article; dative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἀνατολῃ̂ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <ἀνατολή> east -- east
  • προη̂γεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <προάγω> proceed, go before -- went before
  • αὐτοὺς -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- them
  • ʽέως -- conjunction; <ʽέως> until -- until
  • ἐλθὼν -- deponent verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <ʼέρχομαι> come, go -- moving
  • ἐστάθη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ʽίστημι> put, place, stand -- it stood
  • ἐπάνω -- adverb; <ἐπάνω> above -- above
  • οʽυ̂ -- relative pronoun; genitive singular neuter of <ʽός> who, which -- where
  • ʼη̂ν -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <εἰμί> I am -- was
  • τὸ -- article; nominative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • παιδίον -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <παιδίον> young child -- young child

2:10 - ἰδόντες δὲ τὸν ἀστέρα ἐχάρησαν χαρὰν μεγάλην σφόδρα.

  • ἰδόντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist participle of <ὁράω> see -- seeing
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἀστέρα -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <ἀστήρ> star -- star
  • ἐχάρησαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <χαίρω> rejoice -- they rejoiced (with)
  • χαρὰν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <χαρά> joy -- joy
  • μεγάλην -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <μέγας> great -- great
  • σφόδρα -- adverb; <σφόδρα> very -- very

2:11 - καὶ ἐλθόντες εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν εʼι̂δον τὸ παιδίον μετὰ Μαρίας τη̂ς μητρὸς αὐτου̂.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐλθόντες -- deponent verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist participle of <ʼέρχομαι> come, go -- going
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- into
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • οἰκίαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <οἰκία> house -- building
  • εʼι̂δον -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <ὁράω> see -- they saw
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • παιδίον -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <παιδίον> young child -- young child
  • μετὰ -- preposition; <μετά> after, with -- with
  • Μαρίας -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Μαρία> Mary -- Mary
  • τη̂ς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • μητρὸς -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <μήτηρ> mother -- mother
  • αὐτου̂ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- his

καὶ πεσόντες προσεκύνησαν αὐτῳ̂, καὶ ἀνοίξαντες τοὺς θησαυροὺς αὐτω̂ν προσήνεγκαν αὐτῳ̂ δω̂ρα, χρυσὸν καὶ λίβανον καὶ σμύρναν.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • πεσόντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist participle of <πίπτω> fall -- falling down
  • προσεκύνησαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <προσκυνέω> worship -- worshipped
  • αὐτῳ̂ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἀνοίξαντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist participle of <ἀνοίγνυμι> open -- having opened
  • τοὺς -- article; accusative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • θησαυροὺς -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <θησαυρός> treasure -- treasures
  • αὐτω̂ν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- their
  • προσήνεγκαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <προσφέρω> offer, present -- they presented
  • αὐτῳ̂ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to him
  • δω̂ρα -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <δω̂ρον> gift -- gifts
  • χρυσὸν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <χρυσός> gold -- gold
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • λίβανον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <λίβανος> frankincense, frankincense tree -- frankincense
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • σμύρναν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <σμύρνα> myrrh -- myrrh

2:12 - καὶ χρηματισθέντες κατ' ʼόναρ μὴ ἀνακάμψαι πρὸς ʽΗρῴδην, δι' ʼάλλης ὁδου̂ ἀνεχώρησαν εἰς τὴν χώραν αὐτω̂ν.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • χρηματισθέντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist participle passive of <χρηματίζω> negotiate, warn -- having been warned
  • κατ' -- preposition; <κατά> completely, down, under -- in
  • ʼόναρ -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <ʼόναρ> dream -- (a) dream
  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- not
  • ἀνακάμψαι -- verb; aorist infinitive of <ἀνακάμπτω> return -- (to) return
  • πρὸς -- preposition; <πρός> to -- to
  • ʽΗρῴδην -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <ʽΗρῴδης> Herod -- Herod
  • δι' -- preposition; <διά> through, by -- by
  • ʼάλλης -- adjective; genitive singular feminine of <ʼάλλος> other -- (an) other
  • ὁδου̂ -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <ὁδός> way, road -- way
  • ἀνεχώρησαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <ἀνακάμπτω> return -- returned
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- to
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • χώραν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <χώρα> land, country -- land
  • αὐτω̂ν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- their

Mark 10:14b (memory verse) -

        ʼΆφετε τὰ παιδία ʼέρχεσθαι πρός με,
        μὴ κωλύετε αὐτά·
        τω̂ν γὰρ τοιούτων ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία του̂ θεου̂.

  • ʼάφετε -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative of <ἀφίημι> send forth, throw down, permit, forgive -- suffer
  • τὰ -- article; accusative plural neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • παιδία -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <παιδίον> young child -- little children
  • ʼέρχεσθαι -- deponent verb; infinitive of <ʼέρχομαι> come, go -- (to) come
  • πρός -- preposition; <πρός> to -- to
  • με -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <ἐγώ> I -- me
  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- not
  • κωλύετε -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative of <κωλύω> hinder, prevent -- (do) . . .hinder
  • αὐτά -- pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- them
  • τω̂ν -- article; genitive plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • τοιούτων -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <τοιου̂τος> such -- of such
  • ἐστὶν -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- is
  • ἡ -- article; nominative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • βασιλεία -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <βασιλεία> kingdom -- kingdom
  • του̂ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • θεου̂ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <θεός> god -- god

Lesson Text

2:1 Του̂ δὲ ʼΙησου̂ γεννηθέντος ἐν Βηθλέεμ τη̂ς ʼΙουδαίας ἐν ἡμέραις ʽΗρῴδου του̂ βασιλέως, ἰδοὺ μάγοι ἀπὸ ἀνατολω̂ν παρεγένοντο εἰς ʽΙεροσόλυμα λέγοντες, 2:2 που̂ ἐστιν ὁ τεχθεὶς βασιλεὺς τω̂ν ʼΙουδαίων; εʼίδομεν γὰρ αὐτου̂ τὸν ἀστέρα ἐν τῃ̂ ἀνατολῃ̂, καὶ ʼήλθομεν προσκυνη̂σαι αὐτῳ̂.

2:3 ἀκούσας δὲ ὁ βασιλεὺς ʽΗρῴδης ἐταράχθη, καὶ πα̂σα ʽΙεροσόλυμα κατ' αὐτου̂. 2:4 καὶ συναγαγὼν πάντας τοὺς ἀρχιερει̂ς καὶ γραμματει̂ς του̂ λαου̂ ἐπυνθάνετο παρ' αὐτω̂ν που̂ ὁ χριστὸς γεννα̂ται. 2:5 οἱ δὲ εʼι̂παν αὐτῳ̂ ἐν Βηθλέεμ τη̂ς ʼΙουδαίας. οʽύτως γὰρ γέγραπται διὰ του̂ προφήτου,

        2:6 καὶ σὺ Βηθλέεμ, γη̂ ʼΙούδα,
        οὐδαμω̂ς ἐλαχίστη εʼι̂ ἐν τοι̂ς ἡγεμόσιν ʼΙούδα

        ἐκ σου̂ γὰρ ἐξελεύσεται ἡγούμενος,
        ʽόστις ποιμανει̂ τὸν λαόν μου τὸν ʼΙσραήλ


2:7 Τότε ʽΗρῴδης λάθρα καλέσας τοὺς μάγους ἠκρίβωσεν παρ' αὐτω̂ν τὸν χρόνον του̂ φαινομένου ἀστέρος. 2:8 καὶ πέμψας αὐτοὺς εἰς Βηθλέεμ εʼι̂πεν πορευθέντες ἐξετάσατε ἀκριβω̂ς περὶ του̂ παιδίου. ἐπὰν δὲ εʽύρητε, ἀπαγγείλατέ μοι, ʽόπως κάγὼ ἐλθὼν προσκυνήσω αὐτῳ̂.

2:9 οἱ δὲ ἀκούσαντες του̂ βασιλέως ἐπορεύθησαν. καὶ ἰδοὺ ὁ ἀστήρ, ʽὸν εʼι̂δον ἐν τῃ̂ ἀνατολῃ̂, προη̂γεν αὐτοὺς ʽέως ἐλθὼν ἐστάθη ἐπάνω οʽυ̂ ʼη̂ν τὸ παιδίον. 2:10 ἰδόντες δὲ τὸν ἀστέρα ἐχάρησαν χαρὰν μεγάλην σφόδρα. 2:11 καὶ ἐλθόντες εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν εʼι̂δον τὸ παιδίον μετὰ Μαρίας τη̂ς μητρὸς αὐτου̂. καὶ πεσόντες προσεκύνησαν αὐτῳ̂, καὶ ἀνοίξαντες τοὺς θησαυροὺς αὐτω̂ν προσήνεγκαν αὐτῳ̂ δω̂ρα, χρυσὸν καὶ λίβανον καὶ σμύρναν. 2:12 καὶ χρηματισθέντες κατ' ʼόναρ μὴ ἀνακάμψαι πρὸς ʽΗρῴδην, δι' ʼάλλης ὁδου̂ ἀνεχώρησαν εἰς τὴν χώραν αὐτω̂ν.

Mark 10:14b (memory verse) -

        ʼΆφετε τὰ παιδία ʼέρχεσθαι πρός με,
        μὴ κωλύετε αὐτά·
        τω̂ν γὰρ τοιούτων ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία του̂ θεου̂.

Translation

From the King James version:
2:1 Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem, 2 Saying, Where is he that is born King of the Jews? for we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him.
3 When Herod the king had heard these things, he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him. 4 And when he had gathered all the chief priests and scribes of the people together, he demanded of them where Christ should be born. 5 And they said unto him, In Bethlehem of Judaea: for thus it is written by the prophet,
6 And thou Bethlehem, in the land of Juda,
art not the least among the princes of Juda:
for out of thee shall come a Governor,
that shall rule my people Israel.
7 Then Herod, when he had privily called the wise men, enquired of them diligently what time the star appeared. 8 And he sent them to Bethlehem, and said, Go and search diligently for the young child; and when ye have found him, bring me word again, that I may come and worship him also.
9 When they had heard the king, they departed; and, lo, the star, which they saw in the east, went before them, till it came and stood over where the young child was. 10 When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceeding great joy. 11 And when they were come into the house, they saw the young child with Mary his mother, and fell down, and worshipped him: and when they had opened their treasures, they presented unto him gifts; gold, and frankincense and myrrh. 12 And being warned of God in a dream that they should not return to Herod, they departed into their own country another way.
Mark 10:14b (memory verse) --
Suffer the little children to come unto me,
and forbid them not:
for of such is the kingdom of God.

Grammar

6. Conjunctions and Particles.

As these texts exemplify, Greek makes great use of conjunctions and particles. These may have basic meanings, but many of them simply suggest relationships between syntactic units, so that they vary in use and may even not need to be translated.

The most common conjunction is καί, with a basic meaning of 'and' but also 'even' and at times 'but'. Another common conjunction is γάρ, with a basic meaning of 'for' but also 'now', or it may be added simply to strengthen questions.

Particles typically stand right after the first content word in sentences. Among the particles, δέ is very common, as in our texts; it has a basic adversative meaning and may often be translated 'but' or 'on the other hand', but is often redundant. In a different meaning it is attached to names of places that are in the accusative, and then means 'to'. In addition it may be added to pronouns to strengthen their meaning. The particle τε is also very common, and has the meaning 'and'; it is often used after both nouns that are conjoined. The particle μέν often stands in clauses that are followed by other clauses including δέ, where it means something like 'on the one hand'; it may also be combined with other particles, as in μὲν ʼάρα, where it means 'and'. The particle δή indicates emphasis, as on the word preceding it. In short, particles often supply meaning much as intonation does in English. The meaning of the content words in sentences may be a guide to interpretation of the particles included in them.

7. Participles.

Participles are often used to function as verbs of modifying clauses. These modifying clauses may correspond to relative clauses, as does τεχθαὶς in 2:2. The relationship to a principal clauses may require a further interpretation, as does that of the participle ἀκούσας in 2:3 or that of συναγαγὼν in 2:4. On the other hand, they may be treated as participles in English, for example πέμψας in 2:8. They may also be nominal; an example is ἡγούμενος in 2:6. The interpretations will generally be clear from the contexts in which they are found.

8. Nouns in consonantal declension.

Nouns in the consonantal declension often have the final consonant elided before the nominative ending, so that their stem form must be determined from the genitive or other oblique cases. Examples are given here of nouns with stems ending in -δ- and -ρ-.

    Masculine   Feminine
Nom sg   ὁ παι̂ς 'child'   ἡ θυγάτηρ 'daughter'
Gen sg   του̂ παιδός   τη̂ς θυγατέρος
Dat sg   τῳ̂ παιδί   τῃ̂ θυγατέρι
Acc sg   τὸν παι̂δα   τη̂ν θυγατέρα
         
Nom pl   οἱ παι̂δες   αἱ θυγατέρες
Gen pl   τω̂ν παίδων   τω̂ν θυγατέρων
Dat pl   τοι̂ς παι̂σι   ται̂ς θυγατέρσι
Acc pl   τοὺς παι̂δας   τὰς θυγατέρας
9. Personal pronouns.

The first and second personal pronouns have enclitic forms in the oblique cases of the singular, which are given here after the regular forms; they have no accent. The third person forms, for 'he, she, it', are supplied by the intensive pronoun meaning 'self'; the genitive singular forms would have the meanings 'of him, of her, of it', the dative singular forms would have the meanings 'to him, to her, to it', and so on.

    1st Person   2nd Person   3rd Person
            Masc.   Fem.   Neut.
Nom sg   ἐγώ   σύ   αὐτός   αὐτή   αὐτό
Gen sg   ἐμου̂, μου   σου̂, σου   αὐτου̂   αὐτη̂ς   αὐτου̂
Dat sg   ἐμοί, μοι   σοί, σοι   αὐτῳ̂   αὐτῃ̂   αὐτῳ̂
Acc sg   ἐμέ, με   σέ, σε   αὐτόν   αὐτήν   αὐτό
                     
Nom pl   ἡμει̂ς   ὑμει̂ς   αὐτοι̂   αὐται̂   αὐτά
Gen pl   ἡμω̂ν   ὑμω̂ν   αὐτω̂ν   αὐτω̂ν   αὐτω̂ν
Dat pl   ἡμι̂ν   ὑμι̂ν   αὐτοι̂ς   αὐται̂ς   αὐτοι̂ς
Acc pl   ἡμα̂ς   ὑμα̂ς   αὐτούς   αὐτάς   αὐτά
10. The Present System of verbs.

The present system includes five categories of forms: the present indicative, the imperfect, the subjunctive, the optative, and the imperative. In addition there is an infinitive and also a participle. The first two categories have been given in Lesson 1; the others are given here using the verb [infinitive] πιστεύειν.

    Subjunctive   Optative   Imperative
1 sg   πιστεύω   πιστεύοιμι    
2 sg   πιστεύῃς   πιστεύοις   πίστευε
3 sg   πιστεύῃ   πιστεύοι   πιστευέτω
             
1 pl   πιστεύωμεν   πιστεύοιμεν    
2 pl   πιστεύητε   πιστεύοιτε   πιστεύετε
3 pl   πιστεύωσι(ν)   πιστεύοιεν   πιστευόντων

The participial forms, nominative and genitive singular, are as follows.

    Masculine   Feminine   Neuter
Nom sg   πιστεύων   πιστεύουσα   πιστευ̂ον
Gen sg   πιστεύοντος   πιστευούσης   πιστεύοντος