The University of Texas at Austin; College of Liberal Arts
Hans C. Boas, Director :: PCL 5.556, 1 University Station S5490 :: Austin, TX 78712 :: 512-471-4566
LRC Links: Home | About | Books Online | EIEOL | IE Doc. Center | IE Lexicon | IE Maps | IE Texts | Pub. Indices | SiteMap

New Testament Greek Online

Lesson 3

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

Like the other gospels, the fourth is anonymous; but it has been ascribed to St. John because of references to him, such as those in chapter 21, verses 21 to 23, followed by the statement in verse 24 that "this is the disciple that ... wrote these things." The fourth gospel is unlike the other three even though, like them, it has the form of a biography. Omitting any information on the birth and early years of Jesus, it begins with a section equating him with the Word and the only begotten of the Father. It continues with his baptism by John the Baptist, following that with eleven chapters on his miracles and his discussions. Chapters thirteen to nineteen then report the events of twenty-four hours, followed by chapter twenty on his resurrection, which with a final chapter also relates his subsequent meetings with his disciples.

Reading and Textual Analysis

John 3:1-13, and Romans 1:17b (memory verse)

This selection from Chapter 3 is one of the most remarkable among the four gospels. It has given rise to the view that Christians must be born again. That belief rests on the interpretation of the Greek word anôthen. Jesus used it in his response to the statesman, Nicodemus, who may well have interpreted it in accordance with the language that was general in his position for dealing with public affairs, and with his logical mind, as reflected in his question in verse four.

The word is a compound consisting of the first element the adverb anô, which means 'up, on high, in heaven'. The second element is the suffix -then, which means 'from', as in words like oikothen 'from home'. In Classical Greek it has only its literal meaning 'from above'; but in the New Testament it has the additional meaning 'again'. The statesman clearly interprets it in this sense. But Jesus in his usual quiet way of teaching goes on to say without contradicting him directly 'unless one is born of water and the spirit', clearly indicating that he intends the literal sense. He then continues in verse eight with one of the most remarkable passages in literature as presented in the King James translation; the verse supports the literal interpretation of anôthen.

The passage is also of interest in indicating that the conversation between Jesus and Nicodemus was probably conducted in Greek. Dr. Esther Raizen informs me that there is no ambiguity of interpretation of the corresponding terms in Hebrew, and presumably also not in Aramaic. Two Hebrew translations of the passage use a word meaning 'again', while another uses a word meaning 'from above'. Jesus' statements in verse five and later would be difficult to account for unless his use of anôthen indicated the necessity of being born from above.

3:1 - Ên de anthrôpos ek tôn Pharisaiôn, Nikodêmos onoma autô, archôn tôn Ioudaiôn.

  • ên -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <eimi> I am -- (there) was
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- now
  • anthrôpos -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <anthrôpos> human being -- (a) man
  • ek -- preposition; <ek> from, out of -- of
  • tôn -- article; genitive plural masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • Pharisaiôn -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <Pharisaios> Pharisee -- Pharisees
  • Nikodêmos -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Nikodêmos> Nicodemus -- Nicodemus
  • onoma -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <onoma> name -- name
  • autô -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- to him, his
  • archôn -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <archôn> ruler -- (a) ruler
  • tôn -- article; genitive plural masculine of <ho> the -- of the
  • Ioudaiôn -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <Ioudaios> Jew -- Jews

3:2 - houtos êlthen pros auton nuktos kai eipen autô,

  • houtos -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <houtos> this -- he
  • êlthen -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <erchomai> come, go -- came
  • pros -- preposition; <pros> to -- to
  • auton -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- him
  • nuktos -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <nux> night -- by night
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • eipen -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <legô> say -- said
  • autô -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- to him

hrabbi, oidamen hoti apo theou elêluthas didaskalos;

  • hrabbi -- noun, masculine; vocative singular of <hrabbi> rabbi -- Rabbi
  • oidamen -- verb; 1st person plural perfect of <oida> know -- we know
  • hoti -- conjunction; <hoti> because, that -- that
  • apo -- preposition; <apo> from -- from
  • theou -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <theos> god -- God
  • elêluthas -- deponent verb; nominative singular masculine of perfect participle of <erchomai> come, go -- (who has) come
  • didaskalos -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <didaskalos> teacher -- teacher

oudeis gar dunatai tauta ta sêmeia poiein ha su poieis, ean mê ê ho theos met' autou.

  • oudeis -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <oudeis, oudemia, ouden> no one, nothing -- no one
  • gar -- conjunction; <gar> for -- for
  • dunatai -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <dunamai> be able -- is able
  • tauta -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <houtos> this -- these
  • ta -- article; accusative plural neuter of <ho> the -- ...
  • sêmeia -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <sêmeion> sign, miracle -- miracles
  • poiein -- verb; infinitive of <poieô> make, do -- do
  • ha -- relative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <hos> who, which -- that
  • su -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <su> you -- you
  • poieis -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <poieô> make, do -- do
  • ean -- conjunction; <ean> if -- if
  • -- particle; <> not -- not
  • ê -- verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive of <eimi> I am -- were
  • ho -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • theos -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <theos> god -- God
  • met' -- preposition; <meta> after, with -- with
  • autou -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- him

3:3 - apekrithê Iêsous kai eipen autô.

  • apekrithê -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <apokrinô> separate, answer -- answered
  • Iêsous -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Iêsous> Jesus -- Jesus
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • eipen -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <legô> say -- said
  • autô -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- (to) him

amên amên legô soi, ean mê tis gennêthê anôthen, ou dunatai idein tên basileian tou theou.

  • amên -- adverb; <amên> verily, truly -- verily
  • amên -- adverb; <amên> verily, truly -- verily
  • legô -- verb; 1st person singular present of <legô> say -- I say
  • soi -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <su> you -- to you
  • ean -- conjunction; <ean> if -- if
  • -- particle; <> not -- not
  • tis -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <tis> someone, something -- one
  • gennêthê -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist subjunctive passive of <gignomai> happen, become -- is...born
  • anôthen -- adverb; <anôthen> from above, anew -- from above (again)
  • ou -- particle; <ou> not -- not
  • dunatai -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <dunamai> be able -- can
  • idein -- verb; aorist infinitive of <horaô> see -- see
  • tên -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ho> the -- the
  • basileian -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <basileia> kingdom -- kingdom
  • tou -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • theou -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <theos> god -- God

3:4 - legei pros auton ho Nikodêmos,

  • legei -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <legô> say -- says
  • pros -- preposition; <pros> to -- to
  • auton -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- him
  • ho -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • Nikodêmos -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Nikodêmos> Nicodemus -- Nicodemus

pôs dunatai anthrôpos gennêthênai gerôn ôn?

  • pôs -- interrogative particle; <pôs> how -- how
  • dunatai -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <dunamai> be able -- can
  • anthrôpos -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <anthrôpos> human being -- (a) man
  • gennêthênai -- deponent verb; infinitive aorist passive of <gignomai> happen, become -- be born
  • gerôn -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <gerôn> old man -- (an) old man
  • ôn -- verb; nominative singular masculine of present participle of <eimi> I am -- being

mê dunatai eis tên koilian tês mêtros autou deuteron eiselthein kai gennêthênai?

  • -- particle; <> not -- surely...not
  • dunatai -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <dunamai> be able -- (he) can
  • eis -- preposition; <eis> towards -- into
  • tên -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ho> the -- the
  • koilian -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <koilia> womb -- womb
  • tês -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ho> the -- ...
  • mêtros -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <mêtêr> mother -- mother
  • autou -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- (of) his
  • deuteron -- adverb; <deuteron> second -- a second time
  • eiselthein -- deponent verb; infinitive aorist of <eiserchomai> enter -- enter
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • gennêthênai -- deponent verb; infinitive aorist passive of <gignomai> happen, become -- be born

3:5 - apekrithê Iêsous.

  • apekrithê -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <apokrinô> separate, answer -- answered
  • Iêsous -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Iêsous> Jesus -- Jesus

amên amên legô soi, ean mê tis gennêthê ex hudatos kai pneumatos, ou dunatai eiselthein eis tên basileian tou theou

  • amên -- adverb; <amên> verily, truly -- verily
  • amên -- adverb; <amên> verily, truly -- verily
  • legô -- verb; 1st person singular present of <legô> say -- I say
  • soi -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <su> you -- to you
  • ean -- conjunction; <ean> if -- if
  • -- particle; <> not -- not
  • tis -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <tis> someone, something -- one
  • gennêthê -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist subjunctive passive of <gignomai> happen, become -- is born
  • ex -- preposition; <ex> from, out of -- of
  • hudatos -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <hudôr> water -- water
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • pneumatos -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <pneuma> spirit -- spirit
  • ou -- particle; <ou> not -- not
  • dunatai -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <dunamai> be able -- can
  • eiselthein -- deponent verb; infinitive aorist of <eiserchomai> enter -- enter
  • eis -- preposition; <eis> towards -- into
  • tên -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ho> the -- the
  • basileian -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <basileia> kingdom -- kingdom
  • tou -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • theou -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <theos> god -- (of) God

3:6 - to gegennêmenon ek tês sarkos sarx estin, kai to gegennêmenon ek tou pneumatos pneuma estin.

  • to -- article; nominative singular neuter of <ho> the -- that
  • gegennêmenon -- deponent verb; nominative singular neuter of perfect participle passive of <gignomai> happen, become -- born
  • ek -- preposition; <ek> from, out of -- from
  • tês -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ho> the -- the
  • sarkos -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <sarx> flesh -- flesh
  • sarx -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <sarx> flesh -- flesh
  • estin -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <eimi> I am -- is
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • to -- article; nominative singular neuter of <ho> the -- that
  • gegennêmenon -- deponent verb; nominative singular neuter of perfect participle passive of <gignomai> happen, become -- born
  • ek -- preposition; <ek> from, out of -- from
  • tou -- article; genitive singular neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • pneumatos -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <pneuma> spirit -- spirit
  • pneuma -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <pneuma> spirit -- spirit
  • estin -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <eimi> I am -- is

3:7 - mê thaumasês hoti eipon soi; dei humas gennêthênai anôthen.

  • -- particle; <> not -- not
  • thaumasês -- verb; 2nd person singular aorist subjunctive of <thaumazô> wonder -- do ... wonder
  • hoti -- conjunction; <hoti> because, that -- that
  • eipon -- verb; 1st person singular aorist of <legô> say -- said
  • soi -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <su> you -- to you
  • dei -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <dei> it is necessary -- it is necessary (that)
  • humas -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <su> you -- you
  • gennêthênai -- deponent verb; infinitive aorist passive of <gignomai> happen, become -- be born
  • anôthen -- adverb; <anôthen> from above, anew -- from above; again

3:8 - to pneuma hopou thelei pnei, kai tên phônên autou akoueis, all' ouk oidas pothen erchetai kai pou hupagei;

  • to -- article; nominative singular neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • pneuma -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <pneuma> spirit -- (spirit) wind
  • hopou -- adverb; <hopou> where -- where
  • thelei -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <thelô> mean, purport -- it wishes
  • pnei -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <pneô> blow -- blows
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • tên -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ho> the -- the
  • phônên -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <phônê> voice, sound -- sound
  • autou -- pronoun; genitive singular neuter of <autos> oneself, he -- of it
  • akoueis -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <akouô> hear, listen -- you hear
  • all' -- conjunction; <alla> but -- but
  • ouk -- particle; <ouk> not -- not
  • oidas -- verb; 2nd person singular perfect of <oida> know -- you know
  • pothen -- adverb; <pothen> from where -- from where
  • erchetai -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <erchomai> come, go -- it comes
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • pou -- adverb; <pou> where -- where
  • hupagei -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <hupagô> lead on, retire -- it goes

houtôs estin pas ho gegennêmenos ek tou pneumatos.

  • houtôs -- adverb; <houtôs> so, thus -- so
  • estin -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <eimi> I am -- is
  • pas -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <pas> all, every -- every one
  • ho -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • gegennêmenos -- deponent verb; perfect participle passive of <gignomai> happen, become -- born
  • ek -- preposition; <ek> from, out of -- of
  • tou -- article; genitive singular neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • pneumatos -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <pneuma> spirit -- spirit

3:9 - apekrithê Nikodêmos kai eipen autô; pôs dunatai tauta genesthai?

  • apekrithê -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <apokrinô> separate, answer -- answered
  • Nikodêmos -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Nikodêmos> Nicodemus -- Nicodemus
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • eipen -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <legô> say -- said
  • autô -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- to him
  • pôs -- interrogative particle; <pôs> how -- how
  • dunatai -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <dunamai> be able -- can
  • tauta -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural neuter of <houtos> this -- these (things)
  • genesthai -- deponent verb; infinitive of <gignomai> happen, become -- be

3:10 - apekrithê Iêsous kai eipen autô;

  • apekrithê -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <apokrinô> separate, answer -- answered
  • Iêsous -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Iêsous> Jesus -- Jesus
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • eipen -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <legô> say -- said
  • autô -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- to him

su ei ho didaskalos tou Israêl kai tauta ou ginôskeis?

  • su -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <su> you -- you
  • ei -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <eimi> I am -- are
  • ho -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • didaskalos -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <didaskalos> teacher -- (a) teacher
  • tou -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • Israêl -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Israêl> Israel -- of Israel
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • tauta -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <houtos> this -- these things
  • ou -- particle; <ou> not -- not
  • ginôskeis -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <ginôskô> know, learn -- do ...know

3:11 - amên amên legô soi hoti ho oidamen laloumen kai ho heôrakamen marturoumen, kai tên marturian hêmôn ou lambanete.

  • amên -- adverb; <amên> verily, truly -- verily
  • amên -- adverb; <amên> verily, truly -- verily
  • legô -- verb; 1st person singular present of <legô> say -- I say
  • soi -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <su> you -- to you
  • hoti -- conjunction; <hoti> because, that -- that
  • ho -- relative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <hos> who, which -- what
  • oidamen -- verb; 1st person plural perfect of <oida> know -- we know
  • laloumen -- verb; 1st person plural present of <laleô> speak -- we speak of
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • ho -- relative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <hos> who, which -- what
  • heôrakamen -- verb; 1st person plural perfect of <horaô> see -- we have seen
  • marturoumen -- verb; 1st person plural present of <martureô> bear witness -- we bear witness (of)
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • tên -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ho> the -- ...
  • marturian -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <marturia> testimony -- testimony
  • hêmôn -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <egô> I -- our
  • ou -- particle; <ou> not -- not
  • lambanete -- verb; 2nd person plural present of <lambanô> receive, capture -- receive

3:12 - ei ta epigeia eipon humin kai ou pisteuete, pôs ean eipô humin ta epourania pisteusete?

  • ei -- conjunction; <ei> if -- if
  • ta -- article; accusative plural neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • epigeia -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural neuter of <epigeios> earthly -- earthly (things)
  • eipon -- verb; 1st person singular aorist of <legô> say -- I told
  • humin -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <su> you -- you
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • ou -- particle; <ou> not -- not
  • pisteuete -- verb; 2nd person plural present of <pisteuô> believe -- (you do) ...believe
  • pôs -- interrogative particle; <pôs> how -- how
  • ean -- conjunction; <ean> if -- if
  • eipô -- verb; 1st person singular aorist subjunctive of <legô> say -- I will tell
  • humin -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <su> you -- you
  • ta -- article; accusative plural neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • epourania -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural neuter of <epouranios> heavenly -- heavenly
  • pisteusete -- verb; 2nd person plural future of <pisteuô> believe -- will ... believe

3:13 - kai oudeis anabebêken eis ton ouranon ei mê ho ek tou ouranou katabas, ho huios tou anthrôpou.

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • oudeis -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <oudeis, oudemia, ouden> no one, nothing -- no one
  • anabebêken -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <anabainô> mount, go up -- has gone up
  • eis -- preposition; <eis> towards -- to
  • ton -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • ouranon -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <ouranos> heaven -- heaven
  • ei -- conjunction; <ei> if -- except for
  • -- particle; <> not -- ...
  • ho -- article used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <ho> the -- the (one)
  • ek -- preposition; <ek> from, out of -- from
  • tou -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • ouranou -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ouranos> heaven -- heaven
  • katabas -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <katabainô> descend -- coming down
  • ho -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • huios -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <huios> son -- son
  • tou -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • anthrôpou -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <anthrôpos> human being -- of man

Romans 1:17b (memory verse) -

        Ho de dikaios ek pisteôs zêsetai.

  • ho -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- ...
  • dikaios -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <dikaios> just, righteous -- just
  • ek -- preposition; <ek> from, out of -- by
  • pisteôs -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <pistis> faith -- faith
  • zêsetai -- verb; 3rd person singular future middle of <zaô> live -- shall live

Lesson Text

3:1 Ên de anthrôpos ek tôn Pharisaiôn, Nikodêmos onoma autô, archôn tôn Ioudaiôn.

3:2 houtos êlthen pros auton nuktos kai eipen autô, hrabbi, oidamen hoti apo theou elêluthas didaskalos; oudeis gar dunatai tauta ta sêmeia poiein ha su poieis, ean mê ê ho theos met' autou.

3:3 apekrithê Iêsous kai eipen autô. amên amên legô soi, ean mê tis gennêthê anôthen, ou dunatai idein tên basileian tou theou.

3:4 legei pros auton ho Nikodêmos, pôs dunatai anthrôpos gennêthênai gerôn ôn? mê dunatai eis tên koilian tês mêtros autou deuteron eiselthein kai gennêthênai?

3:5 apekrithê Iêsous. amên amên legô soi, ean mê tis gennêthê ex hudatos kai pneumatos, ou dunatai eiselthein eis tên basileian tou theou 3:6 to gegennêmenon ek tês sarkos sarx estin, kai to gegennêmenon ek tou pneumatos pneuma estin. 3:7 mê thaumasês hoti eipon soi; dei humas gennêthênai anôthen. 3:8 to pneuma hopou thelei pnei, kai tên phônên autou akoueis, all' ouk oidas pothen erchetai kai pou hupagei; houtôs estin pas ho gegennêmenos ek tou pneumatos.

3:9 apekrithê Nikodêmos kai eipen autô; pôs dunatai tauta genesthai?

3:10 apekrithê Iêsous kai eipen autô; su ei ho didaskalos tou Israêl kai tauta ou ginôskeis? 3:11 amên amên legô soi hoti ho oidamen laloumen kai ho heôrakamen marturoumen, kai tên marturian hêmôn ou lambanete. 3:12 ei ta epigeia eipon humin kai ou pisteuete, pôs ean eipô humin ta epourania pisteusete? 3:13 kai oudeis anabebêken eis ton ouranon ei mê ho ek tou ouranou katabas, ho huios tou anthrôpou.

Romans 1:17b (memory verse) -

        Ho de dikaios ek pisteôs zêsetai.

Translation

From the King James version:
3:1 There was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews:
2 The same came to Jesus by night, and said unto him, Rabbi, we know that thou art a teacher come from God: for no man can do these miracles that thou doest, except God be with him.
3 Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.
4 Nicodemus saith unto him, How can a man be born when he is old? can he enter the second time into his mother's womb, and be born?
5 Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. 6 That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. 7 Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be born again. 8 The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit.
9 Nicodemus answered and said unto him, How can these things be?
10 Jesus answered and said unto him, Art thou a master of Israel, and knowest not these things? 11 Verily, verily, I say unto thee, We speak that we do know, and testify that we have seen; and ye receive not our witness. 12 If I have told you earthly things, and ye believe not, how shall ye believe, if I tell you of heavenly things? 13 And no man hath ascended up to heaven, but he that came down from heaven, even the Son of man which is in heaven.
Romans 1:17b (memory verse) --
The just shall live by faith.

Grammar

11. Nouns: i-stems.

Nouns with stems in -i have endings differing from those of the -o- and -a- declensions, except in the accusative singular and genitive plural. Their endings also vary in the epic texts, but the basic inflection is given here with the noun polis 'city'.

Nom sg   hê polis   Nom pl   hai poleis
Gen sg   tês poleos   Gen pl   tôn poliôn
Dat sg   tê polei   Dat pl   tais polisi
Acc sg   tên polin   Acc pl   tas poleis
12. Adjectives of the -o- and -a- Declensions.

Many of the most common adjectives fall in these declensions, e.g. kakos 'bad', neos 'new', philos 'dear'. Their endings are those of the nouns in the declensions. It must be noted, however, that feminine singular forms have -ê rather than -a unless their stems ending in -e, -i, -r, as in dikaia 'just'. Some, especially compound adjectives, have only two endings, e.g. barbaros, -on 'foreign', paranomos, -on 'unlawful.

    Masculine   Feminine   Neuter
Nom sg   kakos   kakê   kakon
Gen sg   kakou   kakês   kakou
Dat sg   kakô   kakê   kakô
Acc sg   kakon   kakên   kakon
             
Nom pl   kakoi   kakai   kaka
Gen pl   kakôn   kakôn   kakôn
Dat pl   kakois   kakais   kakois
Acc pl   kakous   kakas   kaka
13. The Intensive Pronoun autos and allos 'other'.

The intensive pronoun, meaning 'self, same', is inflected like adjectives except that the neuter nominative/accusative singular lacks final -n, e.g. autos, autê, auto. The forms of allos are also inflected in the same way. The forms of the third person reflexive pronouns 'his, her, their' are based on these:

Gen sg   heautou 'his'   heautês 'her'   Gen pl   heautôn 'their'
Dat sg   heautô   heautê   Dat pl   heautois
Acc sg   heauton   heautên   Acc pl   heautous
14. The Relative Pronouns.

The inflections of the simple relative pronoun are as follows. These are also maintained in the emphatic and general relative forms. The emphatic relative pronoun is hosper, hêper, hoper '(precisely) he who..., (precisely) she who...'. The general relative pronoun is sstis, hêti, oti 'whoever, whatever'.

    Masculine   Feminine   Neuter
Nom sg   hos     ho
Gen sg   hou   hês   hou
Dat sg      
Acc sg   hon   hên   ho
             
Nom pl   hoi   hai   ha
Gen pl   hôn   hôn   hôn
Dat pl   hois   hais   hois
Acc pl   hous   has   ha
15. The Aorist System.

The aorist system is comparable to the present system, except that it lacks a form corresponding to the present indicative. Its basic meaning was punctual, but its basic set of forms generally may be translated with past tense forms. The subjunctive, optative and imperative are comparable to those of the present system.

    Indicative   Subjunctive   Optative   Imperative
1 sg   episteusa   pisteusô   pisteusai    
2 sg   episteusas   pisteusês   pisteuseias   pisteuson
3 sg   episteuse(n)   pisteusê   pisteuseie(n)   pisteusatô
                 
1 pl   episteusamen   pisteusômen   pisteusaimen    
2 pl   episteusate   pisteusête   pisteusaite   pisteusate
3 pl   episteusan   pisteusôsi(n)   pisteuseian   pisteusantôn

Infinitive   pisteusai            
Participle   pisteusas   pisteusasa   pisteusan   'one who
Gen sg   pisteusantos   pisteusês   pisteusantos   believed'