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New Testament Greek Online

Lesson 3

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

Like the other gospels, the fourth is anonymous; but it has been ascribed to St. John because of references to him, such as those in chapter 21, verses 21 to 23, followed by the statement in verse 24 that "this is the disciple that ... wrote these things." The fourth gospel is unlike the other three even though, like them, it has the form of a biography. Omitting any information on the birth and early years of Jesus, it begins with a section equating him with the Word and the only begotten of the Father. It continues with his baptism by John the Baptist, following that with eleven chapters on his miracles and his discussions. Chapters thirteen to nineteen then report the events of twenty-four hours, followed by chapter twenty on his resurrection, which with a final chapter also relates his subsequent meetings with his disciples.

Reading and Textual Analysis

John 3:1-13, and Romans 1:17b (memory verse)

This selection from Chapter 3 is one of the most remarkable among the four gospels. It has given rise to the view that Christians must be born again. That belief rests on the interpretation of the Greek word ἄνωθεν. Jesus used it in his response to the statesman, Nicodemus, who may well have interpreted it in accordance with the language that was general in his position for dealing with public affairs, and with his logical mind, as reflected in his question in verse four.

The word is a compound consisting of the first element the adverb ἄνω, which means 'up, on high, in heaven'. The second element is the suffix -θεν, which means 'from', as in words like οἴκοθεν 'from home'. In Classical Greek it has only its literal meaning 'from above'; but in the New Testament it has the additional meaning 'again'. The statesman clearly interprets it in this sense. But Jesus in his usual quiet way of teaching goes on to say without contradicting him directly 'unless one is born of water and the spirit', clearly indicating that he intends the literal sense. He then continues in verse eight with one of the most remarkable passages in literature as presented in the King James translation; the verse supports the literal interpretation of ἄνωθεν.

The passage is also of interest in indicating that the conversation between Jesus and Nicodemus was probably conducted in Greek. Dr. Esther Raizen informs me that there is no ambiguity of interpretation of the corresponding terms in Hebrew, and presumably also not in Aramaic. Two Hebrew translations of the passage use a word meaning 'again', while another uses a word meaning 'from above'. Jesus' statements in verse five and later would be difficult to account for unless his use of ἄνωθεν indicated the necessity of being born from above.

3:1 - Ἦν δὲ ἄνθρωπος ἐκ τῶν Φαρισαίων, Νικόδημος ὄνομα αὐτῷ, ἄρχων τῶν Ἰουδαίων.

  • ἦν -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <εἰμί> I am -- (there) was
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- now
  • ἄνθρωπος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ἄνθρωπος> human being -- (a) man
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- of
  • τῶν -- article; genitive plural masculine of <> the -- the
  • Φαρισαίων -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <Φαρισαῖος> Pharisee -- Pharisees
  • Νικόδημος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Νικόδημος> Nicodemus -- Nicodemus
  • ὄνομα -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <ὄνομα> name -- name
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to him, his
  • ἄρχων -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ἄρχων> ruler -- (a) ruler
  • τῶν -- article; genitive plural masculine of <> the -- of the
  • Ἰουδαίων -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <Ἰουδαῖος> Jew -- Jews

3:2 - οὗτος ἦλθεν πρὸς αὐτὸν νυκτὸς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ,

  • οὗτος -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <οὗτος> this -- he
  • ἦλθεν -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ἔρχομαι> come, go -- came
  • πρὸς -- preposition; <πρός> to -- to
  • αὐτὸν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • νυκτὸς -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <νύξ> night -- by night
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • εἶπεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- said
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to him

ῥαββὶ, οἴδαμεν ὅτι ἀπὸ θεοῦ ἐλήλυθας διδάσκαλος·

  • ῥαββὶ -- noun, masculine; vocative singular of <ῥαββί> rabbi -- Rabbi
  • οἴδαμεν -- verb; 1st person plural perfect of <οἶδα> know -- we know
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- that
  • ἀπὸ -- preposition; <ἀπό> from -- from
  • θεοῦ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <θεός> god -- God
  • ἐλήλυθας -- deponent verb; nominative singular masculine of perfect participle of <ἔρχομαι> come, go -- (who has) come
  • διδάσκαλος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <διδάσκαλος> teacher -- teacher

οὐδεὶς γὰρ δύναται ταῦτα τὰ σημεῖα ποιεῖν ἃ σὺ ποιεῖς, ἐὰν μὴ ᾖ ὁ θεὸς μετ' αὐτοῦ.

  • οὐδεὶς -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <οὐδείς, οὐδεμία, οὐδέν> no one, nothing -- no one
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • δύναται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <δύναμαι> be able -- is able
  • ταῦτα -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <οὗτος> this -- these
  • τὰ -- article; accusative plural neuter of <> the -- ...
  • σημεῖα -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <σημεῖον> sign, miracle -- miracles
  • ποιεῖν -- verb; infinitive of <ποιέω> make, do -- do
  • -- relative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <ὅς> who, which -- that
  • σὺ -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • ποιεῖς -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <ποιέω> make, do -- do
  • ἐὰν -- conjunction; <ἐάν> if -- if
  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- not
  • -- verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive of <εἰμί> I am -- were
  • -- article; nominative singular masculine of <> the -- ...
  • θεὸς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <θεός> god -- God
  • μετ' -- preposition; <μετά> after, with -- with
  • αὐτοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him

3:3 - ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ.

  • ἀπεκρίθη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <ἀποκρίνω> separate, answer -- answered
  • Ἰησοῦς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ἰησοῦς> Jesus -- Jesus
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • εἶπεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- said
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- (to) him

ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω σοι, ἐὰν μή τις γεννηθῇ ἄνωθεν, οὐ δύναται ἰδεῖν τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ.

  • ἀμὴν -- adverb; <ἀμήν> verily, truly -- verily
  • ἀμὴν -- adverb; <ἀμήν> verily, truly -- verily
  • λέγω -- verb; 1st person singular present of <λέγω> say -- I say
  • σοι -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <σύ> you -- to you
  • ἐὰν -- conjunction; <ἐάν> if -- if
  • μή -- particle; <μή> not -- not
  • τις -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <τις> someone, something -- one
  • γεννηθῇ -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist subjunctive passive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- is...born
  • ἄνωθεν -- adverb; <ἄνωθεν> from above, anew -- from above (again)
  • οὐ -- particle; <οὐ> not -- not
  • δύναται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <δύναμαι> be able -- can
  • ἰδεῖν -- verb; aorist infinitive of <ὁράω> see -- see
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • βασιλείαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <βασιλεία> kingdom -- kingdom
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <> the -- ...
  • θεοῦ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <θεός> god -- God

3:4 - λέγει πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ Νικόδημος,

  • λέγει -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <λέγω> say -- says
  • πρὸς -- preposition; <πρός> to -- to
  • αὐτὸν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • -- article; nominative singular masculine of <> the -- ...
  • Νικόδημος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Νικόδημος> Nicodemus -- Nicodemus

πῶς δύναται ἄνθρωπος γεννηθῆναι γέρων ὦν;

  • πῶς -- interrogative particle; <πῶς> how -- how
  • δύναται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <δύναμαι> be able -- can
  • ἄνθρωπος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ἄνθρωπος> human being -- (a) man
  • γεννηθῆναι -- deponent verb; infinitive aorist passive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- be born
  • γέρων -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <γέρων> old man -- (an) old man
  • ὦν -- verb; nominative singular masculine of present participle of <εἰμί> I am -- being

μὴ δύναται εἰς τὴν κοιλίαν τῆς μητρός αὐτοῦ δεύτερον εἰσελθεῖν καὶ γεννηθῆναι;

  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- surely...not
  • δύναται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <δύναμαι> be able -- (he) can
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- into
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • κοιλίαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <κοιλία> womb -- womb
  • τῆς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <> the -- ...
  • μητρός -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <μήτηρ> mother -- mother
  • αὐτοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- (of) his
  • δεύτερον -- adverb; <δεύτερον> second -- a second time
  • εἰσελθεῖν -- deponent verb; infinitive aorist of <εἰσέρχομαι> enter -- enter
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • γεννηθῆναι -- deponent verb; infinitive aorist passive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- be born

3:5 - ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς.

  • ἀπεκρίθη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <ἀποκρίνω> separate, answer -- answered
  • Ἰησοῦς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ἰησοῦς> Jesus -- Jesus

ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω σοι, ἐὰν μή τις γεννηθῇ ἐξ ὕδατος καὶ πνεύματος, οὐ δύναται εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ

  • ἀμὴν -- adverb; <ἀμήν> verily, truly -- verily
  • ἀμὴν -- adverb; <ἀμήν> verily, truly -- verily
  • λέγω -- verb; 1st person singular present of <λέγω> say -- I say
  • σοι -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <σύ> you -- to you
  • ἐὰν -- conjunction; <ἐάν> if -- if
  • μή -- particle; <μή> not -- not
  • τις -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <τις> someone, something -- one
  • γεννηθῇ -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist subjunctive passive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- is born
  • ἐξ -- preposition; <ἐξ> from, out of -- of
  • ὕδατος -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <ὕδωρ> water -- water
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • πνεύματος -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <πνεῦμα> spirit -- spirit
  • οὐ -- particle; <οὐ> not -- not
  • δύναται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <δύναμαι> be able -- can
  • εἰσελθεῖν -- deponent verb; infinitive aorist of <εἰσέρχομαι> enter -- enter
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- into
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • βασιλείαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <βασιλεία> kingdom -- kingdom
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <> the -- ...
  • θεοῦ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <θεός> god -- (of) God

3:6 - τὸ γεγεννημένον ἐκ τῆς σαρκὸς σάρξ ἐστιν, καὶ τὸ γεγεννημένον ἐκ τοῦ πνεύματος πνεῦμα ἐστιν.

  • τὸ -- article; nominative singular neuter of <> the -- that
  • γεγεννημένον -- deponent verb; nominative singular neuter of perfect participle passive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- born
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- from
  • τῆς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • σαρκὸς -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <σάρξ> flesh -- flesh
  • σάρξ -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <σάρξ> flesh -- flesh
  • ἐστιν -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- is
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • τὸ -- article; nominative singular neuter of <> the -- that
  • γεγεννημένον -- deponent verb; nominative singular neuter of perfect participle passive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- born
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- from
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular neuter of <> the -- the
  • πνεύματος -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <πνεῦμα> spirit -- spirit
  • πνεῦμα -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <πνεῦμα> spirit -- spirit
  • ἐστιν -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- is

3:7 - μὴ θαυμάσῃς ὅτι εἶπόν σοι· δεῖ ὑμᾶς γεννηθῆναι ἄνωθεν.

  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- not
  • θαυμάσῃς -- verb; 2nd person singular aorist subjunctive of <θαυμάζω> wonder -- do ... wonder
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- that
  • εἶπόν -- verb; 1st person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- said
  • σοι -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <σύ> you -- to you
  • δεῖ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <δεῖ> it is necessary -- it is necessary (that)
  • ὑμᾶς -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • γεννηθῆναι -- deponent verb; infinitive aorist passive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- be born
  • ἄνωθεν -- adverb; <ἄνωθεν> from above, anew -- from above; again

3:8 - τὸ πνεῦμα ὅπου θέλει πνεῖ, καὶ τὴν φωνήν αὐτοῦ ἀκούεις, ἀλλ' οὐκ οἶδας πόθεν ἔρχεται καὶ ποῦ ὑπάγει·

  • τὸ -- article; nominative singular neuter of <> the -- the
  • πνεῦμα -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <πνεῦμα> spirit -- (spirit) wind
  • ὅπου -- adverb; <ὅπου> where -- where
  • θέλει -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <θέλω> mean, purport -- it wishes
  • πνεῖ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <πνέω> blow -- blows
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • φωνήν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <φωνή> voice, sound -- sound
  • αὐτοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular neuter of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- of it
  • ἀκούεις -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <ἀκούω> hear, listen -- you hear
  • ἀλλ' -- conjunction; <ἀλλά> but -- but
  • οὐκ -- particle; <οὐκ> not -- not
  • οἶδας -- verb; 2nd person singular perfect of <οἶδα> know -- you know
  • πόθεν -- adverb; <πόθεν> from where -- from where
  • ἔρχεται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <ἔρχομαι> come, go -- it comes
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ποῦ -- adverb; <ποῦ> where -- where
  • ὑπάγει -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <ὑπάγω> lead on, retire -- it goes

οὕτως ἐστὶν πᾶς ὁ γεγεννημένος ἐκ τοῦ πνεύματος.

  • οὕτως -- adverb; <οὕτως> so, thus -- so
  • ἐστὶν -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- is
  • πᾶς -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <πᾶς> all, every -- every one
  • -- article; nominative singular masculine of <> the -- ...
  • γεγεννημένος -- deponent verb; perfect participle passive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- born
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- of
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular neuter of <> the -- the
  • πνεύματος -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <πνεῦμα> spirit -- spirit

3:9 - ἀπεκρίθη Νικόδημος καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ· πῶς δύναται ταῦτα γενέσθαι;

  • ἀπεκρίθη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <ἀποκρίνω> separate, answer -- answered
  • Νικόδημος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Νικόδημος> Nicodemus -- Nicodemus
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • εἶπεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- said
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to him
  • πῶς -- interrogative particle; <πῶς> how -- how
  • δύναται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <δύναμαι> be able -- can
  • ταῦτα -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural neuter of <οὗτος> this -- these (things)
  • γενέσθαι -- deponent verb; infinitive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- be

3:10 - ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ·

  • ἀπεκρίθη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <ἀποκρίνω> separate, answer -- answered
  • Ἰησοῦς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ἰησοῦς> Jesus -- Jesus
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • εἶπεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- said
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to him

σὺ εἶ ὁ διδάσκαλος τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ καὶ ταῦτα οὐ γινώσκεις;

  • σὺ -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • εἶ -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- are
  • -- article; nominative singular masculine of <> the -- ...
  • διδάσκαλος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <διδάσκαλος> teacher -- (a) teacher
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <> the -- ...
  • Ἰσραὴλ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Ἰσραήλ> Israel -- of Israel
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ταῦτα -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <οὗτος> this -- these things
  • οὐ -- particle; <οὐ> not -- not
  • γινώσκεις -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <γινώσκω> know, learn -- do ...know

3:11 - ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω σοι ὅτι ὃ οἶδαμεν λαλοῦμεν καὶ ὃ ἑωράκαμεν μαρτυροῦμεν, καὶ τὴν μαρτυρίαν ἡμῶν οὐ λαμβάνετε.

  • ἀμὴν -- adverb; <ἀμήν> verily, truly -- verily
  • ἀμὴν -- adverb; <ἀμήν> verily, truly -- verily
  • λέγω -- verb; 1st person singular present of <λέγω> say -- I say
  • σοι -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <σύ> you -- to you
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- that
  • -- relative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <ὅς> who, which -- what
  • οἶδαμεν -- verb; 1st person plural perfect of <οἶδα> know -- we know
  • λαλοῦμεν -- verb; 1st person plural present of <λαλέω> speak -- we speak of
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • -- relative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <ὅς> who, which -- what
  • ἑωράκαμεν -- verb; 1st person plural perfect of <ὁράω> see -- we have seen
  • μαρτυροῦμεν -- verb; 1st person plural present of <μαρτυρέω> bear witness -- we bear witness (of)
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <> the -- ...
  • μαρτυρίαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <μαρτυρία> testimony -- testimony
  • ἡμῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <ἐγώ> I -- our
  • οὐ -- particle; <οὐ> not -- not
  • λαμβάνετε -- verb; 2nd person plural present of <λαμβάνω> receive, capture -- receive

3:12 - εἰ τὰ ἐπίγεια εἶπον ὑμῖν καὶ οὐ πιστεύετε, πῶς ἐάν εἶπω ὑμῖν τὰ ἐπουράνια πιστεύσετε;

  • εἰ -- conjunction; <εἰ> if -- if
  • τὰ -- article; accusative plural neuter of <> the -- the
  • ἐπίγεια -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural neuter of <ἐπίγειος> earthly -- earthly (things)
  • εἶπον -- verb; 1st person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- I told
  • ὑμῖν -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • οὐ -- particle; <οὐ> not -- not
  • πιστεύετε -- verb; 2nd person plural present of <πιστεύω> believe -- (you do) ...believe
  • πῶς -- interrogative particle; <πῶς> how -- how
  • ἐάν -- conjunction; <ἐάν> if -- if
  • εἶπω -- verb; 1st person singular aorist subjunctive of <λέγω> say -- I will tell
  • ὑμῖν -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • τὰ -- article; accusative plural neuter of <> the -- the
  • ἐπουράνια -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural neuter of <ἐπουράνιος> heavenly -- heavenly
  • πιστεύσετε -- verb; 2nd person plural future of <πιστεύω> believe -- will ... believe

3:13 - καὶ οὐδεὶς ἀναβέβηκεν εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν εἰ μὴ ὅ ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καταβάς, ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • οὐδεὶς -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <οὐδείς, οὐδεμία, οὐδέν> no one, nothing -- no one
  • ἀναβέβηκεν -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <ἀναβαίνω> mount, go up -- has gone up
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- to
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <> the -- ...
  • οὐρανὸν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <οὐρανός> heaven -- heaven
  • εἰ -- conjunction; <εἰ> if -- except for
  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- ...
  • -- article used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <> the -- the (one)
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- from
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <> the -- ...
  • οὐρανοῦ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <οὐρανός> heaven -- heaven
  • καταβάς -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <καταβαίνω> descend -- coming down
  • -- article; nominative singular masculine of <> the -- the
  • υἱὸς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <υἱός> son -- son
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <> the -- ...
  • ἀνθρώπου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ἄνθρωπος> human being -- of man

Romans 1:17b (memory verse) -

        Ὁ δὲ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται.

  • -- article; nominative singular masculine of <> the -- the
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- ...
  • δίκαιος -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <δίκαιος> just, righteous -- just
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- by
  • πίστεως -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <πίστις> faith -- faith
  • ζήσεται -- verb; 3rd person singular future middle of <ζάω> live -- shall live

Lesson Text

3:1 Ἦν δὲ ἄνθρωπος ἐκ τῶν Φαρισαίων, Νικόδημος ὄνομα αὐτῷ, ἄρχων τῶν Ἰουδαίων.

3:2 οὗτος ἦλθεν πρὸς αὐτὸν νυκτὸς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ, ῥαββὶ, οἴδαμεν ὅτι ἀπὸ θεοῦ ἐλήλυθας διδάσκαλος· οὐδεὶς γὰρ δύναται ταῦτα τὰ σημεῖα ποιεῖν ἃ σὺ ποιεῖς, ἐὰν μὴ ᾖ ὁ θεὸς μετ' αὐτοῦ.

3:3 ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ. ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω σοι, ἐὰν μή τις γεννηθῇ ἄνωθεν, οὐ δύναται ἰδεῖν τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ.

3:4 λέγει πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ Νικόδημος, πῶς δύναται ἄνθρωπος γεννηθῆναι γέρων ὦν; μὴ δύναται εἰς τὴν κοιλίαν τῆς μητρός αὐτοῦ δεύτερον εἰσελθεῖν καὶ γεννηθῆναι;

3:5 ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς. ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω σοι, ἐὰν μή τις γεννηθῇ ἐξ ὕδατος καὶ πνεύματος, οὐ δύναται εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ 3:6 τὸ γεγεννημένον ἐκ τῆς σαρκὸς σάρξ ἐστιν, καὶ τὸ γεγεννημένον ἐκ τοῦ πνεύματος πνεῦμα ἐστιν. 3:7 μὴ θαυμάσῃς ὅτι εἶπόν σοι· δεῖ ὑμᾶς γεννηθῆναι ἄνωθεν. 3:8 τὸ πνεῦμα ὅπου θέλει πνεῖ, καὶ τὴν φωνήν αὐτοῦ ἀκούεις, ἀλλ' οὐκ οἶδας πόθεν ἔρχεται καὶ ποῦ ὑπάγει· οὕτως ἐστὶν πᾶς ὁ γεγεννημένος ἐκ τοῦ πνεύματος.

3:9 ἀπεκρίθη Νικόδημος καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ· πῶς δύναται ταῦτα γενέσθαι;

3:10 ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ· σὺ εἶ ὁ διδάσκαλος τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ καὶ ταῦτα οὐ γινώσκεις; 3:11 ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω σοι ὅτι ὃ οἶδαμεν λαλοῦμεν καὶ ὃ ἑωράκαμεν μαρτυροῦμεν, καὶ τὴν μαρτυρίαν ἡμῶν οὐ λαμβάνετε. 3:12 εἰ τὰ ἐπίγεια εἶπον ὑμῖν καὶ οὐ πιστεύετε, πῶς ἐάν εἶπω ὑμῖν τὰ ἐπουράνια πιστεύσετε; 3:13 καὶ οὐδεὶς ἀναβέβηκεν εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν εἰ μὴ ὅ ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καταβάς, ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου.

Romans 1:17b (memory verse) -

        Ὁ δὲ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται.

Translation

From the King James version:
3:1 There was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews:
2 The same came to Jesus by night, and said unto him, Rabbi, we know that thou art a teacher come from God: for no man can do these miracles that thou doest, except God be with him.
3 Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.
4 Nicodemus saith unto him, How can a man be born when he is old? can he enter the second time into his mother's womb, and be born?
5 Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. 6 That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. 7 Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be born again. 8 The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit.
9 Nicodemus answered and said unto him, How can these things be?
10 Jesus answered and said unto him, Art thou a master of Israel, and knowest not these things? 11 Verily, verily, I say unto thee, We speak that we do know, and testify that we have seen; and ye receive not our witness. 12 If I have told you earthly things, and ye believe not, how shall ye believe, if I tell you of heavenly things? 13 And no man hath ascended up to heaven, but he that came down from heaven, even the Son of man which is in heaven.
Romans 1:17b (memory verse) --
The just shall live by faith.

Grammar

11. Nouns: ι-stems.

Nouns with stems in -ι have endings differing from those of the -ο- and -- declensions, except in the accusative singular and genitive plural. Their endings also vary in the epic texts, but the basic inflection is given here with the noun πόλις 'city'.

Nom sg   ἡ πόλις   Nom pl   αἱ πόλεις
Gen sg   τῆς πόλεος   Gen pl   τῶν πολίων
Dat sg   τῇ πόλει   Dat pl   ταῖς πόλισι
Acc sg   τῆν πόλιν   Acc pl   τὰς πόλεις
12. Adjectives of the -ο- and -- Declensions.

Many of the most common adjectives fall in these declensions, e.g. κακός 'bad', νέος 'new', φίλος 'dear'. Their endings are those of the nouns in the declensions. It must be noted, however, that feminine singular forms have -η rather than -α unless their stems ending in -ε, -ι, -ρ, as in δικαία 'just'. Some, especially compound adjectives, have only two endings, e.g. βάρβαρος, -ον 'foreign', παράνομος, -ον 'unlawful.

    Masculine   Feminine   Neuter
Nom sg   κακός   κακή   κακόν
Gen sg   κακοῦ   κακῆς   κακοῦ
Dat sg   κακῷ   κακῇ   κακῷ
Acc sg   κακόν   κακήν   κακόν
             
Nom pl   κακοί   κακαί   κακά
Gen pl   κακῶν   κακῶν   κακῶν
Dat pl   κακοῖς   κακαῖς   κακοῖς
Acc pl   κακούς   κακάς   κακά
13. The Intensive Pronoun αὐτός and ἄλλος 'other'.

The intensive pronoun, meaning 'self, same', is inflected like adjectives except that the neuter nominative/accusative singular lacks final -ν, e.g. αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό. The forms of ἄλλος are also inflected in the same way. The forms of the third person reflexive pronouns 'his, her, their' are based on these:

Gen sg   ἑαυτοῦ 'his'   ἑαυτῆς 'her'   Gen pl   ἑαυτῶν 'their'
Dat sg   ἑαυτῷ   ἑαυτῇ   Dat pl   ἑαυτοῖς
Acc sg   ἑαυτόν   ἑαυτήν   Acc pl   ἑαυτούς
14. The Relative Pronouns.

The inflections of the simple relative pronoun are as follows. These are also maintained in the emphatic and general relative forms. The emphatic relative pronoun is ὅσπερ, ἥπερ, ὅπερ '(precisely) he who..., (precisely) she who...'. The general relative pronoun is σ̔́στις, ἥτι, ὄτι 'whoever, whatever'.

    Masculine   Feminine   Neuter
Nom sg   ὅς    
Gen sg   οὗ   ἧς   οὗ
Dat sg      
Acc sg   ὅν   ἥν  
             
Nom pl   οἵ   αἵ  
Gen pl   ὧν   ὧν   ὧν
Dat pl   οἵς   αἷς   οἵς
Acc pl   οὕς   ἅς  
15. The Aorist System.

The aorist system is comparable to the present system, except that it lacks a form corresponding to the present indicative. Its basic meaning was punctual, but its basic set of forms generally may be translated with past tense forms. The subjunctive, optative and imperative are comparable to those of the present system.

    Indicative   Subjunctive   Optative   Imperative
1 sg   ἐπίστευσα   πιστεύσω   πιστεύσαι    
2 sg   ἐπίστευσας   πιστεύσῃς   πιστεύσειας   πίστευσον
3 sg   ἐπίστευσε(ν)   πιστεύσῃ   πιστεύσειε(ν)   πιστευσάτω
                 
1 pl   ἐπιστεύσαμεν   πιστεύσωμεν   πιστεύσαιμεν    
2 pl   ἐπιστεύσατε   πιστεύσητε   πιστεύσαιτε   πιστεύσατε
3 pl   ἐπίστευσαν   πιστεύσωσι(ν)   πιστεύσειαν   πιστευσάντων

Infinitive   πιστεῦσαι            
Participle   πιστεύσας   πιστεύσασα   πιστεῦσαν   'one who
Gen sg   πιστεύσαντος   πιστεύσης   πιστεύσαντος   believed'