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New Testament Greek Online

Lesson 3

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

Like the other gospels, the fourth is anonymous; but it has been ascribed to St. John because of references to him, such as those in chapter 21, verses 21 to 23, followed by the statement in verse 24 that "this is the disciple that ... wrote these things." The fourth gospel is unlike the other three even though, like them, it has the form of a biography. Omitting any information on the birth and early years of Jesus, it begins with a section equating him with the Word and the only begotten of the Father. It continues with his baptism by John the Baptist, following that with eleven chapters on his miracles and his discussions. Chapters thirteen to nineteen then report the events of twenty-four hours, followed by chapter twenty on his resurrection, which with a final chapter also relates his subsequent meetings with his disciples.

Reading and Textual Analysis

John 3:1-13, and Romans 1:17b (memory verse)

This selection from Chapter 3 is one of the most remarkable among the four gospels. It has given rise to the view that Christians must be born again. That belief rests on the interpretation of the Greek word ʼάνωθεν. Jesus used it in his response to the statesman, Nicodemus, who may well have interpreted it in accordance with the language that was general in his position for dealing with public affairs, and with his logical mind, as reflected in his question in verse four.

The word is a compound consisting of the first element the adverb ʼάνω, which means 'up, on high, in heaven'. The second element is the suffix -θεν, which means 'from', as in words like οʼίκοθεν 'from home'. In Classical Greek it has only its literal meaning 'from above'; but in the New Testament it has the additional meaning 'again'. The statesman clearly interprets it in this sense. But Jesus in his usual quiet way of teaching goes on to say without contradicting him directly 'unless one is born of water and the spirit', clearly indicating that he intends the literal sense. He then continues in verse eight with one of the most remarkable passages in literature as presented in the King James translation; the verse supports the literal interpretation of ʼάνωθεν.

The passage is also of interest in indicating that the conversation between Jesus and Nicodemus was probably conducted in Greek. Dr. Esther Raizen informs me that there is no ambiguity of interpretation of the corresponding terms in Hebrew, and presumably also not in Aramaic. Two Hebrew translations of the passage use a word meaning 'again', while another uses a word meaning 'from above'. Jesus' statements in verse five and later would be difficult to account for unless his use of ʼάνωθεν indicated the necessity of being born from above.

3:1 - ʼΗ̂ν δὲ ʼάνθρωπος ἐκ τω̂ν Φαρισαίων, Νικόδημος ʼόνομα αὐτῳ̂, ʼάρχων τω̂ν ʼΙουδαίων.

  • ʼη̂ν -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <εἰμί> I am -- (there) was
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- now
  • ʼάνθρωπος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ʼάνθρωπος> human being -- (a) man
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- of
  • τω̂ν -- article; genitive plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • Φαρισαίων -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <Φαρισαι̂ος> Pharisee -- Pharisees
  • Νικόδημος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Νικόδημος> Nicodemus -- Nicodemus
  • ʼόνομα -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <ʼόνομα> name -- name
  • αὐτῳ̂ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to him, his
  • ʼάρχων -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ʼάρχων> ruler -- (a) ruler
  • τω̂ν -- article; genitive plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- of the
  • ʼΙουδαίων -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <ʼΙουδαι̂ος> Jew -- Jews

3:2 - οʽυ̂τος ʼη̂λθεν πρὸς αὐτὸν νυκτὸς καὶ εʼι̂πεν αὐτῳ̂,

  • οʽυ̂τος -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <οʽυ̂τος> this -- he
  • ʼη̂λθεν -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ʼέρχομαι> come, go -- came
  • πρὸς -- preposition; <πρός> to -- to
  • αὐτὸν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • νυκτὸς -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <νύξ> night -- by night
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • εʼι̂πεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- said
  • αὐτῳ̂ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to him

ῥαββὶ, οʼίδαμεν ʽότι ἀπὸ θεου̂ ἐλήλυθας διδάσκαλος·

  • ῥαββὶ -- noun, masculine; vocative singular of <ῥαββί> rabbi -- Rabbi
  • οʼίδαμεν -- verb; 1st person plural perfect of <οʼι̂δα> know -- we know
  • ʽότι -- conjunction; <ʽότι> because, that -- that
  • ἀπὸ -- preposition; <ἀπό> from -- from
  • θεου̂ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <θεός> god -- God
  • ἐλήλυθας -- deponent verb; nominative singular masculine of perfect participle of <ʼέρχομαι> come, go -- (who has) come
  • διδάσκαλος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <διδάσκαλος> teacher -- teacher

οὐδεὶς γὰρ δύναται ταυ̂τα τὰ σημει̂α ποιει̂ν ʽὰ σὺ ποιει̂ς, ἐὰν μὴ ʼῃ̂ ὁ θεὸς μετ' αὐτου̂.

  • οὐδεὶς -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <οὐδείς, οὐδεμία, οὐδέν> no one, nothing -- no one
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • δύναται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <δύναμαι> be able -- is able
  • ταυ̂τα -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <οʽυ̂τος> this -- these
  • τὰ -- article; accusative plural neuter of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • σημει̂α -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <σημει̂ον> sign, miracle -- miracles
  • ποιει̂ν -- verb; infinitive of <ποιέω> make, do -- do
  • ʽὰ -- relative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <ʽός> who, which -- that
  • σὺ -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • ποιει̂ς -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <ποιέω> make, do -- do
  • ἐὰν -- conjunction; <ἐάν> if -- if
  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- not
  • ʼῃ̂ -- verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive of <εἰμί> I am -- were
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • θεὸς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <θεός> god -- God
  • μετ' -- preposition; <μετά> after, with -- with
  • αὐτου̂ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him

3:3 - ἀπεκρίθη ʼΙησου̂ς καὶ εʼι̂πεν αὐτῳ̂.

  • ἀπεκρίθη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <ἀποκρίνω> separate, answer -- answered
  • ʼΙησου̂ς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ʼΙησου̂ς> Jesus -- Jesus
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • εʼι̂πεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- said
  • αὐτῳ̂ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- (to) him

ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω σοι, ἐὰν μή τις γεννηθῃ̂ ʼάνωθεν, οὐ δύναται ἰδει̂ν τὴν βασιλείαν του̂ θεου̂.

  • ἀμὴν -- adverb; <ἀμήν> verily, truly -- verily
  • ἀμὴν -- adverb; <ἀμήν> verily, truly -- verily
  • λέγω -- verb; 1st person singular present of <λέγω> say -- I say
  • σοι -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <σύ> you -- to you
  • ἐὰν -- conjunction; <ἐάν> if -- if
  • μή -- particle; <μή> not -- not
  • τις -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <τις> someone, something -- one
  • γεννηθῃ̂ -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist subjunctive passive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- is...born
  • ʼάνωθεν -- adverb; <ʼάνωθεν> from above, anew -- from above (again)
  • οὐ -- particle; <οὐ> not -- not
  • δύναται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <δύναμαι> be able -- can
  • ἰδει̂ν -- verb; aorist infinitive of <ὁράω> see -- see
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • βασιλείαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <βασιλεία> kingdom -- kingdom
  • του̂ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • θεου̂ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <θεός> god -- God

3:4 - λέγει πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ Νικόδημος,

  • λέγει -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <λέγω> say -- says
  • πρὸς -- preposition; <πρός> to -- to
  • αὐτὸν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • Νικόδημος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Νικόδημος> Nicodemus -- Nicodemus

πω̂ς δύναται ʼάνθρωπος γεννηθη̂ναι γέρων ʼω̂ν;

  • πω̂ς -- interrogative particle; <πω̂ς> how -- how
  • δύναται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <δύναμαι> be able -- can
  • ʼάνθρωπος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ʼάνθρωπος> human being -- (a) man
  • γεννηθη̂ναι -- deponent verb; infinitive aorist passive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- be born
  • γέρων -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <γέρων> old man -- (an) old man
  • ʼω̂ν -- verb; nominative singular masculine of present participle of <εἰμί> I am -- being

μὴ δύναται εἰς τὴν κοιλίαν τη̂ς μητρός αὐτου̂ δεύτερον εἰσελθει̂ν καὶ γεννηθη̂ναι;

  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- surely...not
  • δύναται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <δύναμαι> be able -- (he) can
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- into
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • κοιλίαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <κοιλία> womb -- womb
  • τη̂ς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • μητρός -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <μήτηρ> mother -- mother
  • αὐτου̂ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- (of) his
  • δεύτερον -- adverb; <δεύτερον> second -- a second time
  • εἰσελθει̂ν -- deponent verb; infinitive aorist of <εἰσέρχομαι> enter -- enter
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • γεννηθη̂ναι -- deponent verb; infinitive aorist passive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- be born

3:5 - ἀπεκρίθη ʼΙησου̂ς.

  • ἀπεκρίθη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <ἀποκρίνω> separate, answer -- answered
  • ʼΙησου̂ς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ʼΙησου̂ς> Jesus -- Jesus

ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω σοι, ἐὰν μή τις γεννηθῃ̂ ἐξ ʽύδατος καὶ πνεύματος, οὐ δύναται εἰσελθει̂ν εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν του̂ θεου̂

  • ἀμὴν -- adverb; <ἀμήν> verily, truly -- verily
  • ἀμὴν -- adverb; <ἀμήν> verily, truly -- verily
  • λέγω -- verb; 1st person singular present of <λέγω> say -- I say
  • σοι -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <σύ> you -- to you
  • ἐὰν -- conjunction; <ἐάν> if -- if
  • μή -- particle; <μή> not -- not
  • τις -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <τις> someone, something -- one
  • γεννηθῃ̂ -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist subjunctive passive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- is born
  • ἐξ -- preposition; <ἐξ> from, out of -- of
  • ʽύδατος -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <ʽύδωρ> water -- water
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • πνεύματος -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <πνευ̂μα> spirit -- spirit
  • οὐ -- particle; <οὐ> not -- not
  • δύναται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <δύναμαι> be able -- can
  • εἰσελθει̂ν -- deponent verb; infinitive aorist of <εἰσέρχομαι> enter -- enter
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- into
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • βασιλείαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <βασιλεία> kingdom -- kingdom
  • του̂ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • θεου̂ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <θεός> god -- (of) God

3:6 - τὸ γεγεννημένον ἐκ τη̂ς σαρκὸς σάρξ ἐστιν, καὶ τὸ γεγεννημένον ἐκ του̂ πνεύματος πνευ̂μα ἐστιν.

  • τὸ -- article; nominative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- that
  • γεγεννημένον -- deponent verb; nominative singular neuter of perfect participle passive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- born
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- from
  • τη̂ς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • σαρκὸς -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <σάρξ> flesh -- flesh
  • σάρξ -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <σάρξ> flesh -- flesh
  • ἐστιν -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- is
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • τὸ -- article; nominative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- that
  • γεγεννημένον -- deponent verb; nominative singular neuter of perfect participle passive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- born
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- from
  • του̂ -- article; genitive singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • πνεύματος -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <πνευ̂μα> spirit -- spirit
  • πνευ̂μα -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <πνευ̂μα> spirit -- spirit
  • ἐστιν -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- is

3:7 - μὴ θαυμάσῃς ʽότι εʼι̂πόν σοι· δει̂ ὑμα̂ς γεννηθη̂ναι ʼάνωθεν.

  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- not
  • θαυμάσῃς -- verb; 2nd person singular aorist subjunctive of <θαυμάζω> wonder -- do ... wonder
  • ʽότι -- conjunction; <ʽότι> because, that -- that
  • εʼι̂πόν -- verb; 1st person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- said
  • σοι -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <σύ> you -- to you
  • δει̂ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <δει̂> it is necessary -- it is necessary (that)
  • ὑμα̂ς -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • γεννηθη̂ναι -- deponent verb; infinitive aorist passive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- be born
  • ʼάνωθεν -- adverb; <ʼάνωθεν> from above, anew -- from above; again

3:8 - τὸ πνευ̂μα ʽόπου θέλει πνει̂, καὶ τὴν φωνήν αὐτου̂ ἀκούεις, ἀλλ' οὐκ οʼι̂δας πόθεν ʼέρχεται καὶ που̂ ὑπάγει·

  • τὸ -- article; nominative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • πνευ̂μα -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <πνευ̂μα> spirit -- (spirit) wind
  • ʽόπου -- adverb; <ʽόπου> where -- where
  • θέλει -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <θέλω> mean, purport -- it wishes
  • πνει̂ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <πνέω> blow -- blows
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • φωνήν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <φωνή> voice, sound -- sound
  • αὐτου̂ -- pronoun; genitive singular neuter of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- of it
  • ἀκούεις -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <ἀκούω> hear, listen -- you hear
  • ἀλλ' -- conjunction; <ἀλλά> but -- but
  • οὐκ -- particle; <οὐκ> not -- not
  • οʼι̂δας -- verb; 2nd person singular perfect of <οʼι̂δα> know -- you know
  • πόθεν -- adverb; <πόθεν> from where -- from where
  • ʼέρχεται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <ʼέρχομαι> come, go -- it comes
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • που̂ -- adverb; <που̂> where -- where
  • ὑπάγει -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <ὑπάγω> lead on, retire -- it goes

οʽύτως ἐστὶν πα̂ς ὁ γεγεννημένος ἐκ του̂ πνεύματος.

  • οʽύτως -- adverb; <οʽύτως> so, thus -- so
  • ἐστὶν -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- is
  • πα̂ς -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <πα̂ς> all, every -- every one
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • γεγεννημένος -- deponent verb; perfect participle passive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- born
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- of
  • του̂ -- article; genitive singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • πνεύματος -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <πνευ̂μα> spirit -- spirit

3:9 - ἀπεκρίθη Νικόδημος καὶ εʼι̂πεν αὐτῳ̂· πω̂ς δύναται ταυ̂τα γενέσθαι;

  • ἀπεκρίθη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <ἀποκρίνω> separate, answer -- answered
  • Νικόδημος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Νικόδημος> Nicodemus -- Nicodemus
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • εʼι̂πεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- said
  • αὐτῳ̂ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to him
  • πω̂ς -- interrogative particle; <πω̂ς> how -- how
  • δύναται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <δύναμαι> be able -- can
  • ταυ̂τα -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural neuter of <οʽυ̂τος> this -- these (things)
  • γενέσθαι -- deponent verb; infinitive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- be

3:10 - ἀπεκρίθη ʼΙησου̂ς καὶ εʼι̂πεν αὐτῳ̂·

  • ἀπεκρίθη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <ἀποκρίνω> separate, answer -- answered
  • ʼΙησου̂ς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ʼΙησου̂ς> Jesus -- Jesus
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • εʼι̂πεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- said
  • αὐτῳ̂ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to him

σὺ εʼι̂ ὁ διδάσκαλος του̂ ʼΙσραὴλ καὶ ταυ̂τα οὐ γινώσκεις;

  • σὺ -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • εʼι̂ -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- are
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • διδάσκαλος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <διδάσκαλος> teacher -- (a) teacher
  • του̂ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • ʼΙσραὴλ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ʼΙσραήλ> Israel -- of Israel
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ταυ̂τα -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <οʽυ̂τος> this -- these things
  • οὐ -- particle; <οὐ> not -- not
  • γινώσκεις -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <γινώσκω> know, learn -- do ...know

3:11 - ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω σοι ʽότι ʽὸ οʼι̂δαμεν λαλου̂μεν καὶ ʽὸ ἑωράκαμεν μαρτυρου̂μεν, καὶ τὴν μαρτυρίαν ἡμω̂ν οὐ λαμβάνετε.

  • ἀμὴν -- adverb; <ἀμήν> verily, truly -- verily
  • ἀμὴν -- adverb; <ἀμήν> verily, truly -- verily
  • λέγω -- verb; 1st person singular present of <λέγω> say -- I say
  • σοι -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <σύ> you -- to you
  • ʽότι -- conjunction; <ʽότι> because, that -- that
  • ʽὸ -- relative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <ʽός> who, which -- what
  • οʼι̂δαμεν -- verb; 1st person plural perfect of <οʼι̂δα> know -- we know
  • λαλου̂μεν -- verb; 1st person plural present of <λαλέω> speak -- we speak of
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ʽὸ -- relative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <ʽός> who, which -- what
  • ἑωράκαμεν -- verb; 1st person plural perfect of <ὁράω> see -- we have seen
  • μαρτυρου̂μεν -- verb; 1st person plural present of <μαρτυρέω> bear witness -- we bear witness (of)
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • μαρτυρίαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <μαρτυρία> testimony -- testimony
  • ἡμω̂ν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <ἐγώ> I -- our
  • οὐ -- particle; <οὐ> not -- not
  • λαμβάνετε -- verb; 2nd person plural present of <λαμβάνω> receive, capture -- receive

3:12 - εἰ τὰ ἐπίγεια εʼι̂πον ὑμι̂ν καὶ οὐ πιστεύετε, πω̂ς ἐάν εʼι̂πω ὑμι̂ν τὰ ἐπουράνια πιστεύσετε;

  • εἰ -- conjunction; <εἰ> if -- if
  • τὰ -- article; accusative plural neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἐπίγεια -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural neuter of <ἐπίγειος> earthly -- earthly (things)
  • εʼι̂πον -- verb; 1st person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- I told
  • ὑμι̂ν -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • οὐ -- particle; <οὐ> not -- not
  • πιστεύετε -- verb; 2nd person plural present of <πιστεύω> believe -- (you do) ...believe
  • πω̂ς -- interrogative particle; <πω̂ς> how -- how
  • ἐάν -- conjunction; <ἐάν> if -- if
  • εʼι̂πω -- verb; 1st person singular aorist subjunctive of <λέγω> say -- I will tell
  • ὑμι̂ν -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • τὰ -- article; accusative plural neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἐπουράνια -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural neuter of <ἐπουράνιος> heavenly -- heavenly
  • πιστεύσετε -- verb; 2nd person plural future of <πιστεύω> believe -- will ... believe

3:13 - καὶ οὐδεὶς ἀναβέβηκεν εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν εἰ μὴ ʽό ἐκ του̂ οὐρανου̂ καταβάς, ὁ υἱὸς του̂ ἀνθρώπου.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • οὐδεὶς -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <οὐδείς, οὐδεμία, οὐδέν> no one, nothing -- no one
  • ἀναβέβηκεν -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect of <ἀναβαίνω> mount, go up -- has gone up
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- to
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • οὐρανὸν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <οὐρανός> heaven -- heaven
  • εἰ -- conjunction; <εἰ> if -- except for
  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- ...
  • ʽό -- article used as pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the (one)
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- from
  • του̂ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • οὐρανου̂ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <οὐρανός> heaven -- heaven
  • καταβάς -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <καταβαίνω> descend -- coming down
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • υἱὸς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <υἱός> son -- son
  • του̂ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • ἀνθρώπου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ʼάνθρωπος> human being -- of man

Romans 1:17b (memory verse) -

        ʽΟ δὲ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται.

  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- ...
  • δίκαιος -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <δίκαιος> just, righteous -- just
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- by
  • πίστεως -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <πίστις> faith -- faith
  • ζήσεται -- verb; 3rd person singular future middle of <ζάω> live -- shall live

Lesson Text

3:1 ʼΗ̂ν δὲ ʼάνθρωπος ἐκ τω̂ν Φαρισαίων, Νικόδημος ʼόνομα αὐτῳ̂, ʼάρχων τω̂ν ʼΙουδαίων.

3:2 οʽυ̂τος ʼη̂λθεν πρὸς αὐτὸν νυκτὸς καὶ εʼι̂πεν αὐτῳ̂, ῥαββὶ, οʼίδαμεν ʽότι ἀπὸ θεου̂ ἐλήλυθας διδάσκαλος· οὐδεὶς γὰρ δύναται ταυ̂τα τὰ σημει̂α ποιει̂ν ʽὰ σὺ ποιει̂ς, ἐὰν μὴ ʼῃ̂ ὁ θεὸς μετ' αὐτου̂.

3:3 ἀπεκρίθη ʼΙησου̂ς καὶ εʼι̂πεν αὐτῳ̂. ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω σοι, ἐὰν μή τις γεννηθῃ̂ ʼάνωθεν, οὐ δύναται ἰδει̂ν τὴν βασιλείαν του̂ θεου̂.

3:4 λέγει πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ Νικόδημος, πω̂ς δύναται ʼάνθρωπος γεννηθη̂ναι γέρων ʼω̂ν; μὴ δύναται εἰς τὴν κοιλίαν τη̂ς μητρός αὐτου̂ δεύτερον εἰσελθει̂ν καὶ γεννηθη̂ναι;

3:5 ἀπεκρίθη ʼΙησου̂ς. ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω σοι, ἐὰν μή τις γεννηθῃ̂ ἐξ ʽύδατος καὶ πνεύματος, οὐ δύναται εἰσελθει̂ν εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν του̂ θεου̂ 3:6 τὸ γεγεννημένον ἐκ τη̂ς σαρκὸς σάρξ ἐστιν, καὶ τὸ γεγεννημένον ἐκ του̂ πνεύματος πνευ̂μα ἐστιν. 3:7 μὴ θαυμάσῃς ʽότι εʼι̂πόν σοι· δει̂ ὑμα̂ς γεννηθη̂ναι ʼάνωθεν. 3:8 τὸ πνευ̂μα ʽόπου θέλει πνει̂, καὶ τὴν φωνήν αὐτου̂ ἀκούεις, ἀλλ' οὐκ οʼι̂δας πόθεν ʼέρχεται καὶ που̂ ὑπάγει· οʽύτως ἐστὶν πα̂ς ὁ γεγεννημένος ἐκ του̂ πνεύματος.

3:9 ἀπεκρίθη Νικόδημος καὶ εʼι̂πεν αὐτῳ̂· πω̂ς δύναται ταυ̂τα γενέσθαι;

3:10 ἀπεκρίθη ʼΙησου̂ς καὶ εʼι̂πεν αὐτῳ̂· σὺ εʼι̂ ὁ διδάσκαλος του̂ ʼΙσραὴλ καὶ ταυ̂τα οὐ γινώσκεις; 3:11 ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω σοι ʽότι ʽὸ οʼι̂δαμεν λαλου̂μεν καὶ ʽὸ ἑωράκαμεν μαρτυρου̂μεν, καὶ τὴν μαρτυρίαν ἡμω̂ν οὐ λαμβάνετε. 3:12 εἰ τὰ ἐπίγεια εʼι̂πον ὑμι̂ν καὶ οὐ πιστεύετε, πω̂ς ἐάν εʼι̂πω ὑμι̂ν τὰ ἐπουράνια πιστεύσετε; 3:13 καὶ οὐδεὶς ἀναβέβηκεν εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν εἰ μὴ ʽό ἐκ του̂ οὐρανου̂ καταβάς, ὁ υἱὸς του̂ ἀνθρώπου.

Romans 1:17b (memory verse) -

        ʽΟ δὲ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται.

Translation

From the King James version:
3:1 There was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews:
2 The same came to Jesus by night, and said unto him, Rabbi, we know that thou art a teacher come from God: for no man can do these miracles that thou doest, except God be with him.
3 Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.
4 Nicodemus saith unto him, How can a man be born when he is old? can he enter the second time into his mother's womb, and be born?
5 Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. 6 That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. 7 Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be born again. 8 The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit.
9 Nicodemus answered and said unto him, How can these things be?
10 Jesus answered and said unto him, Art thou a master of Israel, and knowest not these things? 11 Verily, verily, I say unto thee, We speak that we do know, and testify that we have seen; and ye receive not our witness. 12 If I have told you earthly things, and ye believe not, how shall ye believe, if I tell you of heavenly things? 13 And no man hath ascended up to heaven, but he that came down from heaven, even the Son of man which is in heaven.
Romans 1:17b (memory verse) --
The just shall live by faith.

Grammar

11. Nouns: ι-stems.

Nouns with stems in -ι have endings differing from those of the -ο- and -ᾱ- declensions, except in the accusative singular and genitive plural. Their endings also vary in the epic texts, but the basic inflection is given here with the noun πόλις 'city'.

Nom sg   ἡ πόλις   Nom pl   αἱ πόλεις
Gen sg   τη̂ς πόλεος   Gen pl   τω̂ν πολίων
Dat sg   τῃ̂ πόλει   Dat pl   ται̂ς πόλισι
Acc sg   τη̂ν πόλιν   Acc pl   τὰς πόλεις
12. Adjectives of the -ο- and -ᾱ- Declensions.

Many of the most common adjectives fall in these declensions, e.g. κακός 'bad', νέος 'new', φίλος 'dear'. Their endings are those of the nouns in the declensions. It must be noted, however, that feminine singular forms have -η rather than -α unless their stems ending in -ε, -ι, -ρ, as in δικαία 'just'. Some, especially compound adjectives, have only two endings, e.g. βάρβαρος, -ον 'foreign', παράνομος, -ον 'unlawful.

    Masculine   Feminine   Neuter
Nom sg   κακός   κακή   κακόν
Gen sg   κακου̂   κακη̂ς   κακου̂
Dat sg   κακῳ̂   κακῃ̂   κακῳ̂
Acc sg   κακόν   κακήν   κακόν
             
Nom pl   κακοί   κακαί   κακά
Gen pl   κακω̂ν   κακω̂ν   κακω̂ν
Dat pl   κακοι̂ς   κακαι̂ς   κακοι̂ς
Acc pl   κακούς   κακάς   κακά
13. The Intensive Pronoun αὐτός and ʼάλλος 'other'.

The intensive pronoun, meaning 'self, same', is inflected like adjectives except that the neuter nominative/accusative singular lacks final -ν, e.g. αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό. The forms of ʼάλλος are also inflected in the same way. The forms of the third person reflexive pronouns 'his, her, their' are based on these:

Gen sg   ἑαυτου̂ 'his'   ἑαυτη̂ς 'her'   Gen pl   ἑαυτω̂ν 'their'
Dat sg   ἑαυτῳ̂   ἑαυτῃ̂   Dat pl   ἑαυτοι̂ς
Acc sg   ἑαυτόν   ἑαυτήν   Acc pl   ἑαυτούς
14. The Relative Pronouns.

The inflections of the simple relative pronoun are as follows. These are also maintained in the emphatic and general relative forms. The emphatic relative pronoun is ʽόσπερ, ʽήπερ, ʽόπερ '(precisely) he who..., (precisely) she who...'. The general relative pronoun is ʽσ́στις, ʽήτι, ʼότι 'whoever, whatever'.

    Masculine   Feminine   Neuter
Nom sg   ʽός   ʽή   ʽό
Gen sg   οʽυ̂   ʽη̂ς   οʽυ̂
Dat sg   ʽῳ̂   ʽῃ̂   ʽῳ̂
Acc sg   ʽόν   ʽήν   ʽό
             
Nom pl   οʽί   αʽί   ʽά
Gen pl   ʽω̂ν   ʽω̂ν   ʽω̂ν
Dat pl   οʽίς   αʽι̂ς   οʽίς
Acc pl   οʽύς   ʽάς   ʽά
15. The Aorist System.

The aorist system is comparable to the present system, except that it lacks a form corresponding to the present indicative. Its basic meaning was punctual, but its basic set of forms generally may be translated with past tense forms. The subjunctive, optative and imperative are comparable to those of the present system.

    Indicative   Subjunctive   Optative   Imperative
1 sg   ἐπίστευσα   πιστεύσω   πιστεύσαι    
2 sg   ἐπίστευσας   πιστεύσῃς   πιστεύσειας   πίστευσον
3 sg   ἐπίστευσε(ν)   πιστεύσῃ   πιστεύσειε(ν)   πιστευσάτω
                 
1 pl   ἐπιστεύσαμεν   πιστεύσωμεν   πιστεύσαιμεν    
2 pl   ἐπιστεύσατε   πιστεύσητε   πιστεύσαιτε   πιστεύσατε
3 pl   ἐπίστευσαν   πιστεύσωσι(ν)   πιστεύσειαν   πιστευσάντων

Infinitive   πιστευ̂σαι            
Participle   πιστεύσας   πιστεύσασα   πιστευ̂σαν   'one who
Gen sg   πιστεύσαντος   πιστεύσης   πιστεύσαντος   believed'