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New Testament Greek Online

Lesson 4

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

After St. Luke describes the baptism of Jesus by John, followed by an account of Jesus's genealogy beginning with Adam, he reports in chapter 4:1-13 how Jesus was "led by the spirit into the wilderness," there to be tempted by the devil. The temptation is one of the central episodes in the life of Jesus. After overcoming the devil, Jesus goes to Galilee in the "power of the Spirit." It is also reported in two of the other gospels, briefly by St. Mark 1:12-13 and fully also by St. Matthew 4:1-11. While the basic accounts are similar, Mark refers to the tempter as Satan, the term Jesus uses in St. Matthew's account when he addresses the devil, but not by St. Luke. On the other hand, the order of the temptations differs. The first is the same, but in the account by St. Matthew the second has the devil taking Jesus to "a pinnacle of the temple" in the holy city, identified specifically by St. Luke as Jerusalem in his report of the third temptation. It is also interesting to compare other items such as the Old Testament passages that Jesus cites.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Luke 4:1-13, and Romans 8:31b (memory verse)

The story of the temptation has been central in treatments of the life of Jesus. It provides the basis for John Milton's Paradise Regained, which follows St. Luke in the order of temptations. The first lines of the poem may illustrate the importance that Milton and many others have given the episode:

I who e're while the Happy Garden sung,
By one man's disobedience lost, now sing
Recover'd Paradise to all mankind,
By one man's firm obedience fully tri'd
Through all temptation, and the Tempter foil'd
In all his wiles, defeated and repuls't,
And Eden rais'd in the waste Wilderness.

4:1 - Iêsous de plêrês pneumatos hagiou hupestrepsen apo tou Iordanou, kai êgeto en tô pneumati en tê erêmô hêmeras tesserakonta peirazomenos hupo tou diabolou.

  • Iêsous -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Iêsous> Jesus -- Jesus
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- and
  • plêrês -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <plêrês> full of -- full of
  • pneumatos -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <pneuma> spirit -- Ghost
  • hagiou -- adjective; genitive singular neuter of <hagios> holy -- of the Holy
  • hupestrepsen -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <hupostrephô> turn away -- turned away
  • apo -- preposition; <apo> from -- from
  • tou -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • Iordanou -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Iordanos> Jordan -- Jordan
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • êgeto -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect passive of <agô> lead -- was led
  • en -- preposition; <en> in -- in
  • -- article; dative singular neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • pneumati -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <pneuma> spirit -- spirit
  • en -- preposition; <en> in -- in
  • -- article; dative singular feminine of <ho> the -- the
  • erêmô -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <erêmos> desert -- desert
  • hêmeras -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <hêmera> day -- days
  • tesserakonta -- number; <tesserakonta> forty -- forty
  • peirazomenos -- verb; nominative singular masculine middle of <peirazô> tempt -- tempted
  • hupo -- preposition; <hupo> under, by -- by
  • tou -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • diabolou -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <diabolos> devil -- devil

4:2 - Kai ouk ephagen ouden tais hêmerais ekeinais, kai suntelestheisôn autôn epeinasen.

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • ouk -- particle; <ouk> not -- not
  • ephagen -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <edô> eat -- he ate
  • ouden -- pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <oudeis, oudemia, ouden> no one, nothing -- nothing
  • tais -- article; dative plural feminine of <ho> the -- ...
  • hêmerais -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <hêmera> day -- days
  • ekeinais -- demonstrative pronoun; dative plural feminine of <ekeinos> that -- those
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • suntelestheisôn -- verb; genitive plural feminine of aorist passive participle of <sunteleô> complete -- (when ... were) completed
  • autôn -- pronoun; genitive plural feminine of <autos> oneself, he -- these
  • epeinasen -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <peinaô> to be hungry -- he was hungry

4:3 - eipen de autô ho diabolos, ei huios ei tou theou, eipe tô lithô toutô hina genêtai artos.

  • eipen -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <legô> say -- said
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- and
  • autô -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- to him
  • ho -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • diabolos -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <diabolos> devil -- devil
  • ei -- conjunction; <ei> if -- if
  • huios -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <huios> son -- son
  • ei -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <eimi> I am -- you are
  • tou -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • theou -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <theos> god -- of God
  • eipe -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative aorist of <legô> say -- tell
  • -- article; dative singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • lithô -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <lithos> stone -- stone
  • toutô -- demonstrative pronoun; dative singular masculine of <houtos> this -- this
  • hina -- conjunction; <hina> so that -- that
  • genêtai -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist subjunctive of <gignomai> happen, become -- it become
  • artos -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <artos> bread -- bread

4:4 - kai apekrithê pros auton ho Iêsous, gegraptai hoti ouk ep' artô monô zêsetai ho anthrôpos.

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • apekrithê -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <apokrinô> separate, answer -- answered
  • pros -- preposition; <pros> to -- ...
  • auton -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- him
  • ho -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • Iêsous -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Iêsous> Jesus -- Jesus
  • gegraptai -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect passive of <graphô> write -- it is written
  • hoti -- conjunction; <hoti> because, that -- ...
  • ouk -- particle; <ouk> not -- not
  • ep' -- preposition; <epi> on, about -- by
  • artô -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <artos> bread -- bread
  • monô -- adjective; dative singular masculine of <monos> alone -- alone
  • zêsetai -- verb; 3rd person singular future middle of <zaô> live -- will ... live
  • ho -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • anthrôpos -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <anthrôpos> human being -- man

4:5 - kai anagagôn auton edeixen autô pasas tas basileias tês oikoumenês en stigmê chronou.

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • anagagôn -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <anagô> lead up -- leading ... up
  • auton -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- him
  • edeixen -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <deiknumi> show -- he showed
  • autô -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- him
  • pasas -- adjective; accusative plural feminine of <pas> all, every -- all
  • tas -- article; accusative plural feminine of <ho> the -- the
  • basileias -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <basileia> kingdom -- kingdoms
  • tês -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ho> the -- of the
  • oikoumenês -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <oikoumenê> the inhabited world, the Roman world -- world
  • en -- preposition; <en> in -- in
  • stigmê -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <stigmê> spot, point -- a point
  • chronou -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <chronos> time -- of time

4:6 - kai eipen autô ho diabolos, soi dôsô tên exousian tautên hapasan kai tên doxan autôn, hoti emoi paradedotai kai hô ean thelô didômi autên.

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • eipen -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <legô> say -- said
  • autô -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- to him
  • ho -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • diabolos -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <diabolos> devil -- devil
  • soi -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <su> you -- you
  • dôsô -- verb; 1st person singular future of <didômi> give -- I will give
  • tên -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ho> the -- the
  • exousian -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <exousia> power -- power
  • tautên -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <houtos> this -- this
  • hapasan -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <hapas> all -- all
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • tên -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ho> the -- the
  • doxan -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <doxa> glory -- glory
  • autôn -- pronoun; genitive plural feminine of <autos> oneself, he -- of them
  • hoti -- conjunction; <hoti> because, that -- because
  • emoi -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <egô> I -- to me
  • paradedotai -- verb; 3rd person singular present passive of <paradidômi> give to -- it was given to
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • -- relative pronoun; dative singular masculine of <hos> who, which -- to whom
  • ean -- conjunction; <ean> if -- if
  • thelô -- verb; 1st person singular present of <thelô> mean, purport -- I wish
  • didômi -- verb; 1st person singular present of <didômi> give -- I give
  • autên -- pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <autos> oneself, he -- it

4:7 - su oun ean proskunêsês enôpion emou, estai sou pasa.

  • su -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <su> you -- you
  • oun -- particle; <oun> indeed -- actually
  • ean -- conjunction; <ean> if -- if
  • proskunêsês -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist subjunctive of <proskuneô> worship -- bow down
  • enôpion -- preposition; <enôpion> before -- before
  • emou -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <egô> I -- me
  • estai -- verb; 3rd person singular future of <eimi> I am -- will be
  • sou -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <su> you -- yours
  • pasa -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <pas> all, every -- all

4:8 - Kai apokritheis ho Iêsous eipen autô, gegraptai proskunêseis kurion ton theon sou kai autô monô latreuseis.

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • apokritheis -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist passive participle of <apokrinô> separate, answer -- answering
  • ho -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • Iêsous -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Iêsous> Jesus -- Jesus
  • eipen -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <legô> say -- said
  • autô -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- to him
  • gegraptai -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect passive of <graphô> write -- it is written
  • proskunêseis -- verb; 2nd person singular future of <proskuneô> worship -- you shall worship
  • kurion -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <kurios> lord -- Lord
  • ton -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • theon -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <theos> god -- God
  • sou -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <su> you -- your
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • autô -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- him
  • monô -- adjective; dative singular masculine of <monos> alone -- alone
  • latreuseis -- verb; 2nd person singular future of <latreuô> serve -- shall you serve

4:9 - Êgagen de auton eis Hierousalêm kai estêsen epi to pterugion tou hierou.

  • êgagen -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <agô> lead -- he led
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- and
  • auton -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- him
  • eis -- preposition; <eis> towards -- to
  • Hierousalêm -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Hierousalêm> Jerusalem -- Jerusalem
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • estêsen -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <histêmi> put, place, stand -- placed
  • epi -- preposition; <epi> on, about -- on
  • to -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • pterugion -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <pterugion> pinnacle -- pinnacle
  • tou -- article; genitive singular neuter of <ho> the -- of the
  • hierou -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <hieron> temple -- temple

kai eipen autô, ei huios ei tou theou, bale seauton enteuthen katô.

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • eipen -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <legô> say -- he said
  • autô -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- to him
  • ei -- conjunction; <ei> if -- if
  • huios -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <huios> son -- (the) son
  • ei -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <eimi> I am -- you are
  • tou -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • theou -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <theos> god -- of God
  • bale -- verb; 2nd person singular aorist imperative of <ballô> throw -- throw
  • seauton -- reflexive pronoun; 2nd person singular accusative of <seautou> yourself -- yourself
  • enteuthen -- adverb; <enteuthen> from there -- from here
  • katô -- adverb; <katô> down, downward -- down

4:10 - gegraptai

        gar hoti tois aggelois autou enteleitai peri sou
        tou diaphulaxai se,

  • gegraptai -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect passive of <graphô> write -- it is written
  • gar -- conjunction; <gar> for -- for
  • hoti -- conjunction; <hoti> because, that -- that
  • tois -- article; dative plural masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • aggelois -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <aggelos> angel -- angels
  • autou -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- his
  • enteleitai -- verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <entellô> command -- he has commanded
  • peri -- preposition; <peri> around -- around
  • sou -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <su> you -- you
  • tou -- article; genitive singular neuter of <ho> the -- ...
  • diaphulaxai -- verb; infinitive future middle of <diaphulassô> guard carefully -- to guard
  • se -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <su> you -- you

4:11 - kai

        hoti epi cheirôn arousin se,
        mêpote proskopsês pros lithon ton poda sou.

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • hoti -- conjunction; <hoti> because, that -- that
  • epi -- preposition; <epi> on, about -- on
  • cheirôn -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <cheir> hand -- (their) arms
  • arousin -- verb; 3rd person plural present middle of <airô> take up, bear -- take ... up
  • se -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <su> you -- you
  • mêpote -- conjunction; <mêpote> lest -- so that ...not
  • proskopsês -- verb; 2nd person singular future subjunctive of <proskoptô> strike...against -- you shall ...strike
  • pros -- preposition; <pros> to -- against
  • lithon -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <lithos> stone -- (a) stone
  • ton -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • poda -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <pous> foot -- foot
  • sou -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <su> you -- your

4:12 - kai apokritheis eipen autô ho Iêsous hoti eirêtai, ouk ekpeiraseis kurion ton theon sou.

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • apokritheis -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <apokrinô> separate, answer -- answering
  • eipen -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <legô> say -- said
  • autô -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- to him
  • ho -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • Iêsous -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Iêsous> Jesus -- Jesus
  • hoti -- conjunction; <hoti> because, that -- ...
  • eirêtai -- verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <eireô> say -- it is said
  • ouk -- particle; <ouk> not -- not
  • ekpeiraseis -- verb; 2nd person singular future middle of <ekpeiraomai> tempt -- you shall ... tempt
  • kurion -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <kurios> lord -- (the) Lord
  • ton -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • theon -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <theos> god -- God
  • sou -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <su> you -- your

4:13 - Kai suntelesas panta peirasmon ho diabolos apestê ap' autou achri kairou.

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • suntelesas -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <sunteleô> complete -- having completed
  • panta -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <pas> all, every -- (the) entire
  • peirasmon -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <peirasmos> temptation -- temptation
  • ho -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • diabolos -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <diabolos> devil -- devil
  • apestê -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <apistêmi> leave, depart -- departed
  • ap' -- preposition; <apo> from -- from
  • autou -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- him
  • achri -- preposition; <achri> until -- for
  • kairou -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <kairos> time -- (a) time

Romans 8:31b (memory verse) -

        Ei ho theos huper hêmôn, tis kath' hêmôn?

  • ei -- conjunction; <ei> if -- if
  • ho -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • theos -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <theos> god -- God
  • huper -- preposition; <huper> over, for -- (is) for
  • hêmôn -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <egô> I -- us
  • tis -- interrogative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <tis> who, what -- who
  • kath' -- preposition; <kata> completely, down, under -- (be) against
  • hêmôn -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <egô> I -- us

Lesson Text

4:1 Iêsous de plêrês pneumatos hagiou hupestrepsen apo tou Iordanou, kai êgeto en tô pneumati en tê erêmô hêmeras tesserakonta peirazomenos hupo tou diabolou. 4:2 Kai ouk ephagen ouden tais hêmerais ekeinais, kai suntelestheisôn autôn epeinasen.

4:3 eipen de autô ho diabolos, ei huios ei tou theou, eipe tô lithô toutô hina genêtai artos.

4:4 kai apekrithê pros auton ho Iêsous, gegraptai hoti ouk ep' artô monô zêsetai ho anthrôpos.

4:5 kai anagagôn auton edeixen autô pasas tas basileias tês oikoumenês en stigmê chronou. 4:6 kai eipen autô ho diabolos, soi dôsô tên exousian tautên hapasan kai tên doxan autôn, hoti emoi paradedotai kai hô ean thelô didômi autên. 4:7 su oun ean proskunêsês enôpion emou, estai sou pasa.

4:8 Kai apokritheis ho Iêsous eipen autô, gegraptai proskunêseis kurion ton theon sou kai autô monô latreuseis.

4:9 Êgagen de auton eis Hierousalêm kai estêsen epi to pterugion tou hierou. kai eipen autô, ei huios ei tou theou, bale seauton enteuthen katô. 4:10 gegraptai

        gar hoti tois aggelois autou enteleitai peri sou
        tou diaphulaxai se,


4:11 kai

        hoti epi cheirôn arousin se,
        mêpote proskopsês pros lithon ton poda sou.


4:12 kai apokritheis eipen autô ho Iêsous hoti eirêtai, ouk ekpeiraseis kurion ton theon sou.

4:13 Kai suntelesas panta peirasmon ho diabolos apestê ap' autou achri kairou.

Romans 8:31b (memory verse) -

        Ei ho theos huper hêmôn, tis kath' hêmôn?

Translation

From the King James version:
4:1 And Jesus being full of the Holy Ghost returned from Jordan, and was led by the Spirit into the wilderness, 2 Being forty days tempted of the devil. And in those days he did eat nothing: and when they were ended, he afterward hungered.
3 And the devil said unto him, If thou be the Son of God, command this stone that it be made bread.
4 And Jesus answered him, saying, It is written, That man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of God.
5 And the devil, taking him up into an high mountain, shewed unto him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. 6 And the devil said unto him, All this power will I give thee, and the glory of them: for that is delivered unto me; and to whomsoever I will I give it. 7 If thou therefore wilt worship me, all shall be thine.
8 And Jesus answered and said unto him, it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.
9 And he brought him to Jerusalem, and set him on a pinnacle of the temple, and said unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down from hence: 10 For it is written,
He shall give his angels charge over thee,
to keep thee:
11 And
in their hands they shall bear thee up,
lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone.
12 And Jesus answering said unto him, It is said, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God.
13 And when the devil had ended all the temptation, he departed from him for a season.
Romans 8:31b (memory verse) --
If God is for us, who can be against us?

Grammar

16. Nouns ending in -êr.

The basic relationship terms, among other nouns, end in -êr, and have no -e- in the genitive and dative singular, and the dative plural. The following are examples.

    father   daughter   man
Nom. sg.   ho patêr   hê thugatêr   ho anêr
Gen. sg.   tou patros   tês thugatros   tou andros
Dat. sg.   tô patri   tê thugatri   tô andri
Acc. sg.   ton patera   tên thugatera   ton andra
             
Nom. pl.   hoi pateres   hai thugateres   hoi andres
Gen. pl.   tôn paterôn   tôn thugaterôn   tôn andrôn
Dat. pl.   tois patrasi   tais thugatrasi   tois andrasi
Acc. pl.   tous pateras   tas thugateras   tous andras
17. Irregular nouns.

Some of the more frequent nouns are irregular in inflection; three of them are given here.

    woman   ship   fire
Nom. sg.   hê gunê   hê naus   to pur
Gen. sg.   tês gunaikos   tês neôs   tou puros
Dat. sg.   tê gunaiki   tê nêi   tô puri
Acc. sg.   tên gunaika   tên naun   to pur
             
Nom. pl.   hai gunaikes   hai nêes   ta pura
Gen. pl.   tôn gunaikôn   tôn neôn   tôn purôn
Dat. pl.   tais gunaixi(n)   tais nausi(n)   tois purois
Acc. pl.   tas gunaikas   tas naus   ta pura
18. Demonstrative pronouns.

There are three demonstrative pronouns. hode, hêde, tode points to the present or future, and corresponds to 'this,' 'this one here.' houtos, autê, touto points to the former, and corresponds to 'that.' ekeinos, ekeinê, ekeino points to things remote or absent, and corresponds to 'that there.' hode is based on the definite article. The forms of ekeinos are like those of autos. The forms of houtos are given here.

    Masculine   Feminine   Neuter
Nom. sg.   houtos   hautê   touto
Gen. sg.   toutou   tautês   toutou
Dat. sg.   toutô   tautê   toutô
Acc. sg.   touton   tautên   touto
             
Nom. pl.   houtoi   hautai   tauta
Gen. pl.   toutôn   toutôn   toutôn
Dat. pl.   toutois   tautais   toutois
Acc. pl.   toutous   tautas   tauta
19. The uses of infinitives.

The syntax of New Testament Greek is relatively simple. Most sentences and clauses are completed by a finite verb governing an object, often accompanied by adverbial elements. When infinitives are used they generally complement the meaning of the principal verb as in John 3, with its repeated uses of dunatai followed by poiein '(no one) can do' and other infinitives. They often are used to indicate purpose, as in Luke 2:1 and following in the passages including apographesthai '(that all the world) be registered', and similarly in Matthew 2:2 êlthomen proskunêsai autô 'we have come to worship him'. In this use they may be introduced by an article, as in verse 10 of this passage: tou diaphulaxai se 'to protect you'.

Infinitives may also be treated like nouns, where English makes use of participles, as in Luke 2:4 dia to einai auton..., literally 'through the (fact of) him be(ing)' > 'because he is'. The infinitive in verse 6 is similar though treated as a genitive after a noun: hêmerai tou tekein autên, literally 'days of her giv(ing) birth'. But as these few examples illustrate, infinitives are relatively infrequent in New Testament Greek and readily interpreted.

20. The Present system of the Middle and the Passive.

The Greek verb has a full set of Middle and Passive forms corresponding to those of the Active. In the Present System, the forms of the two Voices are the same.

When used as Middle, the forms indicate an action or situation reflecting on the subject; thus the first singular indicative pisteuomai means 'I believe'. When used as Passive, the meaning corresponds to that of passives in English, so that the Passive pisteuomai means 'I am (being) believed.' The forms must be interpreted from the context.

The forms of the Present System (first, second, and third person, singular and plural) are as follows:

    Indicative   Imperfect   Subjunctive   Optative   Imperative
1s   pisteuomai   episteuomên   pisteuômai   pisteuoimên    
2s   pisteuê   episteuou   pisteuê   pisteuoio   pisteuou
3s   pisteuetai   episteueto   pisteuêtai   pisteuoito   pisteuesthô
1p   pisteuometha   episteuometha   pisteuômetha   pisteuoimetha    
2p   pisteuesthe   episteuesthe   pisteuêsthe   pisteuoisthe   pisteuesthe
3p   pisteuontai   episteuonto   pisteuôntai   pisteuointo   pisteuesthôn

Infinitive:   pisteuesthai
Participle:   pisteuomenos, pisteuomenê, pisteuomenon