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New Testament Greek Online

Lesson 4

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

After St. Luke describes the baptism of Jesus by John, followed by an account of Jesus's genealogy beginning with Adam, he reports in chapter 4:1-13 how Jesus was "led by the spirit into the wilderness," there to be tempted by the devil. The temptation is one of the central episodes in the life of Jesus. After overcoming the devil, Jesus goes to Galilee in the "power of the Spirit." It is also reported in two of the other gospels, briefly by St. Mark 1:12-13 and fully also by St. Matthew 4:1-11. While the basic accounts are similar, Mark refers to the tempter as Satan, the term Jesus uses in St. Matthew's account when he addresses the devil, but not by St. Luke. On the other hand, the order of the temptations differs. The first is the same, but in the account by St. Matthew the second has the devil taking Jesus to "a pinnacle of the temple" in the holy city, identified specifically by St. Luke as Jerusalem in his report of the third temptation. It is also interesting to compare other items such as the Old Testament passages that Jesus cites.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Luke 4:1-13, and Romans 8:31b (memory verse)

The story of the temptation has been central in treatments of the life of Jesus. It provides the basis for John Milton's Paradise Regained, which follows St. Luke in the order of temptations. The first lines of the poem may illustrate the importance that Milton and many others have given the episode:

I who e're while the Happy Garden sung,
By one man's disobedience lost, now sing
Recover'd Paradise to all mankind,
By one man's firm obedience fully tri'd
Through all temptation, and the Tempter foil'd
In all his wiles, defeated and repuls't,
And Eden rais'd in the waste Wilderness.

4:1 - ʼΙησου̂ς δὲ πλήρης πνεύματος ἁγίου ὑπέστρεψεν ἀπὸ του̂ ʼΙορδάνου, καὶ ʼήγετο ἐν τῳ̂ πνεύματι ἐν τῃ̂ ἐρήμῳ ἡμέρας τεσσεράκοντα πειραζόμενος ὑπὸ του̂ διαβόλου.

  • ʼΙησου̂ς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ʼΙησου̂ς> Jesus -- Jesus
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • πλήρης -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <πλήρης> full of -- full of
  • πνεύματος -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <πνευ̂μα> spirit -- Ghost
  • ἁγίου -- adjective; genitive singular neuter of <ʽάγιος> holy -- of the Holy
  • ὑπέστρεψεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ὑποστρέφω> turn away -- turned away
  • ἀπὸ -- preposition; <ἀπό> from -- from
  • του̂ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ʼΙορδάνου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ʼΙόρδανος> Jordan -- Jordan
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ʼήγετο -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect passive of <ʼάγω> lead -- was led
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • τῳ̂ -- article; dative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • πνεύματι -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <πνευ̂μα> spirit -- spirit
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • τῃ̂ -- article; dative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἐρήμῳ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <ʼέρημος> desert -- desert
  • ἡμέρας -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <ἡμέρα> day -- days
  • τεσσεράκοντα -- number; <τεσσεράκοντα> forty -- forty
  • πειραζόμενος -- verb; nominative singular masculine middle of <πειράζω> tempt -- tempted
  • ὑπὸ -- preposition; <ὑπό> under, by -- by
  • του̂ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • διαβόλου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <διάβολος> devil -- devil

4:2 - Καὶ οὐκ ʼέφαγεν οὐδὲν ται̂ς ἡμέραις ἐκείναις, καὶ συντελεσθεισω̂ν αὐτω̂ν ἐπείνασεν.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • οὐκ -- particle; <οὐκ> not -- not
  • ʼέφαγεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ʼέδω> eat -- he ate
  • οὐδὲν -- pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <οὐδείς, οὐδεμία, οὐδέν> no one, nothing -- nothing
  • ται̂ς -- article; dative plural feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • ἡμέραις -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <ἡμέρα> day -- days
  • ἐκείναις -- demonstrative pronoun; dative plural feminine of <ἐκει̂νος> that -- those
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • συντελεσθεισω̂ν -- verb; genitive plural feminine of aorist passive participle of <συντελέω> complete -- (when ... were) completed
  • αὐτω̂ν -- pronoun; genitive plural feminine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- these
  • ἐπείνασεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <πεινάω> to be hungry -- he was hungry

4:3 - εʼι̂πεν δὲ αὐτῳ̂ ὁ διάβολος, εἰ υἱὸς εʼι̂ του̂ θεου̂, εἰπὲ τῳ̂ λίθῳ̂ τούτῳ ʽίνα γένηται ʼάρτος.

  • εʼι̂πεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- said
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • αὐτῳ̂ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to him
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • διάβολος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <διάβολος> devil -- devil
  • εἰ -- conjunction; <εἰ> if -- if
  • υἱὸς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <υἱός> son -- son
  • εʼι̂ -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- you are
  • του̂ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • θεου̂ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <θεός> god -- of God
  • εἰπὲ -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative aorist of <λέγω> say -- tell
  • τῳ̂ -- article; dative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • λίθῳ̂ -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <λίθος> stone -- stone
  • τούτῳ -- demonstrative pronoun; dative singular masculine of <οʽυ̂τος> this -- this
  • ʽίνα -- conjunction; <ʽίνα> so that -- that
  • γένηται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist subjunctive of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- it become
  • ʼάρτος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ʼάρτος> bread -- bread

4:4 - καὶ ἀπεκρίθη πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ ʼΙησου̂ς, γέγραπται ʽότι οὐκ ἐπ' ʼάρτῳ μόνῳ ζήσεται ὁ ʼάνθρωπος.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἀπεκρίθη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <ἀποκρίνω> separate, answer -- answered
  • πρὸς -- preposition; <πρός> to -- ...
  • αὐτὸν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • ʼΙησου̂ς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ʼΙησου̂ς> Jesus -- Jesus
  • γέγραπται -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect passive of <γράφω> write -- it is written
  • ʽότι -- conjunction; <ʽότι> because, that -- ...
  • οὐκ -- particle; <οὐκ> not -- not
  • ἐπ' -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- by
  • ʼάρτῳ -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <ʼάρτος> bread -- bread
  • μόνῳ -- adjective; dative singular masculine of <μόνος> alone -- alone
  • ζήσεται -- verb; 3rd person singular future middle of <ζάω> live -- will ... live
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • ʼάνθρωπος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ʼάνθρωπος> human being -- man

4:5 - καὶ ἀναγαγω̂ν αὐτὸν ʼέδειξεν αὐτῳ̂ πάσας τὰς βασιλείας τη̂ς οἰκουμένης ἐν στιγμῃ̂ χρόνου.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἀναγαγω̂ν -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <ἀνάγω> lead up -- leading ... up
  • αὐτὸν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • ʼέδειξεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <δείκνυμι> show -- he showed
  • αὐτῳ̂ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • πάσας -- adjective; accusative plural feminine of <πα̂ς> all, every -- all
  • τὰς -- article; accusative plural feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • βασιλείας -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <βασιλεία> kingdom -- kingdoms
  • τη̂ς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- of the
  • οἰκουμένης -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <οἰκουμένη> the inhabited world, the Roman world -- world
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • στιγμῃ̂ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <στιγμή> spot, point -- a point
  • χρόνου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <χρόνος> time -- of time

4:6 - καὶ εʼι̂πεν αὐτῳ̂ ὁ διάβολος, σοὶ δώσω τὴν ἐξουσίαν ταύτην ʽάπασαν καὶ τὴν δόξαν αὐτω̂ν, ʽότι ἐμοὶ παραδέδοται καὶ ʽῳ̂ ἐὰν θέλω δίδωμι αὐτὴν.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • εʼι̂πεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- said
  • αὐτῳ̂ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to him
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • διάβολος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <διάβολος> devil -- devil
  • σοὶ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • δώσω -- verb; 1st person singular future of <δίδωμι> give -- I will give
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἐξουσίαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <ἐξουσία> power -- power
  • ταύτην -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <οʽυ̂τος> this -- this
  • ʽάπασαν -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <ʽάπας> all -- all
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • δόξαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <δόξα> glory -- glory
  • αὐτω̂ν -- pronoun; genitive plural feminine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- of them
  • ʽότι -- conjunction; <ʽότι> because, that -- because
  • ἐμοὶ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <ἐγώ> I -- to me
  • παραδέδοται -- verb; 3rd person singular present passive of <παραδίδωμι> give to -- it was given to
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ʽῳ̂ -- relative pronoun; dative singular masculine of <ʽός> who, which -- to whom
  • ἐὰν -- conjunction; <ἐάν> if -- if
  • θέλω -- verb; 1st person singular present of <θέλω> mean, purport -- I wish
  • δίδωμι -- verb; 1st person singular present of <δίδωμι> give -- I give
  • αὐτὴν -- pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- it

4:7 - σὺ οʼυ̂ν ἐὰν προσκυνήσῃς ἐνώπιον ἐμου̂, ʼέσται σου̂ πα̂σα.

  • σὺ -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • οʼυ̂ν -- particle; <οʼυ̂ν> indeed -- actually
  • ἐὰν -- conjunction; <ἐάν> if -- if
  • προσκυνήσῃς -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist subjunctive of <προσκυνέω> worship -- bow down
  • ἐνώπιον -- preposition; <ἐνώπιον> before -- before
  • ἐμου̂ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <ἐγώ> I -- me
  • ʼέσται -- verb; 3rd person singular future of <εἰμί> I am -- will be
  • σου̂ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <σύ> you -- yours
  • πα̂σα -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <πα̂ς> all, every -- all

4:8 - Καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ ʼΙησου̂ς εʼι̂πεν αὐτῳ̂, γέγραπται προσκυνήσεις κύριον τὸν θεὸν σου̂ καὶ αὐτῳ̂ μονῳ̂ λατρεύσεις.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἀποκριθεὶς -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist passive participle of <ἀποκρίνω> separate, answer -- answering
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • ʼΙησου̂ς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ʼΙησου̂ς> Jesus -- Jesus
  • εʼι̂πεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- said
  • αὐτῳ̂ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to him
  • γέγραπται -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect passive of <γράφω> write -- it is written
  • προσκυνήσεις -- verb; 2nd person singular future of <προσκυνέω> worship -- you shall worship
  • κύριον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <κύριος> lord -- Lord
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • θεὸν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <θεός> god -- God
  • σου̂ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <σύ> you -- your
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • αὐτῳ̂ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • μονῳ̂ -- adjective; dative singular masculine of <μόνος> alone -- alone
  • λατρεύσεις -- verb; 2nd person singular future of <λατρεύω> serve -- shall you serve

4:9 - ʼΉγαγεν δὲ αὐτὸν εἰς ʽΙερουσαλὴμ καὶ ʼέστησεν ἐπὶ τὸ πτερύγιον του̂ ἱερου̂.

  • ʼήγαγεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ʼάγω> lead -- he led
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • αὐτὸν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- to
  • ʽΙερουσαλὴμ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <ʽΙερουσαλήμ> Jerusalem -- Jerusalem
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ʼέστησεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ʽίστημι> put, place, stand -- placed
  • ἐπὶ -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- on
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • πτερύγιον -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <πτερύγιον> pinnacle -- pinnacle
  • του̂ -- article; genitive singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- of the
  • ἱερου̂ -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <ἱερόν> temple -- temple

καὶ εʼι̂πεν αὐτῳ̂, εἰ υἱὸς εʼι̂ του̂ θεου̂, βάλε σεαυτὸν ἐντευ̂θεν κάτω.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • εʼι̂πεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- he said
  • αὐτῳ̂ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to him
  • εἰ -- conjunction; <εἰ> if -- if
  • υἱὸς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <υἱός> son -- (the) son
  • εʼι̂ -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- you are
  • του̂ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • θεου̂ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <θεός> god -- of God
  • βάλε -- verb; 2nd person singular aorist imperative of <βάλλω> throw -- throw
  • σεαυτὸν -- reflexive pronoun; 2nd person singular accusative of <σἑαυτου̂> yourself -- yourself
  • ἐντευ̂θεν -- adverb; <ἐντευ̂θεν> from there -- from here
  • κάτω -- adverb; <κάτω> down, downward -- down

4:10 - γέγραπται

        γὰρ ʽότι τοι̂ς ἀγγέλοις αὐτου̂ ἐντελει̂ται περὶ σου̂
        του̂ διαφυλάξαι σε,

  • γέγραπται -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect passive of <γράφω> write -- it is written
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • ʽότι -- conjunction; <ʽότι> because, that -- that
  • τοι̂ς -- article; dative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • ἀγγέλοις -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <ʼάγγελος> angel -- angels
  • αὐτου̂ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- his
  • ἐντελει̂ται -- verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <ἐντέλλω> command -- he has commanded
  • περὶ -- preposition; <περί> around -- around
  • σου̂ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • του̂ -- article; genitive singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • διαφυλάξαι -- verb; infinitive future middle of <διαφυλάσσω> guard carefully -- to guard
  • σε -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <σύ> you -- you

4:11 - καὶ

        ʽότι ἐπὶ χειρω̂ν ἀρου̂σίν σε,
        μήποτε προσκόψῃς πρὸς λίθον τὸν πόδα σου̂.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ʽότι -- conjunction; <ʽότι> because, that -- that
  • ἐπὶ -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- on
  • χειρω̂ν -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <χείρ> hand -- (their) arms
  • ἀρου̂σίν -- verb; 3rd person plural present middle of <αʼίρω> take up, bear -- take ... up
  • σε -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • μήποτε -- conjunction; <μήποτε> lest -- so that ...not
  • προσκόψῃς -- verb; 2nd person singular future subjunctive of <προσκόπτω> strike...against -- you shall ...strike
  • πρὸς -- preposition; <πρός> to -- against
  • λίθον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <λίθος> stone -- (a) stone
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • πόδα -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <που̂ς> foot -- foot
  • σου̂ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <σύ> you -- your

4:12 - καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς εʼι̂πεν αὐτῳ̂ ὁ ʼΙησου̂ς ʽότι εʼι̂ρηται, οὐκ ἐκπειράσεις κύριον τὸν θεὸν σου̂.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἀποκριθεὶς -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <ἀποκρίνω> separate, answer -- answering
  • εʼι̂πεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <λέγω> say -- said
  • αὐτῳ̂ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to him
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • ʼΙησου̂ς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ʼΙησου̂ς> Jesus -- Jesus
  • ʽότι -- conjunction; <ʽότι> because, that -- ...
  • εʼι̂ρηται -- verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <εἰρέω> say -- it is said
  • οὐκ -- particle; <οὐκ> not -- not
  • ἐκπειράσεις -- verb; 2nd person singular future middle of <ἐκπειράομαι> tempt -- you shall ... tempt
  • κύριον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <κύριος> lord -- (the) Lord
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • θεὸν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <θεός> god -- God
  • σου̂ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <σύ> you -- your

4:13 - Καὶ συντελέσας πάντα πειρασμὸν ὁ διάβολος ἀπέστη ἀπ' αὐτου̂ ʼάχρι καιρου̂.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • συντελέσας -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <συντελέω> complete -- having completed
  • πάντα -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <πα̂ς> all, every -- (the) entire
  • πειρασμὸν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <πειρασμός> temptation -- temptation
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • διάβολος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <διάβολος> devil -- devil
  • ἀπέστη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ἀπίστημι> leave, depart -- departed
  • ἀπ' -- preposition; <ἀπό> from -- from
  • αὐτου̂ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • ʼάχρι -- preposition; <ʼάχρι> until -- for
  • καιρου̂ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <καιρός> time -- (a) time

Romans 8:31b (memory verse) -

        Εἰ ὁ θεὸς ὑπὲρ ἡμω̂ν, τίς καθ' ἡμω̂ν;

  • εἰ -- conjunction; <εἰ> if -- if
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • θεὸς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <θεός> god -- God
  • ὑπὲρ -- preposition; <ὑπὲρ> over, for -- (is) for
  • ἡμω̂ν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <ἐγώ> I -- us
  • τίς -- interrogative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <τίς> who, what -- who
  • καθ' -- preposition; <κατά> completely, down, under -- (be) against
  • ἡμω̂ν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <ἐγώ> I -- us

Lesson Text

4:1 ʼΙησου̂ς δὲ πλήρης πνεύματος ἁγίου ὑπέστρεψεν ἀπὸ του̂ ʼΙορδάνου, καὶ ʼήγετο ἐν τῳ̂ πνεύματι ἐν τῃ̂ ἐρήμῳ ἡμέρας τεσσεράκοντα πειραζόμενος ὑπὸ του̂ διαβόλου. 4:2 Καὶ οὐκ ʼέφαγεν οὐδὲν ται̂ς ἡμέραις ἐκείναις, καὶ συντελεσθεισω̂ν αὐτω̂ν ἐπείνασεν.

4:3 εʼι̂πεν δὲ αὐτῳ̂ ὁ διάβολος, εἰ υἱὸς εʼι̂ του̂ θεου̂, εἰπὲ τῳ̂ λίθῳ̂ τούτῳ ʽίνα γένηται ʼάρτος.

4:4 καὶ ἀπεκρίθη πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ ʼΙησου̂ς, γέγραπται ʽότι οὐκ ἐπ' ʼάρτῳ μόνῳ ζήσεται ὁ ʼάνθρωπος.

4:5 καὶ ἀναγαγω̂ν αὐτὸν ʼέδειξεν αὐτῳ̂ πάσας τὰς βασιλείας τη̂ς οἰκουμένης ἐν στιγμῃ̂ χρόνου. 4:6 καὶ εʼι̂πεν αὐτῳ̂ ὁ διάβολος, σοὶ δώσω τὴν ἐξουσίαν ταύτην ʽάπασαν καὶ τὴν δόξαν αὐτω̂ν, ʽότι ἐμοὶ παραδέδοται καὶ ʽῳ̂ ἐὰν θέλω δίδωμι αὐτὴν. 4:7 σὺ οʼυ̂ν ἐὰν προσκυνήσῃς ἐνώπιον ἐμου̂, ʼέσται σου̂ πα̂σα.

4:8 Καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ ʼΙησου̂ς εʼι̂πεν αὐτῳ̂, γέγραπται προσκυνήσεις κύριον τὸν θεὸν σου̂ καὶ αὐτῳ̂ μονῳ̂ λατρεύσεις.

4:9 ʼΉγαγεν δὲ αὐτὸν εἰς ʽΙερουσαλὴμ καὶ ʼέστησεν ἐπὶ τὸ πτερύγιον του̂ ἱερου̂. καὶ εʼι̂πεν αὐτῳ̂, εἰ υἱὸς εʼι̂ του̂ θεου̂, βάλε σεαυτὸν ἐντευ̂θεν κάτω. 4:10 γέγραπται

        γὰρ ʽότι τοι̂ς ἀγγέλοις αὐτου̂ ἐντελει̂ται περὶ σου̂
        του̂ διαφυλάξαι σε,


4:11 καὶ

        ʽότι ἐπὶ χειρω̂ν ἀρου̂σίν σε,
        μήποτε προσκόψῃς πρὸς λίθον τὸν πόδα σου̂.


4:12 καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς εʼι̂πεν αὐτῳ̂ ὁ ʼΙησου̂ς ʽότι εʼι̂ρηται, οὐκ ἐκπειράσεις κύριον τὸν θεὸν σου̂.

4:13 Καὶ συντελέσας πάντα πειρασμὸν ὁ διάβολος ἀπέστη ἀπ' αὐτου̂ ʼάχρι καιρου̂.

Romans 8:31b (memory verse) -

        Εἰ ὁ θεὸς ὑπὲρ ἡμω̂ν, τίς καθ' ἡμω̂ν;

Translation

From the King James version:
4:1 And Jesus being full of the Holy Ghost returned from Jordan, and was led by the Spirit into the wilderness, 2 Being forty days tempted of the devil. And in those days he did eat nothing: and when they were ended, he afterward hungered.
3 And the devil said unto him, If thou be the Son of God, command this stone that it be made bread.
4 And Jesus answered him, saying, It is written, That man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of God.
5 And the devil, taking him up into an high mountain, shewed unto him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. 6 And the devil said unto him, All this power will I give thee, and the glory of them: for that is delivered unto me; and to whomsoever I will I give it. 7 If thou therefore wilt worship me, all shall be thine.
8 And Jesus answered and said unto him, it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.
9 And he brought him to Jerusalem, and set him on a pinnacle of the temple, and said unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down from hence: 10 For it is written,
He shall give his angels charge over thee,
to keep thee:
11 And
in their hands they shall bear thee up,
lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone.
12 And Jesus answering said unto him, It is said, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God.
13 And when the devil had ended all the temptation, he departed from him for a season.
Romans 8:31b (memory verse) --
If God is for us, who can be against us?

Grammar

16. Nouns ending in -ηρ.

The basic relationship terms, among other nouns, end in -ηρ, and have no -ε- in the genitive and dative singular, and the dative plural. The following are examples.

    father   daughter   man
Nom. sg.   ὁ πατήρ   ἡ θυγάτηρ   ὁ ἀνήρ
Gen. sg.   του̂ πατρός   τη̂ς θυγατρός   του̂ ἀνδρός
Dat. sg.   τῳ̂ πατρί   τῃ̂ θυγατρί   τῳ̂ ανδρί
Acc. sg.   τὸν πατέρα   τη̂ν θυγατέρα   τὸν ʼάνδρα
             
Nom. pl.   οἱ πατέρες   αἱ θυγατέρες   οἱ ʼάνδρες
Gen. pl.   τω̂ν πατέρων   τω̂ν θυγατέρων   τω̂ν ἀνδρω̂ν
Dat. pl.   τοι̂ς πατράσι   ται̂ς θυγατράσι   τοι̂ς ἀνδράσι
Acc. pl.   τοὺς πατέρας   τὰς θυγατέρας   τοὺς ʼάνδρας
17. Irregular nouns.

Some of the more frequent nouns are irregular in inflection; three of them are given here.

    woman   ship   fire
Nom. sg.   ἡ γυνή   ἡ ναυ̂ς   τὸ πυ̂ρ
Gen. sg.   τη̂ς γυναικός   τη̂ς νεώς   του̂ πυρός
Dat. sg.   τῃ̂ γυναικί   τῃ̂ νηί   τῳ̂ πυρί
Acc. sg.   τη̂ν γυναι̂κα   τη̂ν ναυ̂ν   τὸ πυ̂ρ
             
Nom. pl.   αἱ γυναι̂κες   αἱ νη̂ες   τὰ πυρά
Gen. pl.   τω̂ν γυναικω̂ν   τω̂ν νεω̂ν   τω̂ν πυρω̂ν
Dat. pl.   ται̂ς γυναιξί(ν)   ται̂ς ναυσί(ν)   τοι̂ς πυροι̂ς
Acc. pl.   τὰς γυναι̂κας   τὰς ναυ̂ς   τὰ πυρά
18. Demonstrative pronouns.

There are three demonstrative pronouns. ʽόδε, ʽήδε, τόδε points to the present or future, and corresponds to 'this,' 'this one here.' οʽύτος, αʼύτη, του̂το points to the former, and corresponds to 'that.' ἐκει̂νος, ἐκείνη, ἐκει̂νο points to things remote or absent, and corresponds to 'that there.' ʽόδε is based on the definite article. The forms of ἐκει̂νος are like those of αὐτός. The forms of οʽυ̂τος are given here.

    Masculine   Feminine   Neuter
Nom. sg.   οʽυ̂τος   αʽύτη   του̂το
Gen. sg.   τούτου   ταύτης   τούτου
Dat. sg.   τούτῳ   ταύτῃ   τούτῳ
Acc. sg.   του̂τον   ταύτην   του̂το
             
Nom. pl.   οʽυ̂τοι   αʽυ̂ται   ταυ̂τα
Gen. pl.   τούτων   τούτων   τούτων
Dat. pl.   τούτοις   ταύταις   τούτοις
Acc. pl.   τούτους   ταύτας   ταυ̂τα
19. The uses of infinitives.

The syntax of New Testament Greek is relatively simple. Most sentences and clauses are completed by a finite verb governing an object, often accompanied by adverbial elements. When infinitives are used they generally complement the meaning of the principal verb as in John 3, with its repeated uses of δύναται followed by ποιει̂ν '(no one) can do' and other infinitives. They often are used to indicate purpose, as in Luke 2:1 and following in the passages including ἀπογράφεσθαι '(that all the world) be registered', and similarly in Matthew 2:2 ʼήλθομεν προσκυνη̂σαι αὐτῳ̂ 'we have come to worship him'. In this use they may be introduced by an article, as in verse 10 of this passage: του̂ διαφυλάξαι σε 'to protect you'.

Infinitives may also be treated like nouns, where English makes use of participles, as in Luke 2:4 διὰ τὸ εʼι̂ναι αὐτὸν..., literally 'through the (fact of) him be(ing)' > 'because he is'. The infinitive in verse 6 is similar though treated as a genitive after a noun: ἡμέραι του̂ τεκει̂ν αὐτήν, literally 'days of her giv(ing) birth'. But as these few examples illustrate, infinitives are relatively infrequent in New Testament Greek and readily interpreted.

20. The Present system of the Middle and the Passive.

The Greek verb has a full set of Middle and Passive forms corresponding to those of the Active. In the Present System, the forms of the two Voices are the same.

When used as Middle, the forms indicate an action or situation reflecting on the subject; thus the first singular indicative πιστεύομαι means 'I believe'. When used as Passive, the meaning corresponds to that of passives in English, so that the Passive πιστεύομαι means 'I am (being) believed.' The forms must be interpreted from the context.

The forms of the Present System (first, second, and third person, singular and plural) are as follows:

    Indicative   Imperfect   Subjunctive   Optative   Imperative
1s   πιστεύομαι   ἐπιστευόμην   πιστεύωμαι   πιστευοίμην    
2s   πιστεύῃ   ἐπιστεύου   πιστεύῃ   πιστεύοιο   πιστεύου
3s   πιστεύεται   ἐπιστεύετο   πιστεύηται   πιστευοίτο   πιστευέσθω
1p   πιστευόμεθα   ἐπιστευόμεθα   πιστευώμεθα   πιστευοίμεθα    
2p   πιστεύεσθε   ἐπιστεύεσθε   πιστεύησθε   πιστεύοισθε   πιστεύεσθε
3p   πιστεύονται   ἐπιστεύοντο   πιστεύωνται   πιστεύοιντο   πιστευέσθων

Infinitive:   πιστεύεσθαι
Participle:   πιστευόμενος, πιστευομένη, πιστευόμενον