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New Testament Greek Online

Lesson 5

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

As noted in the introduction to Lesson 2, the gospel according to Matthew includes many of the central teachings of Jesus. Among these the Beatitudes may be most commonly cited. They represent the essence of his teaching and of the principles of Christianity.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Matthew 5:1-12, and 1 Peter 5:7 (memory verse)

The Beatitudes illustrate the method of Jesus' teaching. Simply phrased in the manner of the Psalms, they are addressed to members of his audience with various problems. They represent the beginning of the celebrated Sermon on the Mount.

5:1 - Idôn de tous ochlous anebê eis to oros; kai kathisantos autou prosêlthan autô hoi mathêtai autou.

  • idôn -- verb; nominative singular masculine of participle aorist of <horaô> see -- seeing
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- and
  • tous -- article; accusative plural masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • ochlous -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <ochlos> crowd -- crowds
  • anebê -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <anabainô> mount, go up -- he went up
  • eis -- preposition; <eis> towards -- into
  • to -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • oros -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <oros> mountain -- mountain
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • kathisantos -- verb; genitive singular masculine of aorist participle of <kathizô> (force to) sit down -- sitting down
  • autou -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- he
  • prosêlthan -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <proserchomai> come to -- came to
  • autô -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- him
  • hoi -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • mathêtai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <mathêtês> disciple -- disciples
  • autou -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- his

5:2 - kai anoixas to stoma autou edidasken autous legôn,

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • anoixas -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <anoignumi> open -- having opened
  • to -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ho> the -- ...
  • stoma -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <stoma> mouth -- mouth
  • autou -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- his
  • edidasken -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <didaskô> teach -- he taught
  • autous -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- them
  • legôn -- verb; nominative singular masculine of present participle of <legô> say -- saying

5:3 - makarioi hoi ptôchoi tô pneumati,
        hoti autôn hê basileia tôn ouranôn.

  • makarioi -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <makarios> blessed -- blessed
  • hoi -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ho> the -- (are) the
  • ptôchoi -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <ptôchos> poor -- poor
  • -- article; dative singular neuter of <ho> the -- ...
  • pneumati -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <pneuma> spirit -- in spirit
  • hoti -- conjunction; <hoti> because, that -- because
  • autôn -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- theirs
  • -- article; nominative singular feminine of <ho> the -- (is) the
  • basileia -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <basileia> kingdom -- kingdom
  • tôn -- article; genitive plural masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • ouranôn -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <ouranos> heaven -- heavens

5:4 - makarioi hoi penthountes,
        hoti autoi paraklêthêsontai.

  • makarioi -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <makarios> blessed -- blessed
  • hoi -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ho> the -- (are) the
  • penthountes -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <pentheô> mourn -- mourners
  • hoti -- conjunction; <hoti> because, that -- because
  • autoi -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- they
  • paraklêthêsontai -- verb; 3rd person plural future passive of <parakaleô> encourage, comfort -- will be comforted

5:5 - makarioi hoi praeis,
        hoti autoi klêronomêsousin tên gên.

  • makarioi -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <makarios> blessed -- blessed
  • hoi -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ho> the -- (are) the
  • praeis -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <praus> gentle, meek -- gentle
  • hoti -- conjunction; <hoti> because, that -- because
  • autoi -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- they
  • klêronomêsousin -- verb; 3rd person plural future of <klêronomeô> inherit -- they will inherit
  • tên -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ho> the -- the
  • gên -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <> earth, land -- earth

5:6 - makarioi hoi peinôntes kai dipsôntes tên dikaiosunên,
        hoti autoi chortasthêsantai.

  • makarioi -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <makarios> blessed -- blessed
  • hoi -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ho> the -- (are) the
  • peinôntes -- verb; nominative plural masculine of participle of <peinaô> to be hungry -- (are) hungering
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • dipsôntes -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <dipsaô> thirst after -- thirsting after
  • tên -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ho> the -- ...
  • dikaiosunên -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <dikaiosunê> justice, righteousness -- righteousness
  • hoti -- conjunction; <hoti> because, that -- because
  • autoi -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- they
  • chortasthêsantai -- verb; 3rd person plural future passive of <chortazô> feed; eat their fill -- shall eat their fill

5:7 - makarioi hoi eleêmones,
        hoti autoi eleêthêsontai.

  • makarioi -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <makarios> blessed -- blessed
  • hoi -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ho> the -- (are) the
  • eleêmones -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <eleêmôn> merciful -- merciful
  • hoti -- conjunction; <hoti> because, that -- because
  • autoi -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- they
  • eleêthêsontai -- verb; 3rd person plural future passive of <eleeô> have pity; be pitied -- shall be pitied

5:8 - makarioi hoi katharoi tê kardia,
        hoti autoi ton theon opsontai

  • makarioi -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <makarios> blessed -- blessed
  • hoi -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ho> the -- (are) the
  • katharoi -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <katharos> clean, pure -- pure
  • -- article; dative singular feminine of <ho> the -- ...
  • kardia -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <kardia> heart -- in heart
  • hoti -- conjunction; <hoti> because, that -- because
  • autoi -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- they
  • ton -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • theon -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <theos> god -- God
  • opsontai -- verb; 3rd person plural future of <horaô> see -- they shall see

5:9 - makarioi hoi eirênopoioi,
        hoti autoi huioi theou klêthêsontai.

  • makarioi -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <makarios> blessed -- blessed
  • hoi -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ho> the -- (are) the
  • eirênopoioi -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <eirênopoios> peacemaker -- peacemakers
  • hoti -- conjunction; <hoti> because, that -- because
  • autoi -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- they
  • huioi -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <huios> son -- sons
  • theou -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <theos> god -- of God
  • klêthêsontai -- verb; 3rd person plural future passive of <kaleô> call, summon -- will be called

5:10 - makarioi hoi dediôgmenoi heneken dikaiosunês,
        hoti autôn estin hê basileia tôn ouranôn.

  • makarioi -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <makarios> blessed -- blessed
  • hoi -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ho> the -- (are) the
  • dediôgmenoi -- verb; nominative plural participle of participle perfect passive of <diôkô> follow, prosecute -- persecuted
  • heneken -- preposition; <heneken> because of -- because of
  • dikaiosunês -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <dikaiosunê> justice, righteousness -- righteousness
  • hoti -- conjunction; <hoti> because, that -- because
  • autôn -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- theirs
  • estin -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <eimi> I am -- is
  • -- article; nominative singular feminine of <ho> the -- (is) the
  • basileia -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <basileia> kingdom -- kingdom
  • tôn -- article; genitive plural masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • ouranôn -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <ouranos> heaven -- heavens

5:11 - makarioi este hotan oneidisôsin humas kai diôxôsin kai eipôsin pan ponêron kath' humôn pseudomenoi heneken emou.

  • makarioi -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <makarios> blessed -- blessed
  • este -- verb; 2nd person plural present of <eimi> I am -- you are
  • hotan -- conjunction; <hotan> when, every time -- every time
  • oneidisôsin -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist subjunctive of <oneidizô> reproach -- they will reproach
  • humas -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <su> you -- you
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • diôxôsin -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist subjunctive of <diôkô> follow, prosecute -- persecute
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • eipôsin -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist subjunctive of <legô> say -- say
  • pan -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <pas> all, every -- everything
  • ponêron -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <ponêros> evil, wicked -- evil
  • kath' -- preposition; <kata> completely, down, under -- against
  • humôn -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <su> you -- you
  • pseudomenoi -- deponent verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <pseudomai> lie, deceive -- lyingly
  • heneken -- preposition; <heneken> because of -- because of
  • emou -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <egô> I -- me

5:12 - chairete kai agalliasthe, hoti ho misthos humôn polus en tois ouranois.

  • chairete -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative of <chairô> rejoice -- be glad
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • agalliasthe -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative middle of <agalliaô> rejoice exceedingly -- rejoice
  • hoti -- conjunction; <hoti> because, that -- because
  • ho -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • misthos -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <misthos> reward -- reward
  • humôn -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <su> you -- your
  • polus -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <polus> many -- (will be) great
  • en -- preposition; <en> in -- in
  • tois -- article; dative plural masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • ouranois -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <ouranos> heaven -- heavens

houtôs gar ediôxan tous prophêtas tous pro humôn.

  • houtôs -- adverb; <houtôs> so, thus -- so
  • gar -- conjunction; <gar> for -- for
  • ediôxan -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <diôkô> follow, prosecute -- they persecuted
  • tous -- article; accusative plural masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • prophêtas -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <prophêtês> prophet -- prophets
  • tous -- article; accusative plural masculine of <ho> the -- those
  • pro -- preposition; <pro> before -- before
  • humôn -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <su> you -- you

1 Peter 5:7 (memory verse) -

        Pasan tên merimnan humôn epiripsantes ep' auton,
        hoti autô melei peri humôn.

  • pasan -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <pas> all, every -- all
  • tên -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ho> the -- ...
  • merimnan -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <merimna> care, anxious thought -- cares
  • humôn -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <su> you -- your
  • epiripsantes -- verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist participle of <epirriptô> cast at -- casting
  • ep' -- preposition; <epi> on, about -- upon
  • auton -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- him
  • hoti -- conjunction; <hoti> because, that -- because
  • autô -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- in him
  • melei -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <melô> to care, to be an object of care -- there is care
  • peri -- preposition; <peri> around -- concerning
  • humôn -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <su> you -- you

Lesson Text

5:1 Idôn de tous ochlous anebê eis to oros; kai kathisantos autou prosêlthan autô hoi mathêtai autou. 5:2 kai anoixas to stoma autou edidasken autous legôn,

        5:3 makarioi hoi ptôchoi tô pneumati,
        hoti autôn hê basileia tôn ouranôn.


        5:4 makarioi hoi penthountes,
        hoti autoi paraklêthêsontai.


        5:5 makarioi hoi praeis,
        hoti autoi klêronomêsousin tên gên.


        5:6 makarioi hoi peinôntes kai dipsôntes tên dikaiosunên,
        hoti autoi chortasthêsantai.


        5:7 makarioi hoi eleêmones,
        hoti autoi eleêthêsontai.


        5:8 makarioi hoi katharoi tê kardia,
        hoti autoi ton theon opsontai


        5:9 makarioi hoi eirênopoioi,
        hoti autoi huioi theou klêthêsontai.


        5:10 makarioi hoi dediôgmenoi heneken dikaiosunês,
        hoti autôn estin hê basileia tôn ouranôn.


5:11 makarioi este hotan oneidisôsin humas kai diôxôsin kai eipôsin pan ponêron kath' humôn pseudomenoi heneken emou. 5:12 chairete kai agalliasthe, hoti ho misthos humôn polus en tois ouranois. houtôs gar ediôxan tous prophêtas tous pro humôn.

1 Peter 5:7 (memory verse) -

        Pasan tên merimnan humôn epiripsantes ep' auton,
        hoti autô melei peri humôn.

Translation

From the King James version:
1 And seeing the multitudes, he went up into a mountain: and when he was set, his disciples came unto him: 2 And he opened his mouth, and taught them, saying,
3 Blessed are the poor in spirit:
for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
4 Blessed are they that mourn:
for they shall be comforted.
5 Blessed are the meek:
for they shall inherit the earth.
6 Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness:
for they shall be filled.
7 Blessed are the merciful:
for they shall obtain mercy.
8 Blessed are the pure in heart:
for they shall see God.
9 Blessed are the peacemakers:
for they shall be called the children of God.
10 Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness' sake:
for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
11 Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake. 12 Rejoice, and be exceeding glad: for great is your reward in heaven: for so persecuted they the prophets which were before you.
1 Peter 5:7 (memory verse) --
Casting all your care upon him; for he careth for you.

Grammar

21. Consonant stems ending in dentals.

In these stems the consonant is dropped in the nominative singular, as well as in the accusative singular of neuters, and in the dative plural.

    foot   body
Nom. sg.   ho pous   to sôma
Gen. sg.   tou podos   tou sômatos
Dat. sg.   tô podi   tô sômati
Acc. sg.   ton poda   to sôma
         
Nom. pl.   hoi podes   ta sômata
Gen. pl.   tôn podôn   tôn sômatôn
Dat. pl.   tois posi   tois sômasi
Acc. pl.   tous podas   ta sômata
22. Comparison of adjectives.

In most adjectives comparison is expressed by -teros in the comparative degree, by -tatos in the superlative degree. The forms then are inflected in accordance with the o- and a-declensions. Examples in this text are empherestatê and homoiotata. Some of the common adjectives on the other hand are irregular, for example, kakos 'bad'; kakiôn, kakistos. Their forms will be listed in dictionaries.

23. Interrogative and indefinite pronouns.

These are declined as follows:

    Interrogative   Indefinite
    Masc/Fem   Neut | Masc/Fem   Neut
    'who'   'what' | 'someone'   'something'
Nom. sg.   tis   ti | tis   ti
Gen. sg.   tinos   tinos | tinos   tinos
Dat. sg.   tini   tini | tini   tini
Acc. sg.   tina   ti | tina   ti
                 
Nom. pl.   tines   tina | tines   tina
Gen. pl.   tinôn   tinôn | tinôn   tinôn
Dat. pl.   tisi(n)   tisi(n) | tisi(n)   tisi(n)
Acc. pl.   tinas   tina | tinas   tina

    Indefinite
    Masc   Fem   Neut
    'who(ever)'   'who(ever)'   'what(ever)'
Nom. sg.   ostis   hêtis   hoti
Gen. sg.   hotou   hêstinos   hotou
Dat. sg.   hôtini   hêtini   hôtini
Acc. sg.   hontina   hêntina   hoti
             
Nom. pl.   hoitines   haitines   hatina
Gen. pl.   hôntinôn   hôntinôn   hôntinôn
Dat. pl.   hoistisi   haistisi   hoistisi
Acc. pl.   houstinas   hastinas   hatina
24. The middle and passive voices.

In the present system the forms of the middle (expressing action for one's own sake) and the passive (expressing action directed at the subject) are the same. The forms for the indicative and the imperfect are as follows.

    Present   Imperfect
1 sg   pisteuomai   episteuomên
2 sg   pisteuê   episteuou
3 sg   pisteuetai   episteueto
         
1 pl   pisteuometha   episteuometha
2 pl   pisteuesthe   episteuesthe
3 pl   pisteuontai   episteuontai
25. The subjunctive, optative, and imperative middle and passive forms, the infinitive and participle.

While these forms are not frequent, they are given here so that, if found, they may be recognized. The participial forms, on the other hand, are relatively frequent.

    Subjunctive   Optative   Imperative
1s   pisteuômai   pisteuoimên    
2s   pisteuê   pisteuoio   pisteuou
3s   pisteuêtai   pisteuoito   pisteuesthô
             
1p   pisteuômetha   pisteuoimetha    
2p   pisteuêsthe   pisteuoisthe   pisteuesthe
3p   pisteuôntai   pisteuointo   pisteuesthôn

Infinitive:   pisteuesthai
Participle:   pisteuomenos, pisteuomenê, pisteuomenon