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New Testament Greek Online

Lesson 5

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

As noted in the introduction to Lesson 2, the gospel according to Matthew includes many of the central teachings of Jesus. Among these the Beatitudes may be most commonly cited. They represent the essence of his teaching and of the principles of Christianity.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Matthew 5:1-12, and 1 Peter 5:7 (memory verse)

The Beatitudes illustrate the method of Jesus' teaching. Simply phrased in the manner of the Psalms, they are addressed to members of his audience with various problems. They represent the beginning of the celebrated Sermon on the Mount.

5:1 - Ἰδὼν δὲ τοὺς ὄχλους ἀνέβη εἰς τὸ ὄρος· καὶ καθίσαντος αὐτοῦ προσῆλθαν αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ.

  • ἰδὼν -- verb; nominative singular masculine of participle aorist of <ὁράω> see -- seeing
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • τοὺς -- article; accusative plural masculine of <> the -- the
  • ὄχλους -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <ὄχλος> crowd -- crowds
  • ἀνέβη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ἀναβαίνω> mount, go up -- he went up
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- into
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <> the -- the
  • ὄρος -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <ὄρος> mountain -- mountain
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • καθίσαντος -- verb; genitive singular masculine of aorist participle of <καθίζω> (force to) sit down -- sitting down
  • αὐτοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- he
  • προσῆλθαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <προσέρχομαι> come to -- came to
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <> the -- ...
  • μαθηταὶ -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <μαθητής> disciple -- disciples
  • αὐτοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- his

5:2 - καὶ ἀνοίξας τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ ἐδίδασκεν αὐτοὺς λέγων,

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἀνοίξας -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <ἀνοίγνυμι> open -- having opened
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <> the -- ...
  • στόμα -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <στόμα> mouth -- mouth
  • αὐτοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- his
  • ἐδίδασκεν -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <διδάσκω> teach -- he taught
  • αὐτοὺς -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- them
  • λέγων -- verb; nominative singular masculine of present participle of <λέγω> say -- saying

5:3 - μακάριοι οἱ πτωχοὶ τῷ πνεύματι,
        ὅτι αὐτῶν ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν.

  • μακάριοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <μακάριος> blessed -- blessed
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <> the -- (are) the
  • πτωχοὶ -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <πτωχός> poor -- poor
  • τῷ -- article; dative singular neuter of <> the -- ...
  • πνεύματι -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <πνεῦμα> spirit -- in spirit
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- because
  • αὐτῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- theirs
  • -- article; nominative singular feminine of <> the -- (is) the
  • βασιλεία -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <βασιλεία> kingdom -- kingdom
  • τῶν -- article; genitive plural masculine of <> the -- the
  • οὐρανῶν -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <οὐρανός> heaven -- heavens

5:4 - μακάριοι οἱ πενθοῦντες,
        ὅτι αὐτοὶ παρακληθήσονται.

  • μακάριοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <μακάριος> blessed -- blessed
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <> the -- (are) the
  • πενθοῦντες -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <πενθέω> mourn -- mourners
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- because
  • αὐτοὶ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- they
  • παρακληθήσονται -- verb; 3rd person plural future passive of <παρακαλέω> encourage, comfort -- will be comforted

5:5 - μακάριοι οἱ πραεῖς,
        ὅτι αὐτοὶ κληρονομήσουσιν τὴν γῆν.

  • μακάριοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <μακάριος> blessed -- blessed
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <> the -- (are) the
  • πραεῖς -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <πραύς> gentle, meek -- gentle
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- because
  • αὐτοὶ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- they
  • κληρονομήσουσιν -- verb; 3rd person plural future of <κληρονομέω> inherit -- they will inherit
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • γῆν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <γῆ> earth, land -- earth

5:6 - μακάριοι οἱ πεινῶντες καὶ διψῶντες τὴν δικαιοσύνην,
        ὅτι αὐτοὶ χορτασθήσανται.

  • μακάριοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <μακάριος> blessed -- blessed
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <> the -- (are) the
  • πεινῶντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of participle of <πεινάω> to be hungry -- (are) hungering
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • διψῶντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <διψάω> thirst after -- thirsting after
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <> the -- ...
  • δικαιοσύνην -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <δικαιοσύνη> justice, righteousness -- righteousness
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- because
  • αὐτοὶ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- they
  • χορτασθήσανται -- verb; 3rd person plural future passive of <χορτάζω> feed; eat their fill -- shall eat their fill

5:7 - μακάριοι οἱ ἐλεήμονες,
        ὅτι αὐτοὶ ἐλεηθήσονται.

  • μακάριοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <μακάριος> blessed -- blessed
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <> the -- (are) the
  • ἐλεήμονες -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <ἐλεήμων> merciful -- merciful
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- because
  • αὐτοὶ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- they
  • ἐλεηθήσονται -- verb; 3rd person plural future passive of <ἐλεέω> have pity; be pitied -- shall be pitied

5:8 - μακάριοι οἱ καθαροὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ,
        ὅτι αὐτοὶ τὸν θεὸν ὄψονται

  • μακάριοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <μακάριος> blessed -- blessed
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <> the -- (are) the
  • καθαροὶ -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <καθαρός> clean, pure -- pure
  • τῇ -- article; dative singular feminine of <> the -- ...
  • καρδίᾳ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <καρδία> heart -- in heart
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- because
  • αὐτοὶ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- they
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <> the -- ...
  • θεὸν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <θεός> god -- God
  • ὄψονται -- verb; 3rd person plural future of <ὁράω> see -- they shall see

5:9 - μακάριοι οἱ εἰρηνοποιοί,
        ὅτι αὐτοὶ υἱοὶ θεοῦ κληθήσονται.

  • μακάριοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <μακάριος> blessed -- blessed
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <> the -- (are) the
  • εἰρηνοποιοί -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <εἰρηνοποιός> peacemaker -- peacemakers
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- because
  • αὐτοὶ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- they
  • υἱοὶ -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <υἱός> son -- sons
  • θεοῦ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <θεός> god -- of God
  • κληθήσονται -- verb; 3rd person plural future passive of <καλέω> call, summon -- will be called

5:10 - μακάριοι οἱ δεδιωγμένοι ἕνεκεν δικαιοσύνης,
        ὅτι αὐτῶν ἔστιν ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν.

  • μακάριοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <μακάριος> blessed -- blessed
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <> the -- (are) the
  • δεδιωγμένοι -- verb; nominative plural participle of participle perfect passive of <διώκω> follow, prosecute -- persecuted
  • ἕνεκεν -- preposition; <ἕνεκεν> because of -- because of
  • δικαιοσύνης -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <δικαιοσύνη> justice, righteousness -- righteousness
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- because
  • αὐτῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- theirs
  • ἔστιν -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- is
  • -- article; nominative singular feminine of <> the -- (is) the
  • βασιλεία -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <βασιλεία> kingdom -- kingdom
  • τῶν -- article; genitive plural masculine of <> the -- the
  • οὐρανῶν -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <οὐρανός> heaven -- heavens

5:11 - μακάριοι ἐστέ ὅταν ὀνειδίσωσιν ὑμᾶς καὶ διώξωσιν καὶ εἴπωσιν πᾶν πονηρὸν καθ' ὑμῶν ψευδόμενοι ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ.

  • μακάριοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <μακάριος> blessed -- blessed
  • ἐστέ -- verb; 2nd person plural present of <εἰμί> I am -- you are
  • ὅταν -- conjunction; <ὅταν> when, every time -- every time
  • ὀνειδίσωσιν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist subjunctive of <ὀνειδίζω> reproach -- they will reproach
  • ὑμᾶς -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • διώξωσιν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist subjunctive of <διώκω> follow, prosecute -- persecute
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • εἴπωσιν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist subjunctive of <λέγω> say -- say
  • πᾶν -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <πᾶς> all, every -- everything
  • πονηρὸν -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <πονηρός> evil, wicked -- evil
  • καθ' -- preposition; <κατά> completely, down, under -- against
  • ὑμῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • ψευδόμενοι -- deponent verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <ψεύδομαι> lie, deceive -- lyingly
  • ἕνεκεν -- preposition; <ἕνεκεν> because of -- because of
  • ἐμοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <ἐγώ> I -- me

5:12 - χαίρετε καὶ ἀγαλλιᾶσθε, ὅτι ὁ μισθὸς ὑμῶν πολὺς ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς.

  • χαίρετε -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative of <χαίρω> rejoice -- be glad
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἀγαλλιᾶσθε -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative middle of <ἀγαλλιάω> rejoice exceedingly -- rejoice
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- because
  • -- article; nominative singular masculine of <> the -- ...
  • μισθὸς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <μισθός> reward -- reward
  • ὑμῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <σύ> you -- your
  • πολὺς -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <πολύς> many -- (will be) great
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • τοῖς -- article; dative plural masculine of <> the -- the
  • οὐρανοῖς -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <οὐρανός> heaven -- heavens

οὕτως γὰρ ἐδίωξαν τοὺς προφήτας τοὺς πρὸ ὑμῶν.

  • οὕτως -- adverb; <οὕτως> so, thus -- so
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • ἐδίωξαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <διώκω> follow, prosecute -- they persecuted
  • τοὺς -- article; accusative plural masculine of <> the -- the
  • προφήτας -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <προφήτης> prophet -- prophets
  • τοὺς -- article; accusative plural masculine of <> the -- those
  • πρὸ -- preposition; <πρό> before -- before
  • ὑμῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <σύ> you -- you

1 Peter 5:7 (memory verse) -

        Πᾶσαν τὴν μέριμναν ὑμῶν ἐπιρίψαντες ἐπ' αὐτόν,
        ὅτι αὐτῷ μέλει περὶ ὑμῶν.

  • πᾶσαν -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <πᾶς> all, every -- all
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <> the -- ...
  • μέριμναν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <μέριμνα> care, anxious thought -- cares
  • ὑμῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <σύ> you -- your
  • ἐπιρίψαντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist participle of <ἐπιρρίπτω> cast at -- casting
  • ἐπ' -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- upon
  • αὐτόν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • ὅτι -- conjunction; <ὅτι> because, that -- because
  • αὐτῷ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- in him
  • μέλει -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <μέλω> to care, to be an object of care -- there is care
  • περὶ -- preposition; <περί> around -- concerning
  • ὑμῶν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <σύ> you -- you

Lesson Text

5:1 Ἰδὼν δὲ τοὺς ὄχλους ἀνέβη εἰς τὸ ὄρος· καὶ καθίσαντος αὐτοῦ προσῆλθαν αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ. 5:2 καὶ ἀνοίξας τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ ἐδίδασκεν αὐτοὺς λέγων,

        5:3 μακάριοι οἱ πτωχοὶ τῷ πνεύματι,
        ὅτι αὐτῶν ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν.


        5:4 μακάριοι οἱ πενθοῦντες,
        ὅτι αὐτοὶ παρακληθήσονται.


        5:5 μακάριοι οἱ πραεῖς,
        ὅτι αὐτοὶ κληρονομήσουσιν τὴν γῆν.


        5:6 μακάριοι οἱ πεινῶντες καὶ διψῶντες τὴν δικαιοσύνην,
        ὅτι αὐτοὶ χορτασθήσανται.


        5:7 μακάριοι οἱ ἐλεήμονες,
        ὅτι αὐτοὶ ἐλεηθήσονται.


        5:8 μακάριοι οἱ καθαροὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ,
        ὅτι αὐτοὶ τὸν θεὸν ὄψονται


        5:9 μακάριοι οἱ εἰρηνοποιοί,
        ὅτι αὐτοὶ υἱοὶ θεοῦ κληθήσονται.


        5:10 μακάριοι οἱ δεδιωγμένοι ἕνεκεν δικαιοσύνης,
        ὅτι αὐτῶν ἔστιν ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν.


5:11 μακάριοι ἐστέ ὅταν ὀνειδίσωσιν ὑμᾶς καὶ διώξωσιν καὶ εἴπωσιν πᾶν πονηρὸν καθ' ὑμῶν ψευδόμενοι ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ. 5:12 χαίρετε καὶ ἀγαλλιᾶσθε, ὅτι ὁ μισθὸς ὑμῶν πολὺς ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς. οὕτως γὰρ ἐδίωξαν τοὺς προφήτας τοὺς πρὸ ὑμῶν.

1 Peter 5:7 (memory verse) -

        Πᾶσαν τὴν μέριμναν ὑμῶν ἐπιρίψαντες ἐπ' αὐτόν,
        ὅτι αὐτῷ μέλει περὶ ὑμῶν.

Translation

From the King James version:
1 And seeing the multitudes, he went up into a mountain: and when he was set, his disciples came unto him: 2 And he opened his mouth, and taught them, saying,
3 Blessed are the poor in spirit:
for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
4 Blessed are they that mourn:
for they shall be comforted.
5 Blessed are the meek:
for they shall inherit the earth.
6 Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness:
for they shall be filled.
7 Blessed are the merciful:
for they shall obtain mercy.
8 Blessed are the pure in heart:
for they shall see God.
9 Blessed are the peacemakers:
for they shall be called the children of God.
10 Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness' sake:
for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
11 Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake. 12 Rejoice, and be exceeding glad: for great is your reward in heaven: for so persecuted they the prophets which were before you.
1 Peter 5:7 (memory verse) --
Casting all your care upon him; for he careth for you.

Grammar

21. Consonant stems ending in dentals.

In these stems the consonant is dropped in the nominative singular, as well as in the accusative singular of neuters, and in the dative plural.

    foot   body
Nom. sg.   ὁ πούς   τὸ σῶμα
Gen. sg.   τοῦ ποδός   τοῦ σώματος
Dat. sg.   τῷ ποδί   τῷ σώματι
Acc. sg.   τὸν ποδά   τὸ σῶμα
         
Nom. pl.   οἱ ποδές   τὰ σώματα
Gen. pl.   τῶν ποδῶν   τῶν σωμάτων
Dat. pl.   τοῖς ποσί   τοῖς σώμασι
Acc. pl.   τοὺς ποδάς   τὰ σώματα
22. Comparison of adjectives.

In most adjectives comparison is expressed by -τερος in the comparative degree, by -τατος in the superlative degree. The forms then are inflected in accordance with the ο- and α-declensions. Examples in this text are ἐμφερεστάτη and ὁμοιότατα. Some of the common adjectives on the other hand are irregular, for example, κακός 'bad'; κακίων, κάκιστος. Their forms will be listed in dictionaries.

23. Interrogative and indefinite pronouns.

These are declined as follows:

    Interrogative   Indefinite
    Masc/Fem   Neut | Masc/Fem   Neut
    'who'   'what' | 'someone'   'something'
Nom. sg.   τίς   τί | τις   τι
Gen. sg.   τίνος   τίνος | τινός   τινός
Dat. sg.   τίνι   τίνι | τινί   τινί
Acc. sg.   τίνα   τί | τινα   τι
                 
Nom. pl.   τίνες   τίνα | τινες   τινα
Gen. pl.   τίνων   τίνων | τινῶν   τινῶν
Dat. pl.   τίσι(ν)   τίσι(ν) | τισί(ν)   τισί(ν)
Acc. pl.   τίνας   τίνα | τινας   τινα

    Indefinite
    Masc   Fem   Neut
    'who(ever)'   'who(ever)'   'what(ever)'
Nom. sg.   ὄστις   ἥτις   ὅτι
Gen. sg.   ὅτου   ἧστινος   ὅτου
Dat. sg.   ᾧτινι   ᾗτινι   ᾧτινι
Acc. sg.   ὅντινα   ἥντινα   ὅτι
             
Nom. pl.   οἵτινες   αἵτινες   ἅτινα
Gen. pl.   ὥντινων   ὥντινων   ὥντινων
Dat. pl.   οἵστισι   αἷστισι   οἷστισι
Acc. pl.   οὕστινας   ἅστινας   ἅτινα
24. The middle and passive voices.

In the present system the forms of the middle (expressing action for one's own sake) and the passive (expressing action directed at the subject) are the same. The forms for the indicative and the imperfect are as follows.

    Present   Imperfect
1 sg   πιστεύομαι   ἐπιστευόμην
2 sg   πιστεύῃ   ἐπιστεύου
3 sg   πιστεύεται   ἐπιστεύετο
         
1 pl   πιστεύομεθα   ἐπιστευόμεθα
2 pl   πιστεύεσθε   ἐπιστεύεσθε
3 pl   πιστεύονται   ἐπιστεύονται
25. The subjunctive, optative, and imperative middle and passive forms, the infinitive and participle.

While these forms are not frequent, they are given here so that, if found, they may be recognized. The participial forms, on the other hand, are relatively frequent.

    Subjunctive   Optative   Imperative
1s   πιστεύωμαι   πιστευοίμην    
2s   πιστεύῃ   πιστεύοιο   πιστεύου
3s   πιστεύηται   πιστεύοιτο   πιστεύεσθω
             
1p   πιστευώμεθα   πιστευοίμεθα    
2p   πιστεύησθε   πιστεύοισθε   πιστεύεσθε
3p   πιστεύωνται   πιστεύοιντο   πιστευέσθων

Infinitive:   πιστεύεσθαι
Participle:   πιστευόμενος, πιστευομένη, πιστευόμενον