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New Testament Greek Online

Lesson 5

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

As noted in the introduction to Lesson 2, the gospel according to Matthew includes many of the central teachings of Jesus. Among these the Beatitudes may be most commonly cited. They represent the essence of his teaching and of the principles of Christianity.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Matthew 5:1-12, and 1 Peter 5:7 (memory verse)

The Beatitudes illustrate the method of Jesus' teaching. Simply phrased in the manner of the Psalms, they are addressed to members of his audience with various problems. They represent the beginning of the celebrated Sermon on the Mount.

5:1 - ʼΙδὼν δὲ τοὺς ʼόχλους ἀνέβη εἰς τὸ ʼόρος· καὶ καθίσαντος αὐτου̂ προση̂λθαν αὐτῳ̂ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτου̂.

  • ἰδὼν -- verb; nominative singular masculine of participle aorist of <ὁράω> see -- seeing
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- and
  • τοὺς -- article; accusative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ʼόχλους -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <ʼόχλος> crowd -- crowds
  • ἀνέβη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ἀναβαίνω> mount, go up -- he went up
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- into
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ʼόρος -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <ʼόρος> mountain -- mountain
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • καθίσαντος -- verb; genitive singular masculine of aorist participle of <καθίζω> (force to) sit down -- sitting down
  • αὐτου̂ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- he
  • προση̂λθαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <προσέρχομαι> come to -- came to
  • αὐτῳ̂ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • μαθηταὶ -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <μαθητής> disciple -- disciples
  • αὐτου̂ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- his

5:2 - καὶ ἀνοίξας τὸ στόμα αὐτου̂ ἐδίδασκεν αὐτοὺς λέγων,

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἀνοίξας -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <ἀνοίγνυμι> open -- having opened
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • στόμα -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <στόμα> mouth -- mouth
  • αὐτου̂ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- his
  • ἐδίδασκεν -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <διδάσκω> teach -- he taught
  • αὐτοὺς -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- them
  • λέγων -- verb; nominative singular masculine of present participle of <λέγω> say -- saying

5:3 - μακάριοι οἱ πτωχοὶ τῳ̂ πνεύματι,
        ʽότι αὐτω̂ν ἡ βασιλεία τω̂ν οὐρανω̂ν.

  • μακάριοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <μακάριος> blessed -- blessed
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- (are) the
  • πτωχοὶ -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <πτωχός> poor -- poor
  • τῳ̂ -- article; dative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • πνεύματι -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <πνευ̂μα> spirit -- in spirit
  • ʽότι -- conjunction; <ʽότι> because, that -- because
  • αὐτω̂ν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- theirs
  • ἡ -- article; nominative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- (is) the
  • βασιλεία -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <βασιλεία> kingdom -- kingdom
  • τω̂ν -- article; genitive plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • οὐρανω̂ν -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <οὐρανός> heaven -- heavens

5:4 - μακάριοι οἱ πενθου̂ντες,
        ʽότι αὐτοὶ παρακληθήσονται.

  • μακάριοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <μακάριος> blessed -- blessed
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- (are) the
  • πενθου̂ντες -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <πενθέω> mourn -- mourners
  • ʽότι -- conjunction; <ʽότι> because, that -- because
  • αὐτοὶ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- they
  • παρακληθήσονται -- verb; 3rd person plural future passive of <παρακαλέω> encourage, comfort -- will be comforted

5:5 - μακάριοι οἱ πραει̂ς,
        ʽότι αὐτοὶ κληρονομήσουσιν τὴν γη̂ν.

  • μακάριοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <μακάριος> blessed -- blessed
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- (are) the
  • πραει̂ς -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <πραύς> gentle, meek -- gentle
  • ʽότι -- conjunction; <ʽότι> because, that -- because
  • αὐτοὶ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- they
  • κληρονομήσουσιν -- verb; 3rd person plural future of <κληρονομέω> inherit -- they will inherit
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • γη̂ν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <γη̂> earth, land -- earth

5:6 - μακάριοι οἱ πεινω̂ντες καὶ διψω̂ντες τὴν δικαιοσύνην,
        ʽότι αὐτοὶ χορτασθήσανται.

  • μακάριοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <μακάριος> blessed -- blessed
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- (are) the
  • πεινω̂ντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of participle of <πεινάω> to be hungry -- (are) hungering
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • διψω̂ντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <διψάω> thirst after -- thirsting after
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • δικαιοσύνην -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <δικαιοσύνη> justice, righteousness -- righteousness
  • ʽότι -- conjunction; <ʽότι> because, that -- because
  • αὐτοὶ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- they
  • χορτασθήσανται -- verb; 3rd person plural future passive of <χορτάζω> feed; eat their fill -- shall eat their fill

5:7 - μακάριοι οἱ ἐλεήμονες,
        ʽότι αὐτοὶ ἐλεηθήσονται.

  • μακάριοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <μακάριος> blessed -- blessed
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- (are) the
  • ἐλεήμονες -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <ἐλεήμων> merciful -- merciful
  • ʽότι -- conjunction; <ʽότι> because, that -- because
  • αὐτοὶ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- they
  • ἐλεηθήσονται -- verb; 3rd person plural future passive of <ἐλεέω> have pity; be pitied -- shall be pitied

5:8 - μακάριοι οἱ καθαροὶ τῃ̂ καρδίᾳ,
        ʽότι αὐτοὶ τὸν θεὸν ʼόψονται

  • μακάριοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <μακάριος> blessed -- blessed
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- (are) the
  • καθαροὶ -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <καθαρός> clean, pure -- pure
  • τῃ̂ -- article; dative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • καρδίᾳ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <καρδία> heart -- in heart
  • ʽότι -- conjunction; <ʽότι> because, that -- because
  • αὐτοὶ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- they
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • θεὸν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <θεός> god -- God
  • ʼόψονται -- verb; 3rd person plural future of <ὁράω> see -- they shall see

5:9 - μακάριοι οἱ εἰρηνοποιοί,
        ʽότι αὐτοὶ υἱοὶ θεου̂ κληθήσονται.

  • μακάριοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <μακάριος> blessed -- blessed
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- (are) the
  • εἰρηνοποιοί -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <εἰρηνοποιός> peacemaker -- peacemakers
  • ʽότι -- conjunction; <ʽότι> because, that -- because
  • αὐτοὶ -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- they
  • υἱοὶ -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <υἱός> son -- sons
  • θεου̂ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <θεός> god -- of God
  • κληθήσονται -- verb; 3rd person plural future passive of <καλέω> call, summon -- will be called

5:10 - μακάριοι οἱ δεδιωγμένοι ʽένεκεν δικαιοσύνης,
        ʽότι αὐτω̂ν ʼέστιν ἡ βασιλεία τω̂ν οὐρανω̂ν.

  • μακάριοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <μακάριος> blessed -- blessed
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- (are) the
  • δεδιωγμένοι -- verb; nominative plural participle of participle perfect passive of <διώκω> follow, prosecute -- persecuted
  • ʽένεκεν -- preposition; <ʽένεκεν> because of -- because of
  • δικαιοσύνης -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <δικαιοσύνη> justice, righteousness -- righteousness
  • ʽότι -- conjunction; <ʽότι> because, that -- because
  • αὐτω̂ν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- theirs
  • ʼέστιν -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <εἰμί> I am -- is
  • ἡ -- article; nominative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- (is) the
  • βασιλεία -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <βασιλεία> kingdom -- kingdom
  • τω̂ν -- article; genitive plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • οὐρανω̂ν -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <οὐρανός> heaven -- heavens

5:11 - μακάριοι ἐστέ ʽόταν ὀνειδίσωσιν ὑμα̂ς καὶ διώξωσιν καὶ εʼίπωσιν πα̂ν πονηρὸν καθ' ὑμω̂ν ψευδόμενοι ʽένεκεν ἐμου̂.

  • μακάριοι -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <μακάριος> blessed -- blessed
  • ἐστέ -- verb; 2nd person plural present of <εἰμί> I am -- you are
  • ʽόταν -- conjunction; <ʽόταν> when, every time -- every time
  • ὀνειδίσωσιν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist subjunctive of <ὀνειδίζω> reproach -- they will reproach
  • ὑμα̂ς -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • διώξωσιν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist subjunctive of <διώκω> follow, prosecute -- persecute
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • εʼίπωσιν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist subjunctive of <λέγω> say -- say
  • πα̂ν -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <πα̂ς> all, every -- everything
  • πονηρὸν -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <πονηρός> evil, wicked -- evil
  • καθ' -- preposition; <κατά> completely, down, under -- against
  • ὑμω̂ν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <σύ> you -- you
  • ψευδόμενοι -- deponent verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <ψεύδομαι> lie, deceive -- lyingly
  • ʽένεκεν -- preposition; <ʽένεκεν> because of -- because of
  • ἐμου̂ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <ἐγώ> I -- me

5:12 - χαίρετε καὶ ἀγαλλια̂σθε, ʽότι ὁ μισθὸς ὑμω̂ν πολὺς ἐν τοι̂ς οὐρανοι̂ς.

  • χαίρετε -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative of <χαίρω> rejoice -- be glad
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἀγαλλια̂σθε -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative middle of <ἀγαλλιάω> rejoice exceedingly -- rejoice
  • ʽότι -- conjunction; <ʽότι> because, that -- because
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • μισθὸς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <μισθός> reward -- reward
  • ὑμω̂ν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <σύ> you -- your
  • πολὺς -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <πολύς> many -- (will be) great
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • τοι̂ς -- article; dative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • οὐρανοι̂ς -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <οὐρανός> heaven -- heavens

οʽύτως γὰρ ἐδίωξαν τοὺς προφήτας τοὺς πρὸ ὑμω̂ν.

  • οʽύτως -- adverb; <οʽύτως> so, thus -- so
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • ἐδίωξαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <διώκω> follow, prosecute -- they persecuted
  • τοὺς -- article; accusative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • προφήτας -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <προφήτης> prophet -- prophets
  • τοὺς -- article; accusative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- those
  • πρὸ -- preposition; <πρό> before -- before
  • ὑμω̂ν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <σύ> you -- you

1 Peter 5:7 (memory verse) -

        Πα̂σαν τὴν μέριμναν ὑμω̂ν ἐπιρίψαντες ἐπ' αὐτόν,
        ʽότι αὐτῳ̂ μέλει περὶ ὑμω̂ν.

  • πα̂σαν -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <πα̂ς> all, every -- all
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • μέριμναν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <μέριμνα> care, anxious thought -- cares
  • ὑμω̂ν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <σύ> you -- your
  • ἐπιρίψαντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of aorist participle of <ἐπιρρίπτω> cast at -- casting
  • ἐπ' -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- upon
  • αὐτόν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • ʽότι -- conjunction; <ʽότι> because, that -- because
  • αὐτῳ̂ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- in him
  • μέλει -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <μέλω> to care, to be an object of care -- there is care
  • περὶ -- preposition; <περί> around -- concerning
  • ὑμω̂ν -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <σύ> you -- you

Lesson Text

5:1 ʼΙδὼν δὲ τοὺς ʼόχλους ἀνέβη εἰς τὸ ʼόρος· καὶ καθίσαντος αὐτου̂ προση̂λθαν αὐτῳ̂ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτου̂. 5:2 καὶ ἀνοίξας τὸ στόμα αὐτου̂ ἐδίδασκεν αὐτοὺς λέγων,

        5:3 μακάριοι οἱ πτωχοὶ τῳ̂ πνεύματι,
        ʽότι αὐτω̂ν ἡ βασιλεία τω̂ν οὐρανω̂ν.


        5:4 μακάριοι οἱ πενθου̂ντες,
        ʽότι αὐτοὶ παρακληθήσονται.


        5:5 μακάριοι οἱ πραει̂ς,
        ʽότι αὐτοὶ κληρονομήσουσιν τὴν γη̂ν.


        5:6 μακάριοι οἱ πεινω̂ντες καὶ διψω̂ντες τὴν δικαιοσύνην,
        ʽότι αὐτοὶ χορτασθήσανται.


        5:7 μακάριοι οἱ ἐλεήμονες,
        ʽότι αὐτοὶ ἐλεηθήσονται.


        5:8 μακάριοι οἱ καθαροὶ τῃ̂ καρδίᾳ,
        ʽότι αὐτοὶ τὸν θεὸν ʼόψονται


        5:9 μακάριοι οἱ εἰρηνοποιοί,
        ʽότι αὐτοὶ υἱοὶ θεου̂ κληθήσονται.


        5:10 μακάριοι οἱ δεδιωγμένοι ʽένεκεν δικαιοσύνης,
        ʽότι αὐτω̂ν ʼέστιν ἡ βασιλεία τω̂ν οὐρανω̂ν.


5:11 μακάριοι ἐστέ ʽόταν ὀνειδίσωσιν ὑμα̂ς καὶ διώξωσιν καὶ εʼίπωσιν πα̂ν πονηρὸν καθ' ὑμω̂ν ψευδόμενοι ʽένεκεν ἐμου̂. 5:12 χαίρετε καὶ ἀγαλλια̂σθε, ʽότι ὁ μισθὸς ὑμω̂ν πολὺς ἐν τοι̂ς οὐρανοι̂ς. οʽύτως γὰρ ἐδίωξαν τοὺς προφήτας τοὺς πρὸ ὑμω̂ν.

1 Peter 5:7 (memory verse) -

        Πα̂σαν τὴν μέριμναν ὑμω̂ν ἐπιρίψαντες ἐπ' αὐτόν,
        ʽότι αὐτῳ̂ μέλει περὶ ὑμω̂ν.

Translation

From the King James version:
1 And seeing the multitudes, he went up into a mountain: and when he was set, his disciples came unto him: 2 And he opened his mouth, and taught them, saying,
3 Blessed are the poor in spirit:
for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
4 Blessed are they that mourn:
for they shall be comforted.
5 Blessed are the meek:
for they shall inherit the earth.
6 Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness:
for they shall be filled.
7 Blessed are the merciful:
for they shall obtain mercy.
8 Blessed are the pure in heart:
for they shall see God.
9 Blessed are the peacemakers:
for they shall be called the children of God.
10 Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness' sake:
for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
11 Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake. 12 Rejoice, and be exceeding glad: for great is your reward in heaven: for so persecuted they the prophets which were before you.
1 Peter 5:7 (memory verse) --
Casting all your care upon him; for he careth for you.

Grammar

21. Consonant stems ending in dentals.

In these stems the consonant is dropped in the nominative singular, as well as in the accusative singular of neuters, and in the dative plural.

    foot   body
Nom. sg.   ὁ πούς   τὸ σω̂μα
Gen. sg.   του̂ ποδός   του̂ σώματος
Dat. sg.   τῳ̂ ποδί   τῳ̂ σώματι
Acc. sg.   τὸν ποδά   τὸ σω̂μα
         
Nom. pl.   οἱ ποδές   τὰ σώματα
Gen. pl.   τω̂ν ποδω̂ν   τω̂ν σωμάτων
Dat. pl.   τοι̂ς ποσί   τοι̂ς σώμασι
Acc. pl.   τοὺς ποδάς   τὰ σώματα
22. Comparison of adjectives.

In most adjectives comparison is expressed by -τερος in the comparative degree, by -τατος in the superlative degree. The forms then are inflected in accordance with the ο- and α-declensions. Examples in this text are ἐμφερεστάτη and ὁμοιότατα. Some of the common adjectives on the other hand are irregular, for example, κακός 'bad'; κακίων, κάκιστος. Their forms will be listed in dictionaries.

23. Interrogative and indefinite pronouns.

These are declined as follows:

    Interrogative   Indefinite
    Masc/Fem   Neut | Masc/Fem   Neut
    'who'   'what' | 'someone'   'something'
Nom. sg.   τίς   τί | τις   τι
Gen. sg.   τίνος   τίνος | τινός   τινός
Dat. sg.   τίνι   τίνι | τινί   τινί
Acc. sg.   τίνα   τί | τινα   τι
                 
Nom. pl.   τίνες   τίνα | τινες   τινα
Gen. pl.   τίνων   τίνων | τινω̂ν   τινω̂ν
Dat. pl.   τίσι(ν)   τίσι(ν) | τισί(ν)   τισί(ν)
Acc. pl.   τίνας   τίνα | τινας   τινα

    Indefinite
    Masc   Fem   Neut
    'who(ever)'   'who(ever)'   'what(ever)'
Nom. sg.   ʼόστις   ʽήτις   ʽότι
Gen. sg.   ʽότου   ʽη̂στινος   ʽότου
Dat. sg.   ʽῳ̂τινι   ʽῃ̂τινι   ʽῳ̂τινι
Acc. sg.   ʽόντινα   ʽήντινα   ʽότι
             
Nom. pl.   οʽίτινες   αʽίτινες   ʽάτινα
Gen. pl.   ʽώντινων   ʽώντινων   ʽώντινων
Dat. pl.   οʽίστισι   αʽι̂στισι   οʽι̂στισι
Acc. pl.   οʽύστινας   ʽάστινας   ʽάτινα
24. The middle and passive voices.

In the present system the forms of the middle (expressing action for one's own sake) and the passive (expressing action directed at the subject) are the same. The forms for the indicative and the imperfect are as follows.

    Present   Imperfect
1 sg   πιστεύομαι   ἐπιστευόμην
2 sg   πιστεύῃ   ἐπιστεύου
3 sg   πιστεύεται   ἐπιστεύετο
         
1 pl   πιστεύομεθα   ἐπιστευόμεθα
2 pl   πιστεύεσθε   ἐπιστεύεσθε
3 pl   πιστεύονται   ἐπιστεύονται
25. The subjunctive, optative, and imperative middle and passive forms, the infinitive and participle.

While these forms are not frequent, they are given here so that, if found, they may be recognized. The participial forms, on the other hand, are relatively frequent.

    Subjunctive   Optative   Imperative
1s   πιστεύωμαι   πιστευοίμην    
2s   πιστεύῃ   πιστεύοιο   πιστεύου
3s   πιστεύηται   πιστεύοιτο   πιστεύεσθω
             
1p   πιστευώμεθα   πιστευοίμεθα    
2p   πιστεύησθε   πιστεύοισθε   πιστεύεσθε
3p   πιστεύωνται   πιστεύοιντο   πιστευέσθων

Infinitive:   πιστεύεσθαι
Participle:   πιστευόμενος, πιστευομένη, πιστευόμενον