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New Testament Greek Online

Lesson 6

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

The Gospel according to Mark is generally assumed to be the first written down, possibly as early as 66-70 A.D. As with the other gospels we cannot be sure of the author. Among evidence that he was Mark, one of the early church fathers, Papias, Bishop of Hieropolis, wrote that Mark as interpreter of Peter recorded many of the words and activities of Jesus. Identification of Mark as the author is also supported by the remarkable report in the gospel of "a certain young man" who fled naked from the crowd that came to capture Jesus (Mark 14:5-52). In keeping with the statement of Papias, Mark may have been converted by Peter, who calls him his son (1 Peter 5:13). He is assumed to be the natural son of Mary, called John with the surname Mark (Acts 12:12). Mark accompanied Paul and Barnabas on their first missionary journey (Acts 13:5,13), and Paul also later. When imprisoned in Rome, Paul asked Timothy to bring Mark along from Asia Minor (2 Timothy 4:11). Mark may well have been with Peter in Rome, and there composed his gospel for Christians whose best language was Greek.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Mark 4:1-12, and 8:36 (memory verse)

The parable of the sower and the seed in chapter 4, in which Jesus compares his teaching and its results to the work of a farmer, is one of the most favored among his teachings. It is found also in Matthew 13:3-8, there as well with subsequent interpretation to his disciples. You may find it interesting to compare the two versions, noting among other things the somewhat differing descriptions of the situation for the telling of the parable. Straightforward, it needs little commentary.

4:1 - Kai palin êrxato didaskein para tên thalassan, kai sunagetai pros auton ochlos pleistos, hôste auton eis ploion embanta kathêsthai en tê thalassê, kai pas ho ochlos pros tên thalassan epi tês gês êsan.

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • palin -- adverb; <palin> again -- again
  • êrxato -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist middle of <archô> begin -- he began
  • didaskein -- verb; infinitive of <didaskô> teach -- to teach
  • para -- preposition; <para> from, of -- beside
  • tên -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ho> the -- the
  • thalassan -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <thalassa> sea -- sea
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • sunagetai -- verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <sunagô> bring together -- comes together
  • pros -- preposition; <pros> to -- to
  • auton -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- him
  • ochlos -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ochlos> crowd -- crowd
  • pleistos -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of superlative of <polus> many -- (a) very large
  • hôste -- conjunction; <hôste> like, so that -- so that
  • auton -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- he
  • eis -- preposition; <eis> towards -- into
  • ploion -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <ploion> ship -- (a) ship
  • embanta -- verb; accusative singular masculine of aorist participle of <embainô> enter -- having entered
  • kathêsthai -- verb; infinitive middle of <kathizô> (force to) sit down -- sat down
  • en -- preposition; <en> in -- in
  • -- article; dative singular feminine of <ho> the -- the
  • thalassê -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <thalassa> sea -- sea
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • pas -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <pas> all, every -- whole
  • ho -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • ochlos -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ochlos> crowd -- crowd
  • pros -- preposition; <pros> to -- facing
  • tên -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ho> the -- the
  • thalassan -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <thalassa> sea -- sea
  • epi -- preposition; <epi> on, about -- on
  • tês -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ho> the -- the
  • gês -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <> earth, land -- land
  • êsan -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <eimi> I am -- were

4:2 - kai edidasken autous en parabolais polla, kai elegen autois en tê didachê autou.

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • edidasken -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <didaskô> teach -- he taught
  • autous -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- them
  • en -- preposition; <en> in -- in
  • parabolais -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <parabolê> parable -- parables
  • polla -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <polus> many -- many (things)
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • elegen -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <legô> say -- he spoke
  • autois -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- to them
  • en -- preposition; <en> in -- in
  • -- article; dative singular feminine of <ho> the -- ...
  • didachê -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <didachê> teaching -- teaching
  • autou -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- his

4:3 - akouete, idou exêlthen ho speirôn speirai.

  • akouete -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative of <akouô> hear, listen -- Listen!
  • idou -- adverb; <idou> behold -- behold
  • exêlthen -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <exerchomai> come out -- went out
  • ho -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • speirôn -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <speirôn> sower -- (a) sower
  • speirai -- verb; infinitive aorist of <speirô> sow -- to sow

4:4 - kai egeneto en tô speirein ho men epesen para tên hodon, kai hêlthen ta peteina kai katephagen auto.

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • egeneto -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <gignomai> happen, become -- it happened
  • en -- preposition; <en> in -- in (the course of)
  • -- article; dative singular neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • speirein -- verb; infinitive of <speirô> sow -- sowing
  • ho -- article used as pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <ho> the -- some (of the seed)
  • men -- particle; <men> on the one hand -- indeed
  • epesen -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <piptô> fall -- fell
  • para -- preposition; <para> from, of -- beside
  • tên -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ho> the -- the
  • hodon -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <hodos> way, road -- road
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • hêlthen -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <erchomai> come, go -- came
  • ta -- article; nominative plural neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • peteina -- noun, neuter; nominative plural of <peteinon> bird -- birds
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • katephagen -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <katedô> eat up, devour -- devoured
  • auto -- pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <autos> oneself, he -- it

4:5 - Kai allo epesen epi to petrôdes hopou ouk eichen gên pollên, kai euthus exaneteilen dia to mê echein bathos gês.

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • allo -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of <allos> other -- others
  • epesen -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <piptô> fall -- fell
  • epi -- preposition; <epi> on, about -- on
  • to -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ho> the -- ...
  • petrôdes -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <petrôdes> stony soil -- stony soil
  • hopou -- adverb; <hopou> where -- where
  • ouk -- particle; <ouk> not -- not
  • eichen -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <echô> have -- (it did) ...have
  • gên -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <> earth, land -- earth
  • pollên -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <polus> many -- much
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • euthus -- adverb; <euthus> immediately -- immediately
  • exaneteilen -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <echanatellô> spring up -- (it) sprang up
  • dia -- preposition; <dia> through, by -- through
  • to -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ho> the -- ...
  • -- particle; <> not -- not
  • echein -- verb; infinitive of <echô> have -- having
  • bathos -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <bathos> depth -- depth
  • gês -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <> earth, land -- of soil

4:6 - kai hote aneteilen ho hêlios ekaumatisthê kai dia to mê echein hrizan exêranthê.

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • hote -- conjunction; <hote> when -- when
  • aneteilen -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <anatellô> rise -- rose
  • ho -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • hêlios -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <hêlios> sun -- sun
  • ekaumatisthê -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <kaumatizô> burn up -- it was burned up
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • dia -- preposition; <dia> through, by -- through
  • to -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ho> the -- ...
  • -- particle; <> not -- not
  • echein -- verb; infinitive of <echô> have -- having
  • hrizan -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <hriza> root -- roots
  • exêranthê -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <xêrainô> dry up -- dried up

4:7 - kai allo epesen eis tas akanthas, kai anebêsan hai akanthai kai sunepnixan auto, kai karpon ouk edôken.

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • allo -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of <allos> other -- others
  • epesen -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <piptô> fall -- fell
  • eis -- preposition; <eis> towards -- into
  • tas -- article; accusative plural feminine of <ho> the -- the
  • akanthas -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <akantha> thorn -- thorns
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • anebêsan -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <anabainô> mount, go up -- grew up
  • hai -- article; nominative plural feminine of <ho> the -- the
  • akanthai -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <akantha> thorn -- thorns
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • sunepnixan -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <sumpnigô> choke -- choked
  • auto -- pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <autos> oneself, he -- it
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • karpon -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <karpos> fruit -- fruit
  • ouk -- particle; <ouk> not -- not
  • edôken -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <didômi> give -- give

4:8 - kai alla epesen eis tên gên tên kalên, kai edidou karpon anabainonta kai auxanomena, kai epheren eis triakonta kai en hexêkonta kai en hekaton.

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • alla -- adjective; nominative plural neuter of <allos> other -- others
  • epesen -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <piptô> fall -- fell
  • eis -- preposition; <eis> towards -- on
  • tên -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ho> the -- ...
  • gên -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <> earth, land -- land
  • tên -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ho> the -- ...
  • kalên -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <kalos> good, beautiful -- excellent
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • edidou -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <didômi> give -- it gave
  • karpon -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <karpos> fruit -- fruit
  • anabainonta -- verb; accusative singular masculine of present participle of <anabainô> mount, go up -- that having ripened
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • auxanomena -- verb; accusative singular masculine of present participle middle of <auxanô> increase -- having increased
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • epheren -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <pherô> bear, bring, carry -- produced
  • eis -- preposition; <eis> towards -- (some) as much as
  • triakonta -- number; <triakonta> thirty -- thirty(fold)
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • en -- preposition; <en> in -- as much as
  • hexêkonta -- number; <hexêkonta> sixty -- sixty(fold)
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • en -- preposition; <en> in -- as much as
  • hekaton -- number; <hekaton> hundred -- a hundred

4:9 - kai elegen, hos echei ôta akouein akouetô.

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • elegen -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <legô> say -- he said
  • hos -- relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hos> who, which -- whoever
  • echei -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <echô> have -- has
  • ôta -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <ous, ôs> ear -- ears
  • akouein -- verb; infinitive of <akouô> hear, listen -- to hear
  • akouetô -- verb; 3rd person singular imperative of <akouô> hear, listen -- he should hear

4:10 - Kai hote egeneto kata monas êrôtôn auton hoi peri auton sun tois dôdeka tas parabolas.

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • hote -- conjunction; <hote> when -- when
  • egeneto -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <gignomai> happen, become -- it happened
  • kata -- preposition; <kata> completely, down, under -- ...
  • monas -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <monos> alone -- (that they were) alone
  • êrôtôn -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <erôtaô> ask -- asked
  • auton -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- him
  • hoi -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ho> the -- the(ones)
  • peri -- preposition; <peri> around -- about
  • auton -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- him
  • sun -- preposition; <sun> with -- with
  • tois -- article; dative plural masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • dôdeka -- number; <dôdeka> twelve -- twelve
  • tas -- article; accusative plural feminine of <ho> the -- (about) the
  • parabolas -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <parabolê> parable -- parables

4:11 - kai elegen autois, humin to mustêrion dedotai tês basileias tou theou.

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • elegen -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <legô> say -- he said
  • autois -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- to them
  • humin -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <su> you -- to you
  • to -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • mustêrion -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <mustêrion> mystery -- mystery
  • dedotai -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect passive of <didômi> give -- it is given
  • tês -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ho> the -- of the
  • basileias -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <basileia> kingdom -- kingdom
  • tou -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • theou -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <theos> god -- God

ekeinois de tois exô en parabolais ta panta ginetai,

  • ekeinois -- demonstrative pronoun; dative plural masculine of <ekeinos> that -- to those
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- but
  • tois -- article; dative plural masculine of <ho> the -- the (ones)
  • exô -- adverb; <exô> outside -- outside
  • en -- preposition; <en> in -- in
  • parabolais -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <parabolê> parable -- parables
  • ta -- article; nominative plural neuter of <ho> the -- ...
  • panta -- adjective; nominative plural neuter of <pas> all, every -- all things
  • ginetai -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <ginomai> come into being, be produced -- will come

4:12 - hina

        blepontes blepôsin kai mê idôsin,
        kai akouontes akouôsin kai mê suniôsin,
        mêpote epistrepsôsin
        kai aphethê autois.

  • hina -- conjunction; <hina> so that -- so that
  • blepontes -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <blepô> see -- seeing
  • blepôsin -- verb; 3rd person plural present subjunctive of <blepô> see -- they may see
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • -- particle; <> not -- not
  • idôsin -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist subjunctive of <horaô> see -- perceive
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • akouontes -- verb; nominative plural masculine of participle of <akouô> hear, listen -- hearing
  • akouôsin -- verb; 3rd person plural present subjunctive of <akouô> hear, listen -- they may hear
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • -- particle; <> not -- not
  • suniôsin -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist subjunctive of <sunoraô> comprehend -- comprehend
  • mêpote -- conjunction; <mêpote> lest -- lest
  • epistrepsôsin -- verb; 3rd person plural future subjunctive of <epistrepsô> repent -- they repent
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • aphethê -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist subjunctive passive of <aphiêmi> send forth, throw down, permit, forgive -- it is forgiven
  • autois -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- them

8:36 (memory verse) -

ti gar ôphelei anthrôpon kerdêsai ton kosmon holon kai zêmiôthênai tên psuchên autou?

  • ti -- interrogative pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <tis> who, what -- what
  • gar -- conjunction; <gar> for -- for
  • ôphelei -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <ôpheleô> to help, be of use -- does it profit
  • anthrôpon -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <anthrôpos> human being -- a human being
  • kerdêsai -- verb; infinitive aorist of <kerdainô> gain -- to gain
  • ton -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • kosmon -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <kosmos> beauty, order, world -- world
  • holon -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <holos> whole -- whole
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • zêmiôthênai -- verb; infinitive aorist passive of <zêmioô> cause loss -- lose
  • tên -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ho> the -- ...
  • psuchên -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <psuchê> soul -- soul
  • autou -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- his

Lesson Text

4:1 Kai palin êrxato didaskein para tên thalassan, kai sunagetai pros auton ochlos pleistos, hôste auton eis ploion embanta kathêsthai en tê thalassê, kai pas ho ochlos pros tên thalassan epi tês gês êsan. 4:2 kai edidasken autous en parabolais polla, kai elegen autois en tê didachê autou.

4:3 akouete, idou exêlthen ho speirôn speirai. 4:4 kai egeneto en tô speirein ho men epesen para tên hodon, kai hêlthen ta peteina kai katephagen auto. 4:5 Kai allo epesen epi to petrôdes hopou ouk eichen gên pollên, kai euthus exaneteilen dia to mê echein bathos gês. 4:6 kai hote aneteilen ho hêlios ekaumatisthê kai dia to mê echein hrizan exêranthê. 4:7 kai allo epesen eis tas akanthas, kai anebêsan hai akanthai kai sunepnixan auto, kai karpon ouk edôken. 4:8 kai alla epesen eis tên gên tên kalên, kai edidou karpon anabainonta kai auxanomena, kai epheren eis triakonta kai en hexêkonta kai en hekaton.

4:9 kai elegen, hos echei ôta akouein akouetô.

4:10 Kai hote egeneto kata monas êrôtôn auton hoi peri auton sun tois dôdeka tas parabolas. 4:11 kai elegen autois, humin to mustêrion dedotai tês basileias tou theou. ekeinois de tois exô en parabolais ta panta ginetai, 4:12 hina

        blepontes blepôsin kai mê idôsin,
        kai akouontes akouôsin kai mê suniôsin,
        mêpote epistrepsôsin
        kai aphethê autois.


8:36 (memory verse) -

ti gar ôphelei anthrôpon kerdêsai ton kosmon holon kai zêmiôthênai tên psuchên autou?

Translation

From the King James version:
4:1 And he began again to teach by the sea side: and there was gathered unto him a great multitude, so that he entered into a ship, and sat in the sea; and the whole multitude was by the sea on the land. 2 And he taught them many things by parables, and said unto them in his doctrine,
3 Hearken; Behold, there went out a sower to sow: 4 And it came to pass, as he sowed, some fell by the way side, and the fowls of the air came and devoured it up. 5 And some fell on stony ground, where it had not much earth; and immediately it sprang up, because it had no depth of earth: 6 But when the sun was up, it was scorched; and because it had no root, it withered away. 7 And some fell among thorns, and the thorns grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit. 8 And other fell on good ground, and did yield fruit that sprang up and increased; and brought forth, some thirty, and some sixty, and some an hundred.
9 And he said unto them, He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.
10 And when he was alone, they that were about him with the twelve asked of him the parable. 11 And he said unto them, Unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God: but unto them that are without, all these things are done in parables: 12 That
seeing they may see, and not perceive;
and hearing they may hear, and not understand;
lest at any time they should be converted,
and their sins should be forgiven them.
8:36 (memory verse) --
For what shall it profit a man, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul?

Grammar

26. Survey of noun declensions.

The o- and a- declensions have been given in section 4, and subsequent sections of the grammar, 11 and 16, have provided examples of consonantal declension and that of some irregular nouns. Here additional sub-classes of the consonantal declension are listed.

Grammars provide the sub-classes according to the consonants of the stem. There may be modifications from sub-group to sub-group, but if the inflection of the word for salt is memorized, such forms may be identified. Examples are given here also for stems ending in velars, dentals, and other elements; as the selection indicates, nouns in the consonantal declension vary in gender: hê aix 'goat', to sôma 'body', ho hals 'salt', ho Hellên 'Greek', ho sus 'pig'.

    velars   dentals
Nom. sg.   hê aix   to sôma
Gen. sg.   tês aigos   tou sômatos
Dat. sg.   tê aigi   tô sômati
Acc. sg.   tên aiga   to sôma
         
Nom. pl.   hai aiges   ta sômata
Gen. pl.   tôn aigôn   tôn sômatôn
Dat. pl.   tois aixi   tois sômasi
Acc. pl.   tas aigas   ta sômata

    -l, -r   -n   -u
Nom. sg.   ho hals   ho hEllên   ho sus
Gen. sg.   tou halos   tou hEllênos   tou suos
Dat. sg.   tô hali   tô hElleni   tô sui
Acc. sg.   ton hala   ton hEllêna   ton sun
             
Nom. pl.   hoi hales   hoi hEllênes   hoi sues
Gen. pl.   tôn halôn   tôn hEllênôn   tôn suôn
Dat. pl.   tois halsi   tois hEllêsi   tois susi
Acc. pl.   tous halas   tous hEllênas   tous sus
27. Suffixes applied to stems to indicate location.

The following suffixes are used to produce adverbs on noun stems with specific meanings:

  • -then 'whence', as in -anôthen 'from on high', oikothen 'from home', chamathen 'from the ground'
  • -i, -thi 'where', as in oikoi 'at home', chamai 'on the ground'; but -si(n) if the noun in question is a plural, as in Athênêsi 'at Athens'
  • -de, -se, ze 'whither', as in Athênaze 'to Athens', chamaze 'to the ground'
28. Use of the augment.

The augment is used on past tenses in the indicative, that is, the imperfect, aorist, and pluperfect. Verbs beginning with a consonant prefix e-, as in the imperfect episteuon 'I believed', the aorist episteusa 'I have believed', the pluperfect epepisteukein 'I had believed'. Verbs beginning with a vowel or diphthong combine the augment with that vowel or diphthong, usually resulting in its lengthening, as in the imperfect êgon 'I led' from agô, êuxanon 'I increased' from auxanô.

Compound verbs place the augment on the verb, after the initial prefix, for example en-eballon from emballô 'throw into', ep-eballon from epi-ballô 'throw on'. In the early texts, the augment may be omitted, as in the aorist form poiêsan 'they made' from poieô.

29. Deponents.

As in Latin, a number of verbs have their forms in the middle while corresponding to active verbs in English. Many of them indicate state, and do not take objects. They can be recognized from dictionary entries. Examples are:

  • gignomai 'become'
  • dechomai 'receive'
  • ergazomai 'work'
  • apo-krinomai 'reply'
  • logizomai 'reason'
  • mimeomai 'imitate'

These have a active meaning in the aorist middle form, but passive meaning in the passive form of the aorist.

Others have the passive form of the aorist. Many of them denote motion, feeling or mental action. Examples are:

  • eramai 'love'
  • hêdomai 'rejoice'
  • en-thumeomai 'consider'
  • dia-noeomai 'intend'
30. The middle forms of the aorist.

In the aorist the passive has different forms from those of the middle. Here the middle forms will be given.

    Indicative   Subjunctive   Optative   Imperative
1 sg   episteusamên   pisteusômai   pisteusaimên    
2 sg   episteusô   pisteusê   pisteusaio   pisteusai
3 sg   episteusato   pisteusêtai   pisteusaito   pisteusasthô
                 
1 pl   episteusametha   pisteusômetha   pisteusaimetha    
2 pl   episteusasthe   pisteusêsthe   pisteusaisthe   pisteusasthe
3 pl   episteusanto   pisteusôntai   pisteusainto   pisteusasthôn