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New Testament Greek Online

Lesson 6

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

The Gospel according to Mark is generally assumed to be the first written down, possibly as early as 66-70 A.D. As with the other gospels we cannot be sure of the author. Among evidence that he was Mark, one of the early church fathers, Papias, Bishop of Hieropolis, wrote that Mark as interpreter of Peter recorded many of the words and activities of Jesus. Identification of Mark as the author is also supported by the remarkable report in the gospel of "a certain young man" who fled naked from the crowd that came to capture Jesus (Mark 14:5-52). In keeping with the statement of Papias, Mark may have been converted by Peter, who calls him his son (1 Peter 5:13). He is assumed to be the natural son of Mary, called John with the surname Mark (Acts 12:12). Mark accompanied Paul and Barnabas on their first missionary journey (Acts 13:5,13), and Paul also later. When imprisoned in Rome, Paul asked Timothy to bring Mark along from Asia Minor (2 Timothy 4:11). Mark may well have been with Peter in Rome, and there composed his gospel for Christians whose best language was Greek.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Mark 4:1-12, and 8:36 (memory verse)

The parable of the sower and the seed in chapter 4, in which Jesus compares his teaching and its results to the work of a farmer, is one of the most favored among his teachings. It is found also in Matthew 13:3-8, there as well with subsequent interpretation to his disciples. You may find it interesting to compare the two versions, noting among other things the somewhat differing descriptions of the situation for the telling of the parable. Straightforward, it needs little commentary.

4:1 - Καὶ πάλιν ἤρξατο διδάσκειν παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν, καὶ συνάγεται πρός αὐτὸν ὄχλος πλεῖστος, ὥστε αὐτὸν εἰς πλοῖον ἐμβάντα καθῆσθαι ἐν τῇ θαλάσσῃ, καὶ πᾶς ὁ ὄχλος πρὸς τὴν θάλασσαν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἦσαν.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • πάλιν -- adverb; <πάλιν> again -- again
  • ἤρξατο -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist middle of <ἄρχω> begin -- he began
  • διδάσκειν -- verb; infinitive of <διδάσκω> teach -- to teach
  • παρὰ -- preposition; <παρά> from, of -- beside
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • θάλασσαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <θάλασσα> sea -- sea
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • συνάγεται -- verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <συνάγω> bring together -- comes together
  • πρός -- preposition; <πρός> to -- to
  • αὐτὸν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • ὄχλος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ὄχλος> crowd -- crowd
  • πλεῖστος -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of superlative of <πολύς> many -- (a) very large
  • ὥστε -- conjunction; <ὥστε> like, so that -- so that
  • αὐτὸν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- he
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- into
  • πλοῖον -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <πλοῖον> ship -- (a) ship
  • ἐμβάντα -- verb; accusative singular masculine of aorist participle of <ἐμβαίνω> enter -- having entered
  • καθῆσθαι -- verb; infinitive middle of <καθίζω> (force to) sit down -- sat down
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • τῇ -- article; dative singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • θαλάσσῃ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <θάλασσα> sea -- sea
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • πᾶς -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <πᾶς> all, every -- whole
  • -- article; nominative singular masculine of <> the -- the
  • ὄχλος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ὄχλος> crowd -- crowd
  • πρὸς -- preposition; <πρός> to -- facing
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • θάλασσαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <θάλασσα> sea -- sea
  • ἐπὶ -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- on
  • τῆς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • γῆς -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <γῆ> earth, land -- land
  • ἦσαν -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <εἰμί> I am -- were

4:2 - καὶ ἐδίδασκεν αὐτοὺς ἐν παραβολαῖς πολλὰ, καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς ἐν τῇ διδαχῇ αὐτοῦ.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐδίδασκεν -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <διδάσκω> teach -- he taught
  • αὐτοὺς -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- them
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • παραβολαῖς -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <παραβολή> parable -- parables
  • πολλὰ -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <πολύς> many -- many (things)
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἔλεγεν -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <λέγω> say -- he spoke
  • αὐτοῖς -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to them
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • τῇ -- article; dative singular feminine of <> the -- ...
  • διδαχῇ -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <διδαχή> teaching -- teaching
  • αὐτοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- his

4:3 - ἀκούετε, ἰδοὺ ἐξῆλθεν ὁ σπείρων σπεῖραι.

  • ἀκούετε -- verb; 2nd person plural imperative of <ἀκούω> hear, listen -- Listen!
  • ἰδοὺ -- adverb; <ἰδού> behold -- behold
  • ἐξῆλθεν -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ἐξέρχομαι> come out -- went out
  • -- article; nominative singular masculine of <> the -- ...
  • σπείρων -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <σπείρων> sower -- (a) sower
  • σπεῖραι -- verb; infinitive aorist of <σπείρω> sow -- to sow

4:4 - καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ σπείρειν ὅ μὲν ἔπεσεν παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν, καὶ ἥλθεν τὰ πετεινὰ καὶ κατέφαγεν αὐτό.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐγένετο -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- it happened
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in (the course of)
  • τῷ -- article; dative singular neuter of <> the -- the
  • σπείρειν -- verb; infinitive of <σπείρω> sow -- sowing
  • -- article used as pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <> the -- some (of the seed)
  • μὲν -- particle; <μέν> on the one hand -- indeed
  • ἔπεσεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <πίπτω> fall -- fell
  • παρὰ -- preposition; <παρά> from, of -- beside
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <> the -- the
  • ὁδόν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <ὁδός> way, road -- road
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἥλθεν -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ἔρχομαι> come, go -- came
  • τὰ -- article; nominative plural neuter of <> the -- the
  • πετεινὰ -- noun, neuter; nominative plural of <πετεινόν> bird -- birds
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • κατέφαγεν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <κατέδω> eat up, devour -- devoured
  • αὐτό -- pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- it

4:5 - Καὶ ἄλλο ἔπεσεν ἐπὶ τὸ πετρῶδες ὅπου οὐκ εἶχεν γῆν πολλὴν, καὶ εὐθὺς ἐξανέτειλεν διὰ τὸ μὴ ἔχειν βάθος γῆς.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἄλλο -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of <ἄλλος> other -- others
  • ἔπεσεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <πίπτω> fall -- fell
  • ἐπὶ -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- on
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <> the -- ...
  • πετρῶδες -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <πετρῶδες> stony soil -- stony soil
  • ὅπου -- adverb; <ὅπου> where -- where
  • οὐκ -- particle; <οὐκ> not -- not
  • εἶχεν -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <ἔχω> have -- (it did) ...have
  • γῆν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <γῆ> earth, land -- earth
  • πολλὴν -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <πολύς> many -- much
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • εὐθὺς -- adverb; <εὐθύς> immediately -- immediately
  • ἐξανέτειλεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ἐχανατέλλω> spring up -- (it) sprang up
  • διὰ -- preposition; <διά> through, by -- through
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <> the -- ...
  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- not
  • ἔχειν -- verb; infinitive of <ἔχω> have -- having
  • βάθος -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <βάθος> depth -- depth
  • γῆς -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <γῆ> earth, land -- of soil

4:6 - καὶ ὅτε ἀνέτειλεν ὁ ἧλιος ἐκαυματίσθη καὶ διὰ τὸ μὴ ἔχειν ῥίζαν ἐξηράνθη.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ὅτε -- conjunction; <ὅτε> when -- when
  • ἀνέτειλεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ἀνατέλλω> rise -- rose
  • -- article; nominative singular masculine of <> the -- the
  • ἧλιος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ἧλιος> sun -- sun
  • ἐκαυματίσθη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <καυματίζω> burn up -- it was burned up
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • διὰ -- preposition; <διά> through, by -- through
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <> the -- ...
  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- not
  • ἔχειν -- verb; infinitive of <ἔχω> have -- having
  • ῥίζαν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <ῥίζα> root -- roots
  • ἐξηράνθη -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <ξηραίνω> dry up -- dried up

4:7 - καὶ ἄλλο ἔπεσεν εἰς τὰς ἀκάνθας, καὶ ἀνέβησαν αἱ ἄκανθαι καὶ συνέπνιξαν αὐτό, καὶ καρπὸν οὐκ ἔδωκεν.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἄλλο -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of <ἄλλος> other -- others
  • ἔπεσεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <πίπτω> fall -- fell
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- into
  • τὰς -- article; accusative plural feminine of <> the -- the
  • ἀκάνθας -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <ἄκανθα> thorn -- thorns
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἀνέβησαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <ἀναβαίνω> mount, go up -- grew up
  • αἱ -- article; nominative plural feminine of <> the -- the
  • ἄκανθαι -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <ἄκανθα> thorn -- thorns
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • συνέπνιξαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <συμπνίγω> choke -- choked
  • αὐτό -- pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- it
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • καρπὸν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <καρπός> fruit -- fruit
  • οὐκ -- particle; <οὐκ> not -- not
  • ἔδωκεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <δίδωμι> give -- give

4:8 - καὶ ἄλλα ἔπεσεν εἰς τὴν γῆν τὴν καλήν, καὶ ἐδίδου καρπὸν ἀναβαίνοντα καὶ αὐξανόμενα, καὶ ἔφερεν εἰς τριάκοντα καὶ ἐν ἑξήκοντα καὶ ἐν ἑκατόν.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἄλλα -- adjective; nominative plural neuter of <ἄλλος> other -- others
  • ἔπεσεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <πίπτω> fall -- fell
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- on
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <> the -- ...
  • γῆν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <γῆ> earth, land -- land
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <> the -- ...
  • καλήν -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <καλός> good, beautiful -- excellent
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐδίδου -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <δίδωμι> give -- it gave
  • καρπὸν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <καρπός> fruit -- fruit
  • ἀναβαίνοντα -- verb; accusative singular masculine of present participle of <ἀναβαίνω> mount, go up -- that having ripened
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • αὐξανόμενα -- verb; accusative singular masculine of present participle middle of <αὐξάνω> increase -- having increased
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἔφερεν -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <φέρω> bear, bring, carry -- produced
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- (some) as much as
  • τριάκοντα -- number; <τριάκοντα> thirty -- thirty(fold)
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- as much as
  • ἑξήκοντα -- number; <ἑξήκοντα> sixty -- sixty(fold)
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- as much as
  • ἑκατόν -- number; <ἑκατόν> hundred -- a hundred

4:9 - καὶ ἔλεγεν, ὃς ἔχει ὦτα ἀκούειν ἀκουέτω.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἔλεγεν -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <λέγω> say -- he said
  • ὃς -- relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <ὅς> who, which -- whoever
  • ἔχει -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <ἔχω> have -- has
  • ὦτα -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <οὖς, ὦς> ear -- ears
  • ἀκούειν -- verb; infinitive of <ἀκούω> hear, listen -- to hear
  • ἀκουέτω -- verb; 3rd person singular imperative of <ἀκούω> hear, listen -- he should hear

4:10 - Καὶ ὅτε ἐγένετο κατὰ μόνας ἠρώτων αὐτὸν οἱ περὶ αὐτὸν σὺν τοῖς δώδεκα τὰς παραβολάς.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ὅτε -- conjunction; <ὅτε> when -- when
  • ἐγένετο -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <γίγνομαι> happen, become -- it happened
  • κατὰ -- preposition; <κατά> completely, down, under -- ...
  • μόνας -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <μόνος> alone -- (that they were) alone
  • ἠρώτων -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <ἐρωτάω> ask -- asked
  • αὐτὸν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <> the -- the(ones)
  • περὶ -- preposition; <περί> around -- about
  • αὐτὸν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • σὺν -- preposition; <σύν> with -- with
  • τοῖς -- article; dative plural masculine of <> the -- the
  • δώδεκα -- number; <δώδεκα> twelve -- twelve
  • τὰς -- article; accusative plural feminine of <> the -- (about) the
  • παραβολάς -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <παραβολή> parable -- parables

4:11 - καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς, ὑμῖν τὸ μυστήριον δέδοται τῆς βασιλείας τοῦ θεοῦ.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἔλεγεν -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <λέγω> say -- he said
  • αὐτοῖς -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to them
  • ὑμῖν -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <σύ> you -- to you
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <> the -- the
  • μυστήριον -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <μυστήριον> mystery -- mystery
  • δέδοται -- verb; 3rd person singular perfect passive of <δίδωμι> give -- it is given
  • τῆς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <> the -- of the
  • βασιλείας -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <βασιλεία> kingdom -- kingdom
  • τοῦ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <> the -- ...
  • θεοῦ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <θεός> god -- God

ἐκείνοις δὲ τοῖς ἔξω ἐν παραβολαῖς τὰ πάντα γίνεται,

  • ἐκείνοις -- demonstrative pronoun; dative plural masculine of <ἐκεῖνος> that -- to those
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- but
  • τοῖς -- article; dative plural masculine of <> the -- the (ones)
  • ἔξω -- adverb; <ἔξω> outside -- outside
  • ἐν -- preposition; <ἐν> in -- in
  • παραβολαῖς -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <παραβολή> parable -- parables
  • τὰ -- article; nominative plural neuter of <> the -- ...
  • πάντα -- adjective; nominative plural neuter of <πᾶς> all, every -- all things
  • γίνεται -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <γίνομαι> come into being, be produced -- will come

4:12 - ἵνα

        βλέποντες βλέπωσιν καὶ μὴ ἴδωσιν,
        καὶ ἀκούοντες ἀκούωσιν καὶ μὴ συνιῶσιν,
        μήποτε ἐπιστρέψωσιν
        καὶ ἀφεθῇ αὐτοῖς.

  • ἵνα -- conjunction; <ἵνα> so that -- so that
  • βλέποντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <βλέπω> see -- seeing
  • βλέπωσιν -- verb; 3rd person plural present subjunctive of <βλέπω> see -- they may see
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- not
  • ἴδωσιν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist subjunctive of <ὁράω> see -- perceive
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἀκούοντες -- verb; nominative plural masculine of participle of <ἀκούω> hear, listen -- hearing
  • ἀκούωσιν -- verb; 3rd person plural present subjunctive of <ἀκούω> hear, listen -- they may hear
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • μὴ -- particle; <μή> not -- not
  • συνιῶσιν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist subjunctive of <συνοράω> comprehend -- comprehend
  • μήποτε -- conjunction; <μήποτε> lest -- lest
  • ἐπιστρέψωσιν -- verb; 3rd person plural future subjunctive of <ἐπιστρέψω> repent -- they repent
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἀφεθῇ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist subjunctive passive of <ἀφίημι> send forth, throw down, permit, forgive -- it is forgiven
  • αὐτοῖς -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- them

8:36 (memory verse) -

τί γὰρ ὠφελεῖ ἄνθρωπον κερδῆσαι τὸν κόσμον ὅλον καὶ ζημιωθῆναι τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ;

  • τί -- interrogative pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <τίς> who, what -- what
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • ὠφελεῖ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <ὠφελέω> to help, be of use -- does it profit
  • ἄνθρωπον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <ἄνθρωπος> human being -- a human being
  • κερδῆσαι -- verb; infinitive aorist of <κερδαίνω> gain -- to gain
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <> the -- the
  • κόσμον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <κόσμος> beauty, order, world -- world
  • ὅλον -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <ὅλος> whole -- whole
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ζημιωθῆναι -- verb; infinitive aorist passive of <ζημιόω> cause loss -- lose
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <> the -- ...
  • ψυχὴν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <ψυχή> soul -- soul
  • αὐτοῦ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- his

Lesson Text

4:1 Καὶ πάλιν ἤρξατο διδάσκειν παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν, καὶ συνάγεται πρός αὐτὸν ὄχλος πλεῖστος, ὥστε αὐτὸν εἰς πλοῖον ἐμβάντα καθῆσθαι ἐν τῇ θαλάσσῃ, καὶ πᾶς ὁ ὄχλος πρὸς τὴν θάλασσαν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἦσαν. 4:2 καὶ ἐδίδασκεν αὐτοὺς ἐν παραβολαῖς πολλὰ, καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς ἐν τῇ διδαχῇ αὐτοῦ.

4:3 ἀκούετε, ἰδοὺ ἐξῆλθεν ὁ σπείρων σπεῖραι. 4:4 καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ σπείρειν ὅ μὲν ἔπεσεν παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν, καὶ ἥλθεν τὰ πετεινὰ καὶ κατέφαγεν αὐτό. 4:5 Καὶ ἄλλο ἔπεσεν ἐπὶ τὸ πετρῶδες ὅπου οὐκ εἶχεν γῆν πολλὴν, καὶ εὐθὺς ἐξανέτειλεν διὰ τὸ μὴ ἔχειν βάθος γῆς. 4:6 καὶ ὅτε ἀνέτειλεν ὁ ἧλιος ἐκαυματίσθη καὶ διὰ τὸ μὴ ἔχειν ῥίζαν ἐξηράνθη. 4:7 καὶ ἄλλο ἔπεσεν εἰς τὰς ἀκάνθας, καὶ ἀνέβησαν αἱ ἄκανθαι καὶ συνέπνιξαν αὐτό, καὶ καρπὸν οὐκ ἔδωκεν. 4:8 καὶ ἄλλα ἔπεσεν εἰς τὴν γῆν τὴν καλήν, καὶ ἐδίδου καρπὸν ἀναβαίνοντα καὶ αὐξανόμενα, καὶ ἔφερεν εἰς τριάκοντα καὶ ἐν ἑξήκοντα καὶ ἐν ἑκατόν.

4:9 καὶ ἔλεγεν, ὃς ἔχει ὦτα ἀκούειν ἀκουέτω.

4:10 Καὶ ὅτε ἐγένετο κατὰ μόνας ἠρώτων αὐτὸν οἱ περὶ αὐτὸν σὺν τοῖς δώδεκα τὰς παραβολάς. 4:11 καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς, ὑμῖν τὸ μυστήριον δέδοται τῆς βασιλείας τοῦ θεοῦ. ἐκείνοις δὲ τοῖς ἔξω ἐν παραβολαῖς τὰ πάντα γίνεται, 4:12 ἵνα

        βλέποντες βλέπωσιν καὶ μὴ ἴδωσιν,
        καὶ ἀκούοντες ἀκούωσιν καὶ μὴ συνιῶσιν,
        μήποτε ἐπιστρέψωσιν
        καὶ ἀφεθῇ αὐτοῖς.


8:36 (memory verse) -

τί γὰρ ὠφελεῖ ἄνθρωπον κερδῆσαι τὸν κόσμον ὅλον καὶ ζημιωθῆναι τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ;

Translation

From the King James version:
4:1 And he began again to teach by the sea side: and there was gathered unto him a great multitude, so that he entered into a ship, and sat in the sea; and the whole multitude was by the sea on the land. 2 And he taught them many things by parables, and said unto them in his doctrine,
3 Hearken; Behold, there went out a sower to sow: 4 And it came to pass, as he sowed, some fell by the way side, and the fowls of the air came and devoured it up. 5 And some fell on stony ground, where it had not much earth; and immediately it sprang up, because it had no depth of earth: 6 But when the sun was up, it was scorched; and because it had no root, it withered away. 7 And some fell among thorns, and the thorns grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit. 8 And other fell on good ground, and did yield fruit that sprang up and increased; and brought forth, some thirty, and some sixty, and some an hundred.
9 And he said unto them, He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.
10 And when he was alone, they that were about him with the twelve asked of him the parable. 11 And he said unto them, Unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God: but unto them that are without, all these things are done in parables: 12 That
seeing they may see, and not perceive;
and hearing they may hear, and not understand;
lest at any time they should be converted,
and their sins should be forgiven them.
8:36 (memory verse) --
For what shall it profit a man, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul?

Grammar

26. Survey of noun declensions.

The ο- and α- declensions have been given in section 4, and subsequent sections of the grammar, 11 and 16, have provided examples of consonantal declension and that of some irregular nouns. Here additional sub-classes of the consonantal declension are listed.

Grammars provide the sub-classes according to the consonants of the stem. There may be modifications from sub-group to sub-group, but if the inflection of the word for salt is memorized, such forms may be identified. Examples are given here also for stems ending in velars, dentals, and other elements; as the selection indicates, nouns in the consonantal declension vary in gender: ἡ αἴξ 'goat', τὸ σῶμα 'body', ὁ ἁλ́ς 'salt', ὁ Ἕλλην 'Greek', ὁ σῦς 'pig'.

    velars   dentals
Nom. sg.   ἡ αἴξ   τὸ σῶμα
Gen. sg.   τῆς αἰγός   τοῦ σώματος
Dat. sg.   τῇ αἰγί   τῷ σώματι
Acc. sg.   τῆν αἶγα   τὸ σῶμα
         
Nom. pl.   αἱ αἶγες   τὰ σώματα
Gen. pl.   τῶν αἰγῶν   τῶν σωμάτων
Dat. pl.   τοῖς αἰξί   τοῖς σώμασι
Acc. pl.   τὰς αἶγας   τὰ σώματα

    -λ, -ρ   -ν   -υ
Nom. sg.   ὁ ἅλς   ὁ Ἕλλην   ὁ σῦς
Gen. sg.   τοῦ ἁλός   τοῦ Ἕλληνος   τοῦ συός
Dat. sg.   τῷ ἁλί   τῷ Ἕλλενι   τῷ συί
Acc. sg.   τὸν ἅλα   τὸν Ἕλληνα   τὸν σῦν
             
Nom. pl.   οἱ ἅλες   οἱ Ἕλληνες   οἱ σύες
Gen. pl.   τῶν ἁλῶν   τῶν Ἕλλήνων   τῶν συῶν
Dat. pl.   τοῖς ἁλσί   τοῖς Ἕλλήσι   τοῖς συσί
Acc. pl.   τοὺς ἅλας   τοὺς Ἕλληνας   τοὺς σῦς
27. Suffixes applied to stems to indicate location.

The following suffixes are used to produce adverbs on noun stems with specific meanings:

  • -θεν 'whence', as in -ανώθεν 'from on high', οἴκοθεν 'from home', χαμᾶθεν 'from the ground'
  • -ι, -θι 'where', as in οἴκοι 'at home', χαμαί 'on the ground'; but -σι(ν) if the noun in question is a plural, as in Ἀθήνησι 'at Athens'
  • -δε, -σε, ζε 'whither', as in Ἀθήναζε 'to Athens', χαμᾶζε 'to the ground'
28. Use of the augment.

The augment is used on past tenses in the indicative, that is, the imperfect, aorist, and pluperfect. Verbs beginning with a consonant prefix -, as in the imperfect ἐπίστευον 'I believed', the aorist ἐπίστευσα 'I have believed', the pluperfect ἐπεπιστεύκειν 'I had believed'. Verbs beginning with a vowel or diphthong combine the augment with that vowel or diphthong, usually resulting in its lengthening, as in the imperfect ἦγον 'I led' from ἄγω, ηὔξανον 'I increased' from αὐξάνω.

Compound verbs place the augment on the verb, after the initial prefix, for example ἐν-έβαλλον from ἐμβάλλω 'throw into', ἐπ-έβαλλον from ἐπι-βάλλω 'throw on'. In the early texts, the augment may be omitted, as in the aorist form ποίησαν 'they made' from ποιέω.

29. Deponents.

As in Latin, a number of verbs have their forms in the middle while corresponding to active verbs in English. Many of them indicate state, and do not take objects. They can be recognized from dictionary entries. Examples are:

  • γίγνομαι 'become'
  • δέχομαι 'receive'
  • ἐργάζομαι 'work'
  • ἀπο-κρίνομαι 'reply'
  • λογίζομαι 'reason'
  • μιμέομαι 'imitate'

These have a active meaning in the aorist middle form, but passive meaning in the passive form of the aorist.

Others have the passive form of the aorist. Many of them denote motion, feeling or mental action. Examples are:

  • ἔραμαι 'love'
  • ἥδομαι 'rejoice'
  • έν-θυμέομαι 'consider'
  • δια-νοέομαι 'intend'
30. The middle forms of the aorist.

In the aorist the passive has different forms from those of the middle. Here the middle forms will be given.

    Indicative   Subjunctive   Optative   Imperative
1 sg   ἐπιστευσάμην   πιστεύσωμαι   πιστευσαίμην    
2 sg   ἐπιστεύσω   πιστεύσῃ   πιστεύσαιο   πίστευσαι
3 sg   ἐπιστεύσατο   πιστεύσηται   πιστεύσαιτο   πιστευσάσθω
                 
1 pl   ἐπιστευσάμεθα   πιστευσώμεθα   πιστευσαίμεθα    
2 pl   ἐπιστεύσασθε   πιστεύσησθε   πιστεύσαισθε   πιστεύσασθε
3 pl   ἐπιστεύσαντο   πιστεύσωνται   πιστεύσαιντο   πιστευσάσθων