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New Testament Greek Online

Lesson 8

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

An account of the resurrection is included in all four gospels. That in the book of St. John is the most personal. In describing how the disciples reacted to the report of Mary Magdelene that the tomb was empty, John identifies himself as the author both through omitting the name of the disciple who accompanied Peter, and also through reporting that he outstripped the older man in arriving at the tomb. The account in St. Matthew did not include this episode, but expands on the role of Mary Magdalene and "the other Mary," besides reporting the reaction of the guards, as well might be expected of an author who himself had occupied a governmental position. The account in St. Mark is sketchy, including in one short chapter reports on the reaction of the women, and on the appearances of Jesus to the disciples as well as his ascension. The account in St. Luke also stresses the role of the women, followed by a brief statement on Peter's running to the tomb -- though not commenting on the other disciple. It is curious that little has been made in later times of the greater activity of the women at this time. St. Luke then goes on with an extensive report of Jesus accompanying Cleopas and his companion to Emmaus, also concluding with a brief note on the ascension. The two chapters in the book of St. John are more extensive and detailed than those of the other gospels, again supporting the view that they were written by the disciple, even though Chapter twenty-one is presented as something of an afterthought.

Reading and Textual Analysis

John 20:1-10, and Romans 3:28 (memory verse)

20:1 - Tê de mia tôn sabbatôn Maria hê Magdalênê erchetai prôi skotias eti ousês eis to mnêmeion, kai blepei ton lithon hêrmenon ek tou mnêmeiou,

  • -- article; dative singular feminine of <ho> the -- (on) the
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- now
  • mia -- number; dative singular feminine of <heis> one -- first (day)
  • tôn -- article; genitive plural neuter of <ho> the -- of the
  • sabbatôn -- noun, neuter; genitive plural of <sabbaton> week -- week
  • Maria -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Maria> Mary -- Mary
  • -- article; nominative singular feminine of <ho> the -- ...
  • Magdalênê -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Magdalênê> Magdalene -- Magdalene
  • erchetai -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <erchomai> come, go -- comes
  • prôi -- adverb; <prôi> early -- early
  • skotias -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <skotia> darkness -- darkness
  • eti -- adverb; <eti> still -- still
  • ousês -- verb; genitive singular feminine of present participle of <eimi> I am -- (while there) was
  • eis -- preposition; <eis> towards -- to
  • to -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • mnêmeion -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <mnêmeion> tomb -- tomb
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • blepei -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <blepô> see -- sees
  • ton -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • lithon -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <lithos> stone -- stone
  • hêrmenon -- verb; accusative singular masculine of aorist middle participle of <haireô> take away -- removed
  • ek -- preposition; <ek> from, out of -- from
  • tou -- article; genitive singular neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • mnêmeiou -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <mnêmeion> tomb -- tomb

20:2 - trechei oun kai erchetai pros Simôna Petron kai pros ton allon mathêtên hon ephilei ho Iêsous, kai legei autois.

  • trechei -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <trechô> run -- she runs
  • oun -- particle; <oun> indeed -- now
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • erchetai -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <erchomai> come, go -- comes
  • pros -- preposition; <pros> to -- to
  • Simôna -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Simôn> Simon -- Simon
  • Petron -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Petros> Peter -- Peter
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • pros -- preposition; <pros> to -- to
  • ton -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • allon -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <allos> other -- other
  • mathêtên -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <mathêtês> disciple -- disciple
  • hon -- relative pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <hos> who, which -- whom
  • ephilei -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <phileô> love -- loved
  • ho -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • Iêsous -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Iêsous> Jesus -- Jesus
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • legei -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <legô> say -- says
  • autois -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- to them

hêran ton kurion ek tou mnêmeiou, kai ouk oidamen pou ethêkan auton.

  • hêran -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <haireô> take away -- they have taken
  • ton -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • kurion -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <kurios> lord -- Lord
  • ek -- preposition; <ek> from, out of -- out of
  • tou -- article; genitive singular neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • mnêmeiou -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <mnêmeion> tomb -- tomb
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • ouk -- particle; <ouk> not -- not
  • oidamen -- verb; 1st person plural perfect of <oida> know -- we do ... know
  • pou -- adverb; <pou> where -- where
  • ethêkan -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <tithêmi> put, place -- placed
  • auton -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- him

20:3 - Exêlthen oun ho Petros kai ho allos mathêtês, kai êrchonto eis to mnêmeion.

  • exêlthen -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <exerchomai> come out -- went out
  • oun -- particle; <oun> indeed -- now
  • ho -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • Petros -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Petros> Peter -- Peter
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • ho -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • allos -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <allos> other -- other
  • mathêtês -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <mathêtês> disciple -- disciple
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • êrchonto -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect middle of <erchomai> come, go -- came
  • eis -- preposition; <eis> towards -- to
  • to -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • mnêmeion -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <mnêmeion> tomb -- tomb

20:4 - etrechon de hoi duo homou.

  • etrechon -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <trechô> run -- were running
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- now
  • hoi -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • duo -- number; <duo> two -- two
  • homou -- adverb; <homou> together -- together

kai ho allos mathêtês proedramen tachion tou Petrou, kai êlthen prôtos eis to mnêmeion,

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • ho -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • allos -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <allos> other -- other
  • mathêtês -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <mathêtês> disciple -- disciple
  • proedramen -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <protrechô> outrun -- ran ahead
  • tachion -- adverb; comparative of <tachus> fast -- faster
  • tou -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ho> the -- (than) ...
  • Petrou -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Petros> Peter -- Peter
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • êlthen -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <erchomai> come, go -- came
  • prôtos -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <prôtos> first -- first
  • eis -- preposition; <eis> towards -- to
  • to -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • mnêmeion -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <mnêmeion> tomb -- tomb

20:5 - kai parakupsas blepei keimena ta othonia, ou mentoi eisêlthen.

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • parakupsas -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <parakuptô> bend down -- bending down
  • blepei -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <blepô> see -- he sees
  • keimena -- verb; accusative plural neuter of perfect middle participle of <keimai> lie -- lying
  • ta -- article; accusative plural neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • othonia -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <othonion> linen cloth -- linen clothes
  • ou -- particle; <ou> not -- not
  • mentoi -- particle; <mentoi> but, however -- but
  • eisêlthen -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <eiserchomai> enter -- does...enter

20:6 - erchetai oun kai Simôn Petros akolouthôn autô, kai eisêlthen eis to mnêmeion, kai theôrei ta othonia keimena ,

  • erchetai -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <erchomai> come, go -- comes
  • oun -- particle; <oun> indeed -- now
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- also
  • Simôn -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Simôn> Simon -- Simon
  • Petros -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Petros> Peter -- Peter
  • akolouthôn -- verb; nominative singular masculine of participle of <akoloutheô> follow -- following
  • autô -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- him
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • eisêlthen -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <eiserchomai> enter -- entered
  • eis -- preposition; <eis> towards -- into
  • to -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • mnêmeion -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <mnêmeion> tomb -- tomb
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • theôrei -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <theôreô> see -- sees
  • ta -- article; accusative plural neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • othonia -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <othonion> linen cloth -- linen clothes
  • keimena -- verb; accusative plural neuter of perfect middle participle of <keimai> lie -- lying

20:7 - kai to soudarion, ho ên epi tês kephalês autou, ou meta tôn othoniôn keimenon alla chôris entetuligmenon eis hena topon.

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • to -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • soudarion -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <soudarion> napkin -- napkin
  • ho -- relative pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <hos> who, which -- that
  • ên -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <eimi> I am -- was
  • epi -- preposition; <epi> on, about -- on
  • tês -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ho> the -- ...
  • kephalês -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <kephalê> head -- head
  • autou -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- his
  • ou -- particle; <ou> not -- not
  • meta -- preposition; <meta> after, with -- with
  • tôn -- article; genitive plural neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • othoniôn -- noun, neuter; genitive plural of <othonion> linen cloth -- linen clothing
  • keimenon -- verb; accusative singular neuter of present participle middle of <keimai> lie -- lying
  • alla -- conjunction; <alla> but -- but
  • chôris -- adverb; <chôris> apart -- apart
  • entetuligmenon -- verb; accusative singular neuter of perfect passive participle of <entulissô> wrap up -- wrapped up
  • eis -- preposition; <eis> towards -- at
  • hena -- number; accusative singular masculine of <heis> one -- one
  • topon -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <topos> place -- place

20:8 - tote oun eisêlthen kai ho allos mathêtês ho elthôn prôtos eis to mnêmeion, kai eiden kai episteusen.

  • tote -- adverb; <tote> then -- then
  • oun -- particle; <oun> indeed -- ...
  • eisêlthen -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <eiserchomai> enter -- he entered
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • ho -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • allos -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <allos> other -- other
  • mathêtês -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <mathêtês> disciple -- disciple
  • ho -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • elthôn -- deponent verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <erchomai> come, go -- (one) having come
  • prôtos -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <prôtos> first -- first
  • eis -- preposition; <eis> towards -- to
  • to -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • mnêmeion -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <mnêmeion> tomb -- tomb
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • eiden -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <horaô> see -- he saw
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • episteusen -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <pisteuô> believe -- believed

20:9 - oudepô gar êdeisan tên graphên hoti dei auton ek nekrôn anastênai.

  • oudepô -- adverb; <oudepô> not yet -- not yet
  • gar -- conjunction; <gar> for -- for
  • êdeisan -- verb; 3rd person singular pluperfect of <oida> know -- they did . . .know
  • tên -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ho> the -- the
  • graphên -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <graphê> writing, scripture -- scripture
  • hoti -- conjunction; <hoti> because, that -- that
  • dei -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <dei> it is necessary -- it was necessary
  • auton -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- (for) him
  • ek -- preposition; <ek> from, out of -- from
  • nekrôn -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <nekros> dead -- the dead
  • anastênai -- verb; infinitive aorist of <anistêmi> rise -- to rise

20:10 - apêlthon oun palin pros autous hoi mathêtai.

  • apêlthon -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <aperchomai> go back -- went back
  • oun -- particle; <oun> indeed -- then
  • palin -- adverb; <palin> again -- back
  • pros -- preposition; <pros> to -- to
  • autous -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- their own
  • hoi -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • mathêtai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <mathêtês> disciple -- disciples

Romans 3:28 (memory verse) - Logizometha gar dikaiousthai pistei anthrôpos chôris ergôn nomou.

  • logizometha -- verb; 1st person plural present middle of <logizomai> calculate, think -- we conclude
  • gar -- conjunction; <gar> for -- for
  • dikaiousthai -- verb; passive infinitive of <dikaioô> justify -- (is) justified
  • pistei -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <pistis> faith -- by faith
  • anthrôpos -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <anthrôpos> human being -- a human being
  • chôris -- preposition; <chôris> apart -- without
  • ergôn -- noun, neuter; genitive plural of <ergon> work, deed -- works
  • nomou -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <nomos> law -- of the law

Lesson Text

20:1 Tê de mia tôn sabbatôn Maria hê Magdalênê erchetai prôi skotias eti ousês eis to mnêmeion, kai blepei ton lithon hêrmenon ek tou mnêmeiou, 20:2 trechei oun kai erchetai pros Simôna Petron kai pros ton allon mathêtên hon ephilei ho Iêsous, kai legei autois. hêran ton kurion ek tou mnêmeiou, kai ouk oidamen pou ethêkan auton. 20:3 Exêlthen oun ho Petros kai ho allos mathêtês, kai êrchonto eis to mnêmeion. 20:4 etrechon de hoi duo homou. kai ho allos mathêtês proedramen tachion tou Petrou, kai êlthen prôtos eis to mnêmeion, 20:5 kai parakupsas blepei keimena ta othonia, ou mentoi eisêlthen. 20:6 erchetai oun kai Simôn Petros akolouthôn autô, kai eisêlthen eis to mnêmeion, kai theôrei ta othonia keimena , 20:7 kai to soudarion, ho ên epi tês kephalês autou, ou meta tôn othoniôn keimenon alla chôris entetuligmenon eis hena topon. 20:8 tote oun eisêlthen kai ho allos mathêtês ho elthôn prôtos eis to mnêmeion, kai eiden kai episteusen. 20:9 oudepô gar êdeisan tên graphên hoti dei auton ek nekrôn anastênai. 20:10 apêlthon oun palin pros autous hoi mathêtai.

Romans 3:28 (memory verse) - Logizometha gar dikaiousthai pistei anthrôpos chôris ergôn nomou.

Translation

From the King James version:
20:1 The first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre. 2 Then she runneth, and cometh to Simon Peter, and to the other disciple, whom Jesus loved, and saith unto them, They have taken away the LORD out of the sepulchre, and we know not where they have laid him.
3 Peter therefore went forth, and that other disciple, and came to the sepulchre. 4 So they ran both together: and the other disciple did outrun Peter, and came first to the sepulchre. 5 And he stooping down, and looking in, saw the linen clothes lying; yet went he not in. 6 Then cometh Simon Peter following him, and went into the sepulchre, and seeth the linen clothes lie, 7 And the napkin, that was about his head, not lying with the linen clothes, but wrapped together in a place by itself. 8 Then went in also that other disciple, which came first to the sepulchre, and he saw, and believed. 9 For as yet they knew not the scripture, that he must rise again from the dead. 10 Then the disciples went away again unto their own home.
Romans 3:28 (memory verse) --
Therefore we conclude that a man is justified by faith without the deeds of the law.

Grammar

36. Tense formation.

To identify verbal forms, it is useful to note the principal parts. Illustrations are provided here, first with the so-called pure verbs, that is, those for which the stems are not modified by the endings. Examples are: pisteuô 'believe', timaô 'honor', poieô 'make'.

Present   pisteuô   timaô   poieô
Future   pisteusô   timêsô   poiêsô
Aorist active   episteusa   etimêsa   epoiêsa
Perfect active   pepisteuka   tetimêka   pepoiêka
Perfect middle   pepisteumai   tetimêmai   pepoiêmai
Aorist passive   episteuthên   etimêthên   epoiêthên
37. Tense formation of obstruent stems.

In stems ending in obstruent consonants, that is, those ending in stops or fricatives, the consonant of the stem is modified before the tense markers. Examples are given here for peithô 'persuade', prattô 'do', agô 'lead', and graphô 'write'.

Present   peithô   prattô   agô   graphô
Future   peisô   praxô   axô   grapsa
Aorist active   epeisa   epraxa   êgagon   egrapsa
Perfect active   pepeika   pepracha   êcha   gegrapha
Perfect middle   pepeismai   pepragmai   êgmai   gegrammai
Aorist passive   epeisthên   eprachthên   êchthên   egraphthên
38. Tense formation of resonant stems.

Stems ending in resonants may fail to have the future/aorist marker. Examples are phainô 'appear', aggellô 'announce', and speirô 'sow'.

Present   phainô   aggellô   speirô
Future   phanô   aggelô   sperô
Aorist active   ephêna   êggeila   espeira
Perfect active   pephagka   êggelka   esparka
Perfect middle   pephasmai   êggelmai   esparmai
Aorist passive   ephanthên   êggelthên   esparthên
39. The tense formations of some frequent but irregular verbs.

Some verb forms are quite irregular. Some forms of echô 'have' are based on its ancient root *sech-. The forms of pherô 'bear' are based on several roots. The forms of legô, phêmi, agoreuô 'say, speak' are also based on various roots.

Present   echô   pherô   legô (etc.)
Future   hexô   oisô   erô
Aorist active   eschon   ênegkon   eipon
Perfect active   eschêka   enênocha   eirêka
Perfect middle   eschêmai   enênegmai   eirêmai
Aorist passive   eschomên   ênechthên   errêthên
40. The Middle and Passive Perfect.

The forms are the same in the two voices. The subjunctive and optative have forms of the verb 'to be' after the participle (not repeated in the optative, below). They are as follows:

    Indicative   Preterite   Subjunctive   Opt.
1s   pepisteumai   epepisteumên   pepisteumenos ô   eiên
2s   pepisteusai   epepisteuso   --- ês   eiês
3s   pepisteutai   epepisteuto   --- ê   eiê
                 
1p   pepisteumetha   epepisteumetha   pepisteumenoi ômen   eiêmen
2p   pepisteusthe   epepisteusthe   --- ête   eitêe
3p   pepisteuntai   epepisteunto   --- ôsi   eiêsin