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New Testament Greek Online

Lesson 8

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

An account of the resurrection is included in all four gospels. That in the book of St. John is the most personal. In describing how the disciples reacted to the report of Mary Magdelene that the tomb was empty, John identifies himself as the author both through omitting the name of the disciple who accompanied Peter, and also through reporting that he outstripped the older man in arriving at the tomb. The account in St. Matthew did not include this episode, but expands on the role of Mary Magdalene and "the other Mary," besides reporting the reaction of the guards, as well might be expected of an author who himself had occupied a governmental position. The account in St. Mark is sketchy, including in one short chapter reports on the reaction of the women, and on the appearances of Jesus to the disciples as well as his ascension. The account in St. Luke also stresses the role of the women, followed by a brief statement on Peter's running to the tomb -- though not commenting on the other disciple. It is curious that little has been made in later times of the greater activity of the women at this time. St. Luke then goes on with an extensive report of Jesus accompanying Cleopas and his companion to Emmaus, also concluding with a brief note on the ascension. The two chapters in the book of St. John are more extensive and detailed than those of the other gospels, again supporting the view that they were written by the disciple, even though Chapter twenty-one is presented as something of an afterthought.

Reading and Textual Analysis

John 20:1-10, and Romans 3:28 (memory verse)

20:1 - Τῃ̂ δὲ μιᾳ̂ τω̂ν σαββάτων Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ ʼέρχεται πρωὶ σκοτίας ʼέτι οʼύσης εἰς τὸ μνημει̂ον, καὶ βλέπει τὸν λίθον ἡρμένον ἐκ του̂ μνημείου,

  • τῃ̂ -- article; dative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- (on) the
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- now
  • μιᾳ̂ -- number; dative singular feminine of <εʽι̂ς> one -- first (day)
  • τω̂ν -- article; genitive plural neuter of <ὁ> the -- of the
  • σαββάτων -- noun, neuter; genitive plural of <σαββατόν> week -- week
  • Μαρία -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Μαρία> Mary -- Mary
  • ἡ -- article; nominative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • Μαγδαληνὴ -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Μαγδαληνή> Magdalene -- Magdalene
  • ʼέρχεται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <ʼέρχομαι> come, go -- comes
  • πρωὶ -- adverb; <πρωί> early -- early
  • σκοτίας -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <σκοτία> darkness -- darkness
  • ʼέτι -- adverb; <ʼέτι> still -- still
  • οʼύσης -- verb; genitive singular feminine of present participle of <εἰμί> I am -- (while there) was
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- to
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • μνημει̂ον -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <μνημει̂ον> tomb -- tomb
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • βλέπει -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <βλέπω> see -- sees
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • λίθον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <λίθος> stone -- stone
  • ἡρμένον -- verb; accusative singular masculine of aorist middle participle of <αἱρέω> take away -- removed
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- from
  • του̂ -- article; genitive singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • μνημείου -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <μνημει̂ον> tomb -- tomb

20:2 - τρέχει οʼυ̂ν καὶ ʼέρχεται πρὸς Σίμωνα Πέτρον καὶ πρὸς τὸν ʼάλλον μαθητὴν ʽόν ἐφίλει ὁ ʼΙησου̂ς, καὶ λέγει αὐτοι̂ς.

  • τρέχει -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <τρέχω> run -- she runs
  • οʼυ̂ν -- particle; <οʼυ̂ν> indeed -- now
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ʼέρχεται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <ʼέρχομαι> come, go -- comes
  • πρὸς -- preposition; <πρός> to -- to
  • Σίμωνα -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Σίμων> Simon -- Simon
  • Πέτρον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Πέτρος> Peter -- Peter
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • πρὸς -- preposition; <πρός> to -- to
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ʼάλλον -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <ʼάλλος> other -- other
  • μαθητὴν -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <μαθητής> disciple -- disciple
  • ʽόν -- relative pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <ʽός> who, which -- whom
  • ἐφίλει -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <φιλέω> love -- loved
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • ʼΙησου̂ς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ʼΙησου̂ς> Jesus -- Jesus
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • λέγει -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <λέγω> say -- says
  • αὐτοι̂ς -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- to them

ʽη̂ραν τὸν κύριον ἐκ του̂ μνημείου, καὶ οὐκ οʼίδαμεν που̂ ʼέθηκαν αὐτόν.

  • ʽη̂ραν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <αἱρέω> take away -- they have taken
  • τὸν -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • κύριον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <κύριος> lord -- Lord
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- out of
  • του̂ -- article; genitive singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • μνημείου -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <μνημει̂ον> tomb -- tomb
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • οὐκ -- particle; <οὐκ> not -- not
  • οʼίδαμεν -- verb; 1st person plural perfect of <οʼι̂δα> know -- we do ... know
  • που̂ -- adverb; <που̂> where -- where
  • ʼέθηκαν -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <τίθημι> put, place -- placed
  • αὐτόν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him

20:3 - ʼΕξη̂λθεν οʼυ̂ν ὁ Πέτρος καὶ ὁ ʼάλλος μαθητής, καὶ ʼήρχοντο εἰς τὸ μνημει̂ον.

  • ἐξη̂λθεν -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ἐξέρχομαι> come out -- went out
  • οʼυ̂ν -- particle; <οʼυ̂ν> indeed -- now
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • Πέτρος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Πέτρος> Peter -- Peter
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ʼάλλος -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <ʼάλλος> other -- other
  • μαθητής -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <μαθητής> disciple -- disciple
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ʼήρχοντο -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect middle of <ʼέρχομαι> come, go -- came
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- to
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • μνημει̂ον -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <μνημει̂ον> tomb -- tomb

20:4 - ʼέτρεχον δὲ οἱ δύο ὁμου̂.

  • ʼέτρεχον -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <τρέχω> run -- were running
  • δὲ -- particle; <δέ> and, on the other hand -- now
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • δύο -- number; <δύο> two -- two
  • ὁμου̂ -- adverb; <ὁμου̂> together -- together

καὶ ὁ ʼάλλος μαθητὴς προέδραμεν τάχιον του̂ Πέτρου, καὶ ʼη̂λθεν πρω̂τος εἰς τὸ μνημει̂ον,

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ʼάλλος -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <ʼάλλος> other -- other
  • μαθητὴς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <μαθητής> disciple -- disciple
  • προέδραμεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <προτρέχω> outrun -- ran ahead
  • τάχιον -- adverb; comparative of <τάχυς> fast -- faster
  • του̂ -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- (than) ...
  • Πέτρου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Πέτρος> Peter -- Peter
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ʼη̂λθεν -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ʼέρχομαι> come, go -- came
  • πρω̂τος -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <πρω̂τος> first -- first
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- to
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • μνημει̂ον -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <μνημει̂ον> tomb -- tomb

20:5 - καὶ παρακύψας βλέπει κείμενα τὰ ὀθόνια, οὐ μέντοι εἰση̂λθεν.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • παρακύψας -- verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <παρακύπτω> bend down -- bending down
  • βλέπει -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <βλέπω> see -- he sees
  • κείμενα -- verb; accusative plural neuter of perfect middle participle of <κει̂μαι> lie -- lying
  • τὰ -- article; accusative plural neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ὀθόνια -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <ὀθόνιον> linen cloth -- linen clothes
  • οὐ -- particle; <οὐ> not -- not
  • μέντοι -- particle; <μέντοι> but, however -- but
  • εἰση̂λθεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <εἰσέρχομαι> enter -- does...enter

20:6 - ʼέρχεται οʼυ̂ν καὶ Σίμων Πέτρος ἀκολουθω̂ν αὐτῳ̂, καὶ εἰση̂λθεν εἰς τὸ μνημει̂ον, καὶ θεωρει̂ τὰ ὀθόνια κείμενα ,

  • ʼέρχεται -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular present middle of <ʼέρχομαι> come, go -- comes
  • οʼυ̂ν -- particle; <οʼυ̂ν> indeed -- now
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- also
  • Σίμων -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Σίμων> Simon -- Simon
  • Πέτρος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Πέτρος> Peter -- Peter
  • ἀκολουθω̂ν -- verb; nominative singular masculine of participle of <ἀκολουθέω> follow -- following
  • αὐτῳ̂ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- him
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • εἰση̂λθεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <εἰσέρχομαι> enter -- entered
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- into
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • μνημει̂ον -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <μνημει̂ον> tomb -- tomb
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • θεωρει̂ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <θεωρέω> see -- sees
  • τὰ -- article; accusative plural neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ὀθόνια -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <ὀθόνιον> linen cloth -- linen clothes
  • κείμενα -- verb; accusative plural neuter of perfect middle participle of <κει̂μαι> lie -- lying

20:7 - καὶ τὸ σουδάριον, ʽὸ ʼη̂ν ἐπὶ τη̂ς κεφαλη̂ς αὐτου̂, οὐ μετὰ τω̂ν ὀθονίων κείμενον ἀλλὰ χωρὶς ἐντετυλιγμένον εἰς ʽένα τόπον.

  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • σουδάριον -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <σουδάριον> napkin -- napkin
  • ʽὸ -- relative pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <ʽός> who, which -- that
  • ʼη̂ν -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <εἰμί> I am -- was
  • ἐπὶ -- preposition; <ἐπί> on, about -- on
  • τη̂ς -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- ...
  • κεφαλη̂ς -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <κεφαλή> head -- head
  • αὐτου̂ -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- his
  • οὐ -- particle; <οὐ> not -- not
  • μετὰ -- preposition; <μετά> after, with -- with
  • τω̂ν -- article; genitive plural neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ὀθονίων -- noun, neuter; genitive plural of <ὀθόνιον> linen cloth -- linen clothing
  • κείμενον -- verb; accusative singular neuter of present participle middle of <κει̂μαι> lie -- lying
  • ἀλλὰ -- conjunction; <ἀλλά> but -- but
  • χωρὶς -- adverb; <χωρίς> apart -- apart
  • ἐντετυλιγμένον -- verb; accusative singular neuter of perfect passive participle of <ἐντυλίσσω> wrap up -- wrapped up
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- at
  • ʽένα -- number; accusative singular masculine of <εʽι̂ς> one -- one
  • τόπον -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <τόπος> place -- place

20:8 - τότε οʼυ̂ν εἰση̂λθεν καὶ ὁ ʼάλλος μαθητὴς ὁ ἐλθὼν πρω̂τος εἰς τὸ μνημει̂ον, καὶ εʼι̂δεν καὶ ἐπίστευσεν.

  • τότε -- adverb; <τότε> then -- then
  • οʼυ̂ν -- particle; <οʼυ̂ν> indeed -- ...
  • εἰση̂λθεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <εἰσέρχομαι> enter -- he entered
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ʼάλλος -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <ʼάλλος> other -- other
  • μαθητὴς -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <μαθητής> disciple -- disciple
  • ὁ -- article; nominative singular masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • ἐλθὼν -- deponent verb; nominative singular masculine of aorist participle of <ʼέρχομαι> come, go -- (one) having come
  • πρω̂τος -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <πρω̂τος> first -- first
  • εἰς -- preposition; <εἰς> towards -- to
  • τὸ -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ὁ> the -- the
  • μνημει̂ον -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <μνημει̂ον> tomb -- tomb
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • εʼι̂δεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ὁράω> see -- he saw
  • καὶ -- conjunction; <καί> and -- and
  • ἐπίστευσεν -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <πιστεύω> believe -- believed

20:9 - οὐδέπω γὰρ ʼῄδεισαν τὴν γραφὴν ʽότι δει̂ αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρω̂ν ἀναστη̂ναι.

  • οὐδέπω -- adverb; <οὐδέπω> not yet -- not yet
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • ʼῄδεισαν -- verb; 3rd person singular pluperfect of <οʼι̂δα> know -- they did . . .know
  • τὴν -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • γραφὴν -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <γραφή> writing, scripture -- scripture
  • ʽότι -- conjunction; <ʽότι> because, that -- that
  • δει̂ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <δει̂> it is necessary -- it was necessary
  • αὐτὸν -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- (for) him
  • ἐκ -- preposition; <ἐκ> from, out of -- from
  • νεκρω̂ν -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <νεκρός> dead -- the dead
  • ἀναστη̂ναι -- verb; infinitive aorist of <ἀνίστημι> rise -- to rise

20:10 - ἀπη̂λθον οʼυ̂ν πάλιν πρὸς αὐτοὺς οἱ μαθηταί.

  • ἀπη̂λθον -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <ἀπέρχομαι> go back -- went back
  • οʼυ̂ν -- particle; <οʼυ̂ν> indeed -- then
  • πάλιν -- adverb; <πάλιν> again -- back
  • πρὸς -- preposition; <πρός> to -- to
  • αὐτοὺς -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <αὐτός> oneself, he -- their own
  • οἱ -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ὁ> the -- the
  • μαθηταί -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <μαθητής> disciple -- disciples

Romans 3:28 (memory verse) - Λογιζόμεθα γὰρ δικαιου̂σθαι πίστει ʼάνθρωπος χωρὶς ʼέργων νόμου.

  • λογιζόμεθα -- verb; 1st person plural present middle of <λογίζομαι> calculate, think -- we conclude
  • γὰρ -- conjunction; <γάρ> for -- for
  • δικαιου̂σθαι -- verb; passive infinitive of <δικαιόω> justify -- (is) justified
  • πίστει -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <πίστις> faith -- by faith
  • ʼάνθρωπος -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ʼάνθρωπος> human being -- a human being
  • χωρὶς -- preposition; <χωρίς> apart -- without
  • ʼέργων -- noun, neuter; genitive plural of <ʼέργον> work, deed -- works
  • νόμου -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <νόμος> law -- of the law

Lesson Text

20:1 Τῃ̂ δὲ μιᾳ̂ τω̂ν σαββάτων Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ ʼέρχεται πρωὶ σκοτίας ʼέτι οʼύσης εἰς τὸ μνημει̂ον, καὶ βλέπει τὸν λίθον ἡρμένον ἐκ του̂ μνημείου, 20:2 τρέχει οʼυ̂ν καὶ ʼέρχεται πρὸς Σίμωνα Πέτρον καὶ πρὸς τὸν ʼάλλον μαθητὴν ʽόν ἐφίλει ὁ ʼΙησου̂ς, καὶ λέγει αὐτοι̂ς. ʽη̂ραν τὸν κύριον ἐκ του̂ μνημείου, καὶ οὐκ οʼίδαμεν που̂ ʼέθηκαν αὐτόν. 20:3 ʼΕξη̂λθεν οʼυ̂ν ὁ Πέτρος καὶ ὁ ʼάλλος μαθητής, καὶ ʼήρχοντο εἰς τὸ μνημει̂ον. 20:4 ʼέτρεχον δὲ οἱ δύο ὁμου̂. καὶ ὁ ʼάλλος μαθητὴς προέδραμεν τάχιον του̂ Πέτρου, καὶ ʼη̂λθεν πρω̂τος εἰς τὸ μνημει̂ον, 20:5 καὶ παρακύψας βλέπει κείμενα τὰ ὀθόνια, οὐ μέντοι εἰση̂λθεν. 20:6 ʼέρχεται οʼυ̂ν καὶ Σίμων Πέτρος ἀκολουθω̂ν αὐτῳ̂, καὶ εἰση̂λθεν εἰς τὸ μνημει̂ον, καὶ θεωρει̂ τὰ ὀθόνια κείμενα , 20:7 καὶ τὸ σουδάριον, ʽὸ ʼη̂ν ἐπὶ τη̂ς κεφαλη̂ς αὐτου̂, οὐ μετὰ τω̂ν ὀθονίων κείμενον ἀλλὰ χωρὶς ἐντετυλιγμένον εἰς ʽένα τόπον. 20:8 τότε οʼυ̂ν εἰση̂λθεν καὶ ὁ ʼάλλος μαθητὴς ὁ ἐλθὼν πρω̂τος εἰς τὸ μνημει̂ον, καὶ εʼι̂δεν καὶ ἐπίστευσεν. 20:9 οὐδέπω γὰρ ʼῄδεισαν τὴν γραφὴν ʽότι δει̂ αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρω̂ν ἀναστη̂ναι. 20:10 ἀπη̂λθον οʼυ̂ν πάλιν πρὸς αὐτοὺς οἱ μαθηταί.

Romans 3:28 (memory verse) - Λογιζόμεθα γὰρ δικαιου̂σθαι πίστει ʼάνθρωπος χωρὶς ʼέργων νόμου.

Translation

From the King James version:
20:1 The first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre. 2 Then she runneth, and cometh to Simon Peter, and to the other disciple, whom Jesus loved, and saith unto them, They have taken away the LORD out of the sepulchre, and we know not where they have laid him.
3 Peter therefore went forth, and that other disciple, and came to the sepulchre. 4 So they ran both together: and the other disciple did outrun Peter, and came first to the sepulchre. 5 And he stooping down, and looking in, saw the linen clothes lying; yet went he not in. 6 Then cometh Simon Peter following him, and went into the sepulchre, and seeth the linen clothes lie, 7 And the napkin, that was about his head, not lying with the linen clothes, but wrapped together in a place by itself. 8 Then went in also that other disciple, which came first to the sepulchre, and he saw, and believed. 9 For as yet they knew not the scripture, that he must rise again from the dead. 10 Then the disciples went away again unto their own home.
Romans 3:28 (memory verse) --
Therefore we conclude that a man is justified by faith without the deeds of the law.

Grammar

36. Tense formation.

To identify verbal forms, it is useful to note the principal parts. Illustrations are provided here, first with the so-called pure verbs, that is, those for which the stems are not modified by the endings. Examples are: πιστεύω 'believe', τιμάω 'honor', ποιέω 'make'.

Present   πιστεύω   τιμάω   ποιέω
Future   πιστεύσω   τιμήσω   ποιήσω
Aorist active   ἐπίστευσα   ἐτίμησα   ἐποιήσα
Perfect active   πεπίστευκα   τετίμηκα   πεποίηκα
Perfect middle   πεπίστευμαι   τετίμημαι   πεποίημαι
Aorist passive   ἐπιστεύθην   ἐτιμήθην   ἐποιήθην
37. Tense formation of obstruent stems.

In stems ending in obstruent consonants, that is, those ending in stops or fricatives, the consonant of the stem is modified before the tense markers. Examples are given here for πείθω 'persuade', πράττω 'do', ʼάγω 'lead', and γράφω 'write'.

Present   πείθω   πράττω   ʼάγω   γράφω
Future   πείσω   πράξω   ʼάξω   γράψα
Aorist active   ʼέπεισα   ʼέπραξα   ʼήγαγον   ʼέγραψα
Perfect active   πέπεικα   πέπραχα   ʼη̂χα   γέγραφα
Perfect middle   πέπεισμαι   πέπραγμαι   ʼήγμαι   γέγραμμαι
Aorist passive   ἐπείσθην   ἐπράχθην   ʼήχθην   ἐγράφθην
38. Tense formation of resonant stems.

Stems ending in resonants may fail to have the future/aorist marker. Examples are φαίνω 'appear', ἀγγέλλω 'announce', and σπείρω 'sow'.

Present   φαίνω   ἀγγέλλω   σπείρω
Future   φανω̂   ἀγγελω̂   σπερω̂
Aorist active   ʼέφηνα   ʼήγγειλα   ʼέσπειρα
Perfect active   πέφαγκα   ʼήγγελκα   ʼέσπαρκα
Perfect middle   πέφασμαι   ʼήγγελμαι   ʼέσπαρμαι
Aorist passive   ἐφάνθην   ἠγγέλθην   ʼέσπάρθην
39. The tense formations of some frequent but irregular verbs.

Some verb forms are quite irregular. Some forms of ʼέχω 'have' are based on its ancient root *σεχ-. The forms of φέρω 'bear' are based on several roots. The forms of λέγω, φημί, ἀγορεύω 'say, speak' are also based on various roots.

Present   ʼέχω   φέρω   λέγω (etc.)
Future   ʽέξω   οʼίσω   έρω̂
Aorist active   ʼέσχον   ʼήνεγκον   εʼι̂πον
Perfect active   ʼέσχηκα   ἐνήνοχα   εʼίρηκα
Perfect middle   ʼέσχημαι   ἐνήνεγμαι   εʼίρημαι
Aorist passive   ʼέσχομην   ἠνέχθην   ἐρρήθην
40. The Middle and Passive Perfect.

The forms are the same in the two voices. The subjunctive and optative have forms of the verb 'to be' after the participle (not repeated in the optative, below). They are as follows:

    Indicative   Preterite   Subjunctive   Opt.
1s   πεπίστευμαι   ἐπεπιστεύμην   πεπιστευμένος ω ʼ̂   εʼίην
2s   πεπίστευσαι   έπεπίστευσο   --- ʼη̂ς   εʼίης
3s   πεπίστευται   ἐπεπίστευτο   --- ʼη̂   εʼίη
                 
1p   πεπιστεύμεθα   ἐπεπιστεύμεθα   πεπιστευμένοι ʼω̂μεν   εʼίημεν
2p   πεπίστευσθε   ἐπεπιστεύσθε   --- ʼη̂τε   εʼίτηε
3p   πεπίστευνται   ἐπεπίστευντο   --- ʼω̂σι   εʼίησιν