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New Testament Greek Online

Lesson 9

Winfred P. Lehmann and Jonathan Slocum

The Book of Acts continues St. Luke's account of the days after the resurrection. The second chapter reports the events of the fiftieth day after the festival of the Passover, that is to say, fulfillment of the promise of Jesus in St. John 14:16-27 and 16,7, that he would send the Comforter to his disciples after his death. The importance of the events is commemorated ever since on Pentecost, one of the great holy days of the church. Among remarkable details is the presence of a great spread of nationalities at the event. Those who believed illustrate how the church began its wide expansion. This was further strengthened by the activities reported in the remainder of the book, especially the missionary journeys of St. Paul.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Acts 2:1-13, and Mark 3:35 (memory verse)

2:1 - Kai en tô sumplêrousthai tên hêmeran tês pentêkostês êsan pantes homou epi to auto.

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • en -- preposition; <en> in -- on
  • -- article; dative singular masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • sumplêrousthai -- verb; infinitive passive of <sumplêroô> fill up -- (being) fulfilled
  • tên -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ho> the -- the
  • hêmeran -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <hêmera> day -- day
  • tês -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ho> the -- ...
  • pentêkostês -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <pentêkostê> 50th day after the Passover -- Pentecost
  • êsan -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <eimi> I am -- they were
  • pantes -- adjective used as substantive; nominative plural masculine of <pas> all, every -- all
  • homou -- adverb; <homou> together -- together
  • epi -- preposition; <epi> on, about -- at
  • to -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ho> the -- ...
  • auto -- pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <autos> oneself, he -- the same place

2:2 - kai egeneto aphnô ek tou ouranou êchos hôsper pheromenês pnoês biaias kai eplêrôsen holon ton oikon hou êsan kathêmenoi.

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • egeneto -- deponent verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <gignomai> happen, become -- there arose
  • aphnô -- adverb; <aphnô> suddenly -- suddenly
  • ek -- preposition; <ek> from, out of -- from
  • tou -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • ouranou -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ouranos> heaven -- heaven
  • êchos -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <êchos> sound -- a sound
  • hôsper -- adverb; <hôsper> as -- as of
  • pheromenês -- verb; genitive singular feminine of passive participle of <pherô> bear, bring, carry -- borne along
  • pnoês -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <pnoê> wind -- wind
  • biaias -- adjective; genitive singular feminine of <biaios> violent -- a violent
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • eplêrôsen -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <plêroô> fill -- it filled
  • holon -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <holos> whole -- whole
  • ton -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • oikon -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <oikos> house -- house
  • hou -- relative pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <hos> who, which -- where
  • êsan -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <eimi> I am -- they were
  • kathêmenoi -- verb; nominative plural masculine of middle participle of <kathêmai> sit -- sitting

2:3 - kai ôphthêsan autois diamerizomenai glôssai hôsei puros, kai ekathisen eph' hena hekaston autôn.

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • ôphthêsan -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist passive of <horaô> see -- were seen
  • autois -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- by them
  • diamerizomenai -- verb; nominative plural feminine of participle passive of <diamerizô> cleave -- cloven
  • glôssai -- noun, feminine; nominative plural of <glôssa> tongue, language -- tongues
  • hôsei -- adverb; <hôsei> as of -- as of
  • puros -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <pur> fire -- fire
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • ekathisen -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <kathizô> (force to) sit down -- it sat down
  • eph' -- preposition; <epi> on, about -- on
  • hena -- number; accusative singular masculine of <heis> one -- one
  • hekaston -- indefinite pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <hekastos> each, every -- each
  • autôn -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- of them

2:4 - kai eplêsthêsan pantes pneumatos hagiou, kai êrxanto lalein heterais glôssais kathôs to pneuma edidou apophtheggesthai autois.

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • eplêsthêsan -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist passive of <pimplêmi> fill -- they were filled
  • pantes -- adjective used as substantive; nominative plural masculine of <pas> all, every -- all
  • pneumatos -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <pneuma> spirit -- Ghost
  • hagiou -- adjective; genitive singular neuter of <hagios> holy -- (with the) Holy
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • êrxanto -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist passive of <archomai> begin -- they began to
  • lalein -- verb; infinitive of <laleô> speak -- speak
  • heterais -- adjective; dative plural feminine of <heteros> other -- in other
  • glôssais -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <glôssa> tongue, language -- languages
  • kathôs -- conjunction; <kathôs> as -- as
  • to -- article; nominative singular neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • pneuma -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <pneuma> spirit -- Spirit
  • edidou -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <didômi> give -- gave
  • apophtheggesthai -- verb; infinitive of <apophtheggomai> speak -- to speak
  • autois -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- them

2:5 - Êsan de eis Ierousalêm katoikountes Ioudaioi andres eulabeis apo pantos ethnous tôn hupo ton ouranon.

  • êsan -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <eimi> I am -- there were
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- now
  • eis -- preposition; <eis> towards -- in
  • Ierousalêm -- noun, neuter; dative singular of <Ierousalêm> Jerusalem -- Jerusalem
  • katoikountes -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <katoikeô> dwell -- dwelling
  • Ioudaioi -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <Ioudaios> Jewish -- Jewish
  • andres -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <anêr> man -- men
  • eulabeis -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <eulabês> devout -- devout
  • apo -- preposition; <apo> from -- from
  • pantos -- adjective; genitive singular neuter of <pas> all, every -- every
  • ethnous -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <ethnos> nation, people, tribe -- nation
  • tôn -- article; genitive plural neuter of <ho> the -- of those
  • hupo -- preposition; <hupo> under, by -- under
  • ton -- article; accusative singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • ouranon -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <ouranos> heaven -- heaven

2:6 - genomenês de tês phônês tautês sunêlthen to plêthos kai sunechuthê, hoti êkouon heis hekastos tê idia dialektô lalountôn autôn.

  • genomenês -- deponent verb; genitive singular feminine of participle middle of <gignomai> happen, become -- got around
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- now
  • tês -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ho> the -- ...
  • phônês -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <phônê> voice, sound -- word
  • tautês -- demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <houtos> this -- (when) this
  • sunêlthen -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <sunerchomai> unite, come together -- came together
  • to -- article; nominative singular neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • plêthos -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <plêthos> multitude -- multitude
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • sunechuthê -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist passive of <sugchuô> confuse -- were confused
  • hoti -- conjunction; <hoti> because, that -- because
  • êkouon -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <akouô> hear, listen -- they heard
  • heis -- number; nominative singular masculine of <heis> one -- one
  • hekastos -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hekastos> each, every -- each
  • -- article; dative singular feminine of <ho> the -- ...
  • idia -- adjective; dative singular feminine of <idios> own -- (in his) own
  • dialektô -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <dialektos> language -- language
  • lalountôn -- verb; genitive plural masculine of present participle of <laleô> speak -- speaking
  • autôn -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- them

2:7 - existanto de kai ethaumazon legontes, ouchi idou pantes houtoi eisin hoi lalountes Galilaioi?

  • existanto -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect passive of <existêmi> be amazed -- they were amazed
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- and
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • ethaumazon -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <thaumazô> wonder -- wondered
  • legontes -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <legô> say -- saying
  • ouchi -- particle; <ouchi> not -- not
  • idou -- adverb; <idou> behold -- behold
  • pantes -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <pas> all, every -- all
  • houtoi -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <houtos> this -- these
  • eisin -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <eimi> I am -- are
  • hoi -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • lalountes -- verb; 3rd person plural masculine of present participle of <laleô> speak -- speakers
  • Galilaioi -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <Galilaios> Galilean -- Galileans

2:8 - Kai pôs hêmeis akouomen hekastos tê idia dialektô hêmôn en hê egennêthêmen?

  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • pôs -- interrogative particle; <pôs> how -- how
  • hêmeis -- pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <egô> I -- we
  • akouomen -- verb; 1st person plural present of <akouô> hear, listen -- do we hear (them speaking)
  • hekastos -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hekastos> each, every -- each (of us)
  • -- article; dative singular feminine of <ho> the -- ...
  • idia -- adjective; dative singular feminine of <idios> own -- own
  • dialektô -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <dialektos> language -- language
  • hêmôn -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <egô> I -- our
  • en -- preposition; <en> in -- in
  • -- relative pronoun; dative singular feminine of <hos> who, which -- which
  • egennêthêmen -- deponent verb; 1st person plural aorist passive of <gignomai> happen, become -- were born

2:9 - Parthoi kai Mêdoi kai Elamitai, kai hoi kataoikountes tên Mesopotamian, Ioudaian te kai Kappadokian, Ponton kai tên Asian,

  • Parthoi -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <Parthos> Parthian -- Parthians
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • Mêdoi -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <Mêdos> Mede -- Medes
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • Elamitai -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <Elamitai> Elamites -- Elamites
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • hoi -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • kataoikountes -- verb; nominative plural masculine of participle of <katoikeô> dwell -- dwellers
  • tên -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ho> the -- ...
  • Mesopotamian -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Mesopotamia> Mesopotamia -- Mesopotamia
  • Ioudaian -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Ioudaia> Judea -- Judea
  • te -- conjunction; <te> and -- ...
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • Kappadokian -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Kappadokia> Cappadocia -- Cappadocia
  • Ponton -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Pontos> Pontos -- Pontos
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • tên -- article; accusative singular feminine of <ho> the -- ...
  • Asian -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Asia> Asia -- Asia

2:10 - Phrugian te kai Pamphulian, Aigupton kai ta merê tês Libuês tês kata Kurênên, kai hoi epidêmountes Hrômaioi, Ioudaioi te kai prosêlutoi,

  • Phrugian -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Phrugia> Phrygia -- Phrygia
  • te -- conjunction; <te> and -- ...
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • Pamphulian -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Pamphulia> Pamphylia -- Pamphylia
  • Aigupton -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Aiguptos> Egypt -- Egypt
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • ta -- article; accusative plural neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • merê -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <meros> part -- parts
  • tês -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ho> the -- the
  • Libuês -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Libuê> Libya -- Libya
  • tês -- article; genitive singular feminine of <ho> the -- ...
  • kata -- preposition; <kata> completely, down, under -- about
  • Kurênên -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Kurênê> Cyrene -- Cyrene
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • hoi -- article; nominative plural masculine of <ho> the -- the
  • epidêmountes -- verb; nominative plural masculine of participle of <epidêmeô> come home from foreign parts -- returnees
  • Hrômaioi -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <Hrômaios> Roman -- Roman
  • Ioudaioi -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <Ioudaios> Jew -- Jews
  • te -- conjunction; <te> and -- ...
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • prosêlutoi -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <prosêlutos> convert -- converts

2:11 - Krêtes kai Arabes, akouomen lalountôn autôn tais hêmeterais glôssais ta megaleia tou theou.

  • Krêtes -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <Krês> Cretan -- Cretans
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • Arabes -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <Arabes> Arab -- Arabs
  • akouomen -- verb; 1st person plural present of <akouô> hear, listen -- we hear
  • lalountôn -- verb; genitive plural masculine of present participle of <laleô> speak -- speaking
  • autôn -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <autos> oneself, he -- them
  • tais -- article; dative plural feminine of <ho> the -- ...
  • hêmeterais -- adjective; dative plural feminine of <hêmeteros> our -- (in) our
  • glôssais -- noun, feminine; dative plural of <glôssa> tongue, language -- languages
  • ta -- article; accusative plural neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • megaleia -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural neuter of <megaleia> mighty works -- mighty works
  • tou -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • theou -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <theos> god -- of God

2:12 - existanto de pantes kai diêporounto, allos pros allon legontes, ti thelei touto einai?

  • existanto -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect passive of <existêmi> be amazed -- were amazed
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- and
  • pantes -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <pas> all, every -- all
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • diêporounto -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect middle of <diapoureô> to be quite at a loss -- were at a loss
  • allos -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <allos> other -- one
  • pros -- preposition; <pros> to -- to
  • allon -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <allos> other -- the other
  • legontes -- verb; nominative plural masculine of present participle of <legô> say -- saying
  • ti -- interrogative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <tis> who, what -- what
  • thelei -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <thelô> mean, purport -- does . . .mean
  • touto -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <houtos> this -- this
  • einai -- verb; infinitive of <eimi> I am -- ...

2:13 - heteroi de diachleuazontes elegon hoti gleukous memestômenoi eisin.

  • heteroi -- adjective used as substantive; nominative plural masculine of <heteros> other -- Others
  • de -- particle; <de> and, on the other hand -- but
  • diachleuazontes -- verb; nominative plural masculine of <diachleuazô> joke, mock -- mocking
  • elegon -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <legô> say -- said
  • hoti -- conjunction; <hoti> because, that -- that
  • gleukous -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <gleukos> new wine -- (with) new wine
  • memestômenoi -- verb; nominative plural masculine of passive participle of <mestoô> to fill full -- fully filled
  • eisin -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <eimi> I am -- are

Mark 3:35 (memory verse) - Hos an poiêsê to thelêma tou theou, houtos adelphos mou kai adelphê kai mêtêr estin.

  • hos -- relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hos> who, which -- whoever
  • an -- particle; <an> if -- ...
  • poiêsê -- verb; 3rd person singular optative aorist of <poieô> make, do -- shall do
  • to -- article; accusative singular neuter of <ho> the -- the
  • thelêma -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <thelêma> will -- will
  • tou -- article; genitive singular masculine of <ho> the -- ...
  • theou -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <theos> god -- of God
  • houtos -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <houtos> this -- he
  • adelphos -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <adelphos> brother -- brother
  • mou -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <egô> I -- my
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • adelphê -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <adelphê> sister -- sister
  • kai -- conjunction; <kai> and -- and
  • mêtêr -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <mêtêr> mother -- mother
  • estin -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <eimi> I am -- is

Lesson Text

2:1 Kai en tô sumplêrousthai tên hêmeran tês pentêkostês êsan pantes homou epi to auto. 2:2 kai egeneto aphnô ek tou ouranou êchos hôsper pheromenês pnoês biaias kai eplêrôsen holon ton oikon hou êsan kathêmenoi. 2:3 kai ôphthêsan autois diamerizomenai glôssai hôsei puros, kai ekathisen eph' hena hekaston autôn. 2:4 kai eplêsthêsan pantes pneumatos hagiou, kai êrxanto lalein heterais glôssais kathôs to pneuma edidou apophtheggesthai autois.

2:5 Êsan de eis Ierousalêm katoikountes Ioudaioi andres eulabeis apo pantos ethnous tôn hupo ton ouranon. 2:6 genomenês de tês phônês tautês sunêlthen to plêthos kai sunechuthê, hoti êkouon heis hekastos tê idia dialektô lalountôn autôn. 2:7 existanto de kai ethaumazon legontes, ouchi idou pantes houtoi eisin hoi lalountes Galilaioi? 2:8 Kai pôs hêmeis akouomen hekastos tê idia dialektô hêmôn en hê egennêthêmen? 2:9 Parthoi kai Mêdoi kai Elamitai, kai hoi kataoikountes tên Mesopotamian, Ioudaian te kai Kappadokian, Ponton kai tên Asian, 2:10 Phrugian te kai Pamphulian, Aigupton kai ta merê tês Libuês tês kata Kurênên, kai hoi epidêmountes Hrômaioi, Ioudaioi te kai prosêlutoi, 2:11 Krêtes kai Arabes, akouomen lalountôn autôn tais hêmeterais glôssais ta megaleia tou theou. 2:12 existanto de pantes kai diêporounto, allos pros allon legontes, ti thelei touto einai?

2:13 heteroi de diachleuazontes elegon hoti gleukous memestômenoi eisin.

Mark 3:35 (memory verse) - Hos an poiêsê to thelêma tou theou, houtos adelphos mou kai adelphê kai mêtêr estin.

Translation

From the King James version:
2:1 And when the day of Pentecost was fully come, they were all with one accord in one place. 2 And suddenly there came a sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting. 3 And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon each of them. 4 And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance.
5 And there were dwelling at Jerusalem Jews, devout men, out of every nation under heaven. 6 Now when this was noised abroad, the multitude came together, and were confounded, because that every man heard them speak in his own language. 7 And they were all amazed and marvelled, saying one to another, Behold, are not all these which speak Galilaeans? 8 And how hear we every man in our own tongue, wherein we were born? 9 Parthians, and Medes, and Elamites, and the dwellers in Mesopotamia, and in Judaea, and Cappadocia, in Pontus, and Asia, 10 Phrygia, and Pamphylia, in Egypt, and in the parts of Libya about Cyrene, and strangers of Rome, Jews and proselytes, 11 Cretes and Arabians, we do hear them speak in our tongues the wonderful works of God. 12 And they were all amazed, and were in doubt, saying one to another, What meaneth this?
13 Others mocking said, These men are full of new wine.
Mark 3:35 (memory verse) --
For whosoever shall do the will of God, the same is my brother, and my sister, and mother.

Grammar

41. Verbs in -mi; the present and imperfect active system.

A small number of frequent verbs have different endings and formations from those of the general verbs. Among these are tithêmi 'put', hiêmi 'send', histêmi, and didômi 'give'. The present forms of tithêmi are given here to illustrate their forms. The forms of the others are comparable, though didômi has o-vowels corresponding to the e-vowels of the three other verbs.

    Present   Imperfect
1 sg   tithêmi   etithên
2 sg   tithês   etitheis
3 sg   tithêsi(n)   etithei
         
1 pl   tithemen   etithemen
2 pl   tithete   etithete
3 pl   titheasi(n)   etithesan

    Subjunctive   Optative   Imperative
1 sg   tithô   titheiên    
2 sg   tithês   titheiês   tithei
3 sg   tithê   titheiê   tithetô
             
1 pl   tithômen   titheimen    
2 pl   tithête   titheite   tithete
3 pl   tithôsi(n)   titheien   tithentôn
42. Forms of the aorist active.
    Indicative   Subjunctive   Optative   Imperative
1 sg   ethêka   thô   theiên    
2 sg   ethêkas   thês   theiês   thes
3 sg   ethêke(n)   thê   theiê   thetô
                 
1 pl   ethemen   thômen   theimen    
2 pl   ethete   thête   theiête   thete
3 pl   ethesan   thôsi(n)   theien   thentôn
43. Forms of the Present and Imperfect system of eimi 'am'.
    Present   Imperfect
1 sg   eimi   ên
2 sg   ei   êstha
3 sg   esti(n)   ên
         
1 pl   esmen   êmen
2 pl   este   ête
3 pl   eisi(n)   êsan

    Subjunctive   Optative   Imperative
1 sg   ô   eiên    
2 sg   ês   eiês   isthi
3 sg   ê   eiê   estô
             
1 pl   ômen   eiêmen    
2 pl   ête   eiête   este
3 pl   ôsi(n)   eiêsan   estôn
44. Forms of oida 'I know'.

oida is a perfect with present meaning. It is based on a root meaning 'see', so that the perfect has developed in meaning from 'I have seen' to 'I know'. The forms representing present and past time are given here.

    Present   Past
1 sg   oida 'I know'   êdê 'I knew'
2 sg   oistha 'thou knowest'   êdêstha 'thou knewest'
3 sg   oide(n) 'he/she knows'   êdei 'he/she knew'
         
1 pl   ismen 'we know'   êdmen 'we knew'
2 pl   iste 'you know'   êdete 'you knew'
3 pl   isasi(n) 'they know'   êdesan 'they knew'
45. Particles.

As you have noted in the texts, particles are numerous in Greek texts. Moreover, they are often left untranslated. They may modify meaning much as intonation does in English; if then translated with their meaning given in dictionaries, such as 'indeed, to be sure' and so on, the English sentence is turgid. In combinations, such as kai de, kai merely adds emphasis. Particles then must be treated in relation to one another and to the entire sentence.

There are two negative particles, also called adverbs, ou (oute, ouk, etc.), and , which is required in sentences expressing a desire and is used in conditions.

There are several interrogative particles, of which and ara are the most frequent. Other particles are listed here in alphabetical order.

alla 'on the other hand, but, on the contrary'
hama 'at the same time, at once'
ara 'therefore, then' (note the different accentuation from the interrogative particle)
gar 'for'
ge 'indeed, certainly'
de 'but, however' (often used as a connective, and need not be translated)
'already, now' (or used to add emphasis)
ê 'truly, really'
ê 'or' (often doubled with the meanings 'either ...or')
kai 'and' or, as used for emphasis, 'even'
men 'indeed' (may be used with de to indicate a correlation, and not translated)
oude 'and not'
oun 'indeed, certainly; therefore'
oute ... oute, mête ... mête 'neither ... nor'
per 'even, indeed'
te 'and'; te ... te 'both ... and'; te ... kai 'not only ... but also'