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Old Church Slavonic Online

Lesson 4

Todd B. Krause and Jonathan Slocum

After his brother's death, Methodius set out to continue their common work. In short order Kocel made a request to the Pope to allow Methodius to return to Moravia. In a letter addressed not only to Kocel, but also to the Princes Rostislav and Sventopluk, the Pope granted permission for the return and the use of the Slavonic liturgy on the condition that the Epistle and Gospel be read first in Latin before Slavonic.

After a brief stay in Pannonia, Methodius returned to Rome and was given papal authority to administer over Pannonia and Moravia. This had the undesirable consequence of enraging the Bavarian bishops in Passau and Salzburg who laid claim to the same territory. When Sventopluk, with the aid of the Franks, dethroned Rostislav in 870 or 871, Methodius was taken into custody and left to the mercy of the German bishops. As a result, Methodius was imprisoned for two and a half years. Finally Pope John VIII became aware of Methodius' plight and petitioned for his release. Methodius immediately returned to Moravia, this time under more favorable auspices, since Sventopluk had since driven out the German clergy. The tides briefly turned against Methodius when, in 879, Pope John VIII forbade the use of the Slavonic liturgy. But Methodius' diligence again gained a sympathetic ear, and the Pope subsequently ordered Sventopluk to reinstate the Slavonic liturgy in 880.

In the final years of his life Methodius endeavored to complete the task of translation started earlier with his brother. The two together seem to have translated the Psalter and New Testament, save Revelation. Methodius continued by translating the Old Testament to the exclusion of Maccabees, and other liturgical texts. Methodius finally passed away on 6 April 885.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The beginning of the story of the Death of Lazarus, John 11:1-23, follows below. This passage represents a climax in the miracles worked by Jesus, and the OCS translation consequently remains very close to the original. Dialogue features prominently within the passage, and its rendering in OCS reveals several questions about our knowledge of the OCS language. The attempt to reconstruct some approximation to the spoken language from its often meager representation in written documents is a task that occupies a central position in historical linguistics. On the surface this passage affords us a rare window into such spoken discourse. One finds herein several direct statements from Jesus, His disciples, and Martha.

Several mitigating factors, however, must inform one's analysis of the dialogue. First and foremost, the wording remains extremely close to the original Greek. For instance,

сє єгожє л҄юбиши болитъ 'Lo! whom you love is sick'

corresponds word for word to the Greek. The same holds true for the rest of the direct speech in this passage. Hence, as we attempt to tease out the colloquial speech habits of the Slavonic speaking community for whom this was written, we are reined in by the possibility that the sentence structure is dictated more by the Greek than the OCS. As always, one must bear in mind that the translation was made to be understood, and thus the phrasing must be reasonably close to what a native speaker would say; nevertheless such a statement might never be uttered by a native speaker.

In addition to the problem of rendering the mere speech encountered in the passage, the translator here was forced to cope with the problem of rendering vocal misunderstanding. To wit, Jesus tells his disciples that Lazarus "is asleep", yet the disciples misunderstand this as mere slumber instead of the intended euphemism for death. The Greek uses the word kekoimetai 'is asleep'; the basic sense is one of 'lying down', and therefore may be interpreted as lying down in slumber or in death. The Greek then states more precisely which interpretation the disciples chose, saying the disciples thought Jesus spoke of the koimeseos tou hypnou 'of the lying down of sleep'. The problem faced by the translator is to emulate this situation: first to use a phrase with a double meaning; then to resolve the ambiguity by means of another qualifying word or phrase.

The phrase chosen for this resolution is о ѹсъпєньи съна. The question remains as to how effectively this clears the ambiguity. Both words are clearly cognate to the word for 'sleep' -- is this phrase therefore any more specific than the original word ѹсъпє '(Our friend Lazarus) is asleep' which led to the initial confusion? Given the rarity of ѹсъпєньє in OCS texts, it is difficult to establish in English its distinction from сънъ. It is in fact unclear whether this rare word was actually a word in common use chosen to translate koimesis, or whether it was a coinage devised specifically for translational purposes.

What has happened, in fact, is that the translator has actually followed the morpho-syntactic structure of the Greek: the initial verb kekoimetai is subsequently elucidated by a cognate abstract noun koimesis with a qualifying genitive. Similarly in OCS, the verb ѹсъпє is subsequently elucidated by a cognate abstract noun ѹсъпєньє with a qualifying genitive. Such close following of the original Greek must give the historical linguist pause in drawing any concrete conclusions on the nature of the spoken OCS language as represented in the extant manuscripts.

бѣ жє болѧ єтєръ лазаръ отъ виѳаньѧ градьца марьина и марѳъі сєстръі єѧ | бѣ жє марьја помазавъшија господа мѵромъ и отьръши ноѕѣ єго власъі своими єѧжє братъ лазаръ болѣашє |

  • бѣ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- was
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- now
  • болѧ -- verb; present active participle; nominative singular masculine of <болѣти, -лѫ, -лиши> be ill -- sick
  • єтєръ -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <єтєръ> one, a certain -- a certain (man)
  • лазаръ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Лазаръ> Lazarus -- (named) Lazarus
  • отъ -- preposition; <отъ> by, from, of -- of
  • виѳаньѧ -- proper noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Виѳаньа> Bethany -- Bethany
  • градьца -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <градьць> town, garden -- the town
  • марьина -- adjective; genitive singular masculine of <марьинъ> of Mary, Mary's -- of Mary
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • марѳъі -- proper noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Марѳа> Martha -- Martha
  • сєстръі -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <сєстра> sister -- sister
  • єѧ -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <> he -- her
  • бѣ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- it was
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- ...
  • марьја -- proper noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Марьја> Maria, Mary -- (that) Mary
  • помазавъшија -- verb; past active participle; nominative singular feminine of <помазати, -заѭ, -заѥши> anoint -- which anointed
  • господа -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <господь> lord, master -- the Lord
  • мѵромъ -- noun, neuter; instrumental singular of <мѵро> anointing-oil -- with ointment
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • отьръши -- verb; past active participle; nominative singular feminine of <отрѣти, -рѫ, -рєши> rub, wipe off -- wiped
  • ноѕѣ -- noun, feminine; accusative dual of <нога> foot -- feet
  • єго -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <> he -- his
  • власъі -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <власъ> hair -- with... hair
  • своими -- possessive adjective; instrumental plural masculine of <свои, своє, своја> own, one's own -- her
  • єѧжє -- relative pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <ижє> who, which -- whose
  • братъ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <братръ, братъ> brother -- brother
  • лазаръ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Лазаръ> Lazarus -- Lazarus
  • болѣашє -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <болѣти, -лѫ, -лиши> be ill -- was sick

посъластє жє сєстрѣ єго къ н҄ємѹ глагол҄ѭщи господи сє єгожє л҄юбиши болитъ | слъішавъ жє иисѹсъ рєчє си болѣзнь нѣстъ къ съмрьти нъ о славѣ божьи да прославитъ сѧ съінъ божьи єѭ |

  • посъластє -- verb; 3rd person dual aorist of <посълати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> send, summon -- sent
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- therefore
  • сєстрѣ -- noun, feminine; nominative dual of <сєстра> sister -- sisters
  • єго -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <> he -- his
  • къ -- preposition; <къ> to, for -- unto
  • н҄ємѹ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <> he -- him
  • глагол҄ѭщи -- verb; present active participle; nominative dual feminine of <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- saying
  • господи -- noun, masculine; vocative singular of <господь> lord, master -- Lord
  • сє -- interjection; <сє> lo, behold -- behold
  • єгожє -- relative pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <ижє> who, which -- he whom
  • л҄юбиши -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <любити, -блѭ, -биши> love -- thou lovest
  • болитъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <болѣти, -лѫ, -лиши> be ill -- is sick
  • слъішавъ -- verb; past active participle; nominative singular masculine of <слъішати, -шѫ, -шиши> hear -- (when)... heard (that)
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- ...
  • иисѹсъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Иисѹсъ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • рєчє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- he said
  • си -- demonstrative adjective; nominative singular feminine of <сь> this -- this
  • болѣзнь -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <болѣзнь> sickness -- sickness
  • нѣстъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <нє ѥс-, ѥсмь, ѥси> not be -- is not
  • къ -- preposition; <къ> to, for -- unto
  • съмрьти -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <съмрьть> death -- death
  • нъ -- conjunction; <нъ> but -- but
  • о -- preposition; <о> around, concerning; against -- for
  • славѣ -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <слава> fame, glory -- the glory
  • божьи -- possessive adjective; locative singular feminine of <божьи> divine, of god, god's -- of God
  • да -- conjunction; <да> in order to, that; may, let; and, then -- that
  • прославитъ сѧ -- verb; 3rd person singular passive present of <прославити, -вл҄ѭ, -виши> praise, glorify -- might be glorified
  • съінъ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <съінъ> son -- the Son
  • божьи -- possessive adjective; locative singular feminine of <божьи> divine, of god, god's -- of God
  • єѭ -- pronoun; instrumental singular feminine of <> he -- thereby

любл҄јаашє жє иисѹсъ марѳѫ и сєстрѫ єѧ и лазара | єгда жє ѹслъіша јако болитъ тогда жє прѣбъістъ на н҄ємь жє бѣ мѣстѣ дъва дьни |

  • любл҄јаашє -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <любити, -блѭ, -биши> love -- loved
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- now
  • иисѹсъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Иисѹсъ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • марѳѫ -- proper noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Марѳа> Martha -- Martha
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • сєстрѫ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <сєстра> sister -- sister
  • єѧ -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <> he -- her
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • лазара -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Лазаръ> Lazarus -- Lazarus
  • єгда жє -- relative adverb; <єгда жє> when -- when... therefore
  • ѹслъіша -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ѹслъішати, -шѫ, -шиши> hear, find out -- he had heard
  • јако -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- that
  • болитъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <болѣти, -лѫ, -лиши> be ill -- he was sick
  • тогда жє -- correlative adverb; <тогда жє> then -- ...
  • прѣбъістъ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <прѣбъіти, -бѫдѫ, -бѫдєши> remain, abide -- he abode... (still)
  • на -- preposition; <на> in, on; at, against; for -- in
  • н҄ємь жє -- relative pronoun; locative singular neuter of <ижє> who, which -- where
  • бѣ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- he was
  • мѣстѣ -- noun, neuter; locative singular of <мѣсто> place -- the (same) place
  • дъва -- adjective; accusative dual masculine of <дъва, дъвѣ> two -- two
  • дьни -- noun, masculine; accusative dual of <дьнь> day -- days

по томь жє глагола ѹчєникомъ идѣмъ въ июдѣѭ пакъі | глаголашѧ ємѹ ѹчєници єго равви нъін҄ја искаахѫ тєбє камєньємь побити июдѣи и пакъі идєши тамо |

  • по -- preposition; <по> after; according to -- after
  • томь -- demonstrative pronoun; locative singular neuter of <тъ> that, that one -- that
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- then
  • глагола -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- saith he
  • ѹчєникомъ -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <ѹчєникъ> student, disciple -- to (his) disciples
  • идѣмъ -- verb; 1st person plural imperative of <ити, идѫ, идєши> go -- let us go
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- into
  • июдѣѭ -- proper noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Июдѣа> Judea -- Judea
  • пакъі -- adverb; <пакъі> back, again -- again
  • глаголашѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- say
  • ємѹ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <> he -- unto him
  • ѹчєници -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <ѹчєникъ> student, disciple -- disciples
  • єго -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <> he -- his
  • равви -- noun, masculine; vocative singular of <равви> rabbi, teacher -- master
  • нъін҄ја -- adverb; <нъін҄ја> now -- of late
  • искаахѫ -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <искати, искаѭ, искаѥши> seek -- sought
  • тєбє -- pronoun; genitive singular of <тъі> you, thou -- thee
  • камєньємь -- noun, neuter; instrumental singular of <камєньє> stones -- ...
  • побити -- verb; infinitive of <побити, -биѭ, -биѥши> kill -- to stone
  • июдѣи -- adjective used as substantive; nominative plural masculine of <Июдѣи> Jew, Judean -- the Jews
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • пакъі -- adverb; <пакъі> back, again -- again
  • идєши -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <идєти, идѫ, идєши> go -- goest thou
  • тамо -- adverb; <тамо> there, to that place, thither -- thither

отъвѣща иисѹсъ нє дъвѣ ли на дєсѧтє годинѣ єстє въ дьнє | ащє къто ходитъ въ дьнє нє потъкнєтъ сѧ јако свѣтъ мира сєго видитъ | ащє ли къто ходитъ нощьѭ потъкнєтъ сѧ јако свѣта нѣстъ о н҄ємь |

  • отъвѣща -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <отвѣштати, -таѭ, -таѥши> respond, answer -- answered
  • иисѹсъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Иисѹсъ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • нє -- particle; <нє> not -- not
  • дъвѣ -- adjective; nominative dual feminine of <дъва, дъвѣ> two -- ...
  • ли -- interrogative particle; <ли> or; whether -- ...
  • на -- preposition; <на> in, on; at, against; for -- ...
  • дєсѧтє -- number; locative singular feminine of <дєсѧть> ten -- twelve
  • годинѣ -- noun, feminine; nominative dual of <година> time, hour -- hours
  • єстє -- verb; 3rd person dual present of <ѥс-, ѥсмь, ѥси> be -- are there
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • дьнє -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <дьнь> day -- the day
  • ащє -- particle; <аштє> if, whether -- if
  • къто -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <къто> someone -- any (man)
  • ходитъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <ходити, -ждѫ, -диши> walk, go -- walk
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • дьнє -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <дьнь> day -- the day
  • нє -- particle; <нє> not -- not
  • потъкнєтъ сѧ -- reflexive verb; 3rd person singular present of <потъкнѫти, -нѫ, -нєши> set up, prop up; strike -- he stumbleth
  • јако -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- because
  • свѣтъ -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <свѣтъ> light -- the light
  • мира -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <миръ> world; peace -- of... world
  • сєго -- demonstrative adjective; genitive singular masculine of <сь> this -- this
  • видитъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <видѣти, виждѫ, видиши> see -- he seeth
  • ащє -- particle; <аштє> if, whether -- if
  • ли -- interrogative particle; <ли> or; whether -- but
  • къто -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <къто> someone -- a (man)
  • ходитъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <ходити, -ждѫ, -диши> walk, go -- walk
  • нощьѭ -- noun, feminine; instrumental singular of <ношть> night -- in the night
  • потъкнєтъ сѧ -- reflexive verb; 3rd person singular present of <потъкнѫти, -нѫ, -нєши> set up, prop up; strike -- he stumbleth
  • јако -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- because
  • свѣта -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <свѣтъ> light -- light
  • нѣстъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <нє ѥс-, ѥсмь, ѥси> not be -- there is no
  • о -- preposition; <о> around, concerning; against -- in
  • н҄ємь -- pronoun; locative singular masculine of <> he -- him

си рєчє и по сємь глагола имъ лазаръ дрѹгъ нашь ѹсъпє нъ идѫ да възбѹждѫ и | рѣшѧ жє ємѹ ѹчєници єго господи ащє ѹсъпє съпасєнъ бѫдєтъ |

  • си -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <сь> this -- these things
  • рєчє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- said he
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • по -- preposition; <по> after; according to -- after
  • сємь -- demonstrative pronoun; locative singular neuter of <сь> this -- that
  • глагола -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- saith
  • имъ -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <> he -- unto them
  • лазаръ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Лазаръ> Lazarus -- Lazarus
  • дрѹгъ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <дрѹгъ> friend -- friend
  • нашь -- possessive adjective; nominative singular masculine of <нашь> our, of us -- our
  • ѹсъпє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ѹсънѫти, -нѫ, -нєши> fall asleep -- sleepeth
  • нъ -- conjunction; <нъ> but -- but
  • идѫ -- verb; 1st person singular present of <идєти, идѫ, идєши> go -- I go
  • да -- conjunction; <да> in order to, that; may, let; and, then -- that
  • възбѹждѫ -- verb; 1st person singular present of <възбѹдити, -ждѫ, -диши> wake up, rouse -- I may awake... out of sleep
  • и -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <> he -- him
  • рѣшѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- said
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- then
  • ємѹ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <> he -- ...
  • ѹчєници -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <ѹчєникъ> student, disciple -- disciples
  • єго -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <> he -- his
  • господи -- noun, masculine; vocative singular of <господь> lord, master -- Lord
  • ащє -- particle; <аштє> if, whether -- if
  • ѹсъпє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ѹсънѫти, -нѫ, -нєши> fall asleep -- he sleep
  • съпасєнъ -- verb; past passive participle; nominative singular masculine of <съпасти, -сѫ, -сєши> save -- do well
  • бѫдєтъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- he shall

вѣща жє иисѹсъ о съмрьти єго они жє мьнѣшѧ јако о ѹсъпєньи съна глагол҄єтъ | тогда рєчє имъ иисѹсъ нє обинѹѧ сѧ лазаръ ѹмрѣтъ и радѹѭ сѧ васъ ради да вѣрѫ имєтє јако нє бѣхъ тѹ нъ идємъ къ н҄ємѹ |

  • вѣща -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <вѣштати, -таѭ, -таѥши> speak -- spake
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- howbeit
  • иисѹсъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Иисѹсъ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • о -- preposition; <о> around, concerning; against -- of
  • съмрьти -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <съмрьть> death -- death
  • єго -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <> he -- his
  • они -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <онъ> that -- they
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- but
  • мьнѣшѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <мьнѣти, -нѭ, -ниши> think, assume -- thought
  • јако -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- that
  • о -- preposition; <о> around, concerning; against -- of
  • ѹсъпєньи -- noun, neuter; locative singular of <ѹсъпєньє> lying down, going to sleep -- taking of rest
  • съна -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <сънъ> sleep -- in sleep
  • глагол҄єтъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- he had spoken
  • тогда -- adverb; <тогда> then -- then
  • рєчє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- said
  • имъ -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <> he -- unto them
  • иисѹсъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Иисѹсъ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • нє -- particle; <нє> not -- ...
  • обинѹѧ сѧ -- verb; present reflexive participle; nominative singular masculine of <обинѫти сѧ, -нѫ, -нєши> avoid; restrain oneself -- plainly
  • лазаръ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Лазаръ> Lazarus -- Lazarus
  • ѹмрѣтъ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ѹмрѣти, -рѫ, -рєши> die -- is dead
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • радѹѭ сѧ -- verb; 1st person singular reflexive present of <радовати сѧ, -дѹѭ, -дѹѥши> rejoice, be glad -- I am glad
  • васъ -- pronoun; genitive plural of <тъі> you, thou -- your
  • ради -- postposition; <ради> for, for the sake of, because of -- for... sakes
  • да -- conjunction; <да> in order to, that; may, let; and, then -- to the intent
  • вѣрѫ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <вѣра> faith, belief -- ...
  • имєтє -- verb; 2nd person plural present of <ѩти, имѫ, имєши> take, seize -- ye may believe
  • јако -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- that
  • нє -- particle; <нє> not -- not
  • бѣхъ -- verb; 1st person singular aorist of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- I was
  • тѹ -- adverb; <тѹ> there; then -- there
  • нъ -- conjunction; <нъ> but -- nevertheless
  • идємъ -- verb; 1st person plural present of <ити, идѫ, идєши> go -- let us go
  • къ -- preposition; <къ> to, for -- unto
  • н҄ємѹ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <> he -- him

рєчє жє ѳома нарицаємъи близньць къ ѹчєникомъ идѣмъ мъі да ѹмьрємъ съ н҄имь | пришєдъ жє иисѹсъ въ виѳаньѭ обрѣтє и южє чєтъіри дьни имѫщь въ гробѣ |

  • рєчє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- said
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- then
  • ѳома -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ѳома> Thomas -- Thomas
  • нарицаємъи -- verb; past passive participle; nominative singular masculine of <нарицати, -цаѭ, -цаѥши> call, name -- which is called
  • близньць -- adjective used as substantive; nominative singular masculine of <близньць> twin -- didymus
  • къ -- preposition; <къ> to, for -- unto
  • ѹчєникомъ -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <ѹчєникъ> student, disciple -- (his fellow) disciples
  • идѣмъ -- verb; 1st person plural imperative of <ити, идѫ, идєши> go -- let us (also) go
  • мъі -- pronoun; nominative plural of <азъ> I -- ...
  • да -- conjunction; <да> in order to, that; may, let; and, then -- that
  • ѹмьрємъ -- verb; 1st person plural present of <ѹмрѣти, -рѫ, -рєши> die -- we may die
  • съ -- preposition; <съ> with -- with
  • н҄имь -- pronoun; instrumental singular masculine of <> he -- him
  • пришєдъ -- verb; past active participle; nominative singular masculine of <прити, -идѫ, -идєши> come, arrive -- (when)... came
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- then
  • иисѹсъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Иисѹсъ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- ...
  • виѳаньѭ -- proper noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Виѳаньа> Bethany -- ...
  • обрѣтє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <обрѣшти, -рѧштѫ, -рѧштєши> find, discover -- he found (that)
  • и -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <> he -- he
  • южє -- adverb; <южє> already -- already
  • чєтъіри -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <чєтъірє, чєтъіри> four -- four
  • дьни -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <дьнь> day -- days
  • имѫщь -- verb; present active participle; accusative singular masculine of <ѩти, имѫ, имєши> take, seize -- had (lain)
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • гробѣ -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <гробъ> grave, ditch -- the grave

бѣ жє виѳаньја близ иєрѹсалима јако пѧть на дєсѧтє стадии | мъноѕи жє отъ июдѣи бѣахѫ пришьли къ марѳѣ и марьи да ѹтѣшаѭтъ и о братрѣ єю |

  • бѣ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- was
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- now
  • виѳаньја -- proper noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Виѳаньа> Bethany -- Bethany
  • близ -- preposition; <близь> near (to) -- nigh unto
  • иєрѹсалима -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Иєрѹсалимъ> Jerusalem -- Jerusalem
  • јако -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- about
  • пѧть -- number; accusative singular feminine of <пѧть> five -- five
  • на -- preposition; <на> in, on; at, against; for -- ...
  • дєсѧтє -- number; locative singular feminine of <дєсѧть> ten -- teen
  • стадии -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <стадии> stade -- furlongs (off)
  • мъноѕи -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <мъногъ> much, many -- many
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- and
  • отъ -- preposition; <отъ> by, from, of -- of
  • июдѣи -- adjective used as substantive; genitive plural masculine of <Июдѣи> Jew, Judean -- the Jews
  • бѣахѫ -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- ...
  • пришьли -- verb; past active participle; nominative plural masculine of <прити, -идѫ, -идєши> come, arrive -- came
  • къ -- preposition; <къ> to, for -- to
  • марѳѣ -- proper noun, feminine; dative singular of <Марѳа> Martha -- Martha
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • марьи -- proper noun, feminine; dative singular of <Марьја> Maria, Mary -- Mary
  • да -- conjunction; <да> in order to, that; may, let; and, then -- to
  • ѹтѣшаѭтъ -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <ѹтѣшати, -шаѭ, -шаѥши> comfort -- comfort
  • и -- pronoun; accusative dual feminine of <> he -- them
  • о -- preposition; <о> around, concerning; against -- concerning
  • братрѣ -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <братръ, братъ> brother -- brother
  • єю -- pronoun; genitive dual feminine of <> he -- their

марѳа жє єгда ѹслъіша јако иисѹсъ грѧдєтъ сърѣтъ и а марьја дома сѣдѣашє | рєчє жє марѳа къ иисѹсѹ господи ащє би сьдє бъілъ нє би братръ мои ѹмрьлъ |

  • марѳа -- proper noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Марѳа> Martha -- Martha
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- then
  • єгда -- relative adverb; <єгда> when -- as soon as
  • ѹслъіша -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ѹслъішати, -шѫ, -шиши> hear, find out -- she heard
  • јако -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- that
  • иисѹсъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Иисѹсъ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • грѧдєтъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <грѧсти, грѧдѫ, грѧдєши> come, walk -- was coming
  • сърѣтъ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <сърѣсти, -рѧштѫ, -рѧштєши> meet -- (went and) met
  • и -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <> he -- him
  • а -- conjunction; <а> and, but; if -- but
  • марьја -- proper noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Марьја> Maria, Mary -- Mary
  • дома -- adverb; <дома> at home -- in the house
  • сѣдѣашє -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <сѣдѣти, -ждѫ, -диши> sit, remain -- sat still
  • рєчє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- said
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- then
  • марѳа -- proper noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Марѳа> Martha -- Martha
  • къ -- preposition; <къ> to, for -- unto
  • иисѹсѹ -- proper noun, masculine; dative singular of <Иисѹсъ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • господи -- noun, masculine; vocative singular of <господь> lord, master -- Lord
  • ащє -- particle; <аштє> if, whether -- if
  • би -- verb; 2nd person singular conditional-optative of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- thou hadst
  • сьдє -- adverb; <сьдє> here -- here
  • бъілъ -- verb; past active participle; nominative singular masculine of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- been
  • нє -- particle; <нє> not -- not
  • би -- verb; 3rd person singular conditional-optative of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- had
  • братръ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <братръ, братъ> brother -- brother
  • мои -- possessive adjective; nominative singular masculine of <мои> my -- my
  • ѹмрьлъ -- verb; past active participle; nominative singular masculine of <ѹмрѣти, -рѫ, -рєши> die -- died

нъін҄ја вѣмь јако єгожє колижьдо просиши ѹ бога дастъ тєбѣ богъ | глагола єи иисѹсъ въскрьсьнєтъ братръ твои |

  • нъін҄ја -- adverb; <нъін҄ја> now -- even now
  • вѣмь -- verb; 1st person singular present of <вѣдѣти, вѣмь, вѣси> see, know -- (but) ... I know
  • јако -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- that
  • єгожє -- relative pronoun; genitive singular neuter of <ижє> who, which -- what
  • колижьдо -- participle; <колижьдо> ever -- soever
  • просиши -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <просити, -шѫ, -сиши> ask, demand -- thou wilt ask
  • ѹ -- preposition; <ѹ> near, by; from -- of
  • бога -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <богъ> god -- God
  • дастъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <дати, дамь, даси> give -- will give (it)
  • тєбѣ -- pronoun; dative singular of <тъі> you, thou -- thee
  • богъ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <богъ> god -- God
  • глагола -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- saith
  • єи -- pronoun; dative singular feminine of <> he -- unto her
  • иисѹсъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Иисѹсъ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • въскрьсьнєтъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <въскръснѫти, -нѫ, -нєши> rise again, be resurrected -- shall rise again
  • братръ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <братръ, братъ> brother -- brother
  • твои -- possessive adjective; nominative singular masculine of <твои> your, thy -- thy

Lesson Text

бѣ жє болѧ єтєръ лазаръ отъ виѳаньѧ градьца марьина и марѳъі сєстръі єѧ | бѣ жє марьја помазавъшија господа мѵромъ и отьръши ноѕѣ єго власъі своими єѧжє братъ лазаръ болѣашє | посъластє жє сєстрѣ єго къ н҄ємѹ глагол҄ѭщи господи сє єгожє л҄юбиши болитъ | слъішавъ жє иисѹсъ рєчє си болѣзнь нѣстъ къ съмрьти нъ о славѣ божьи да прославитъ сѧ съінъ божьи єѭ | любл҄јаашє жє иисѹсъ марѳѫ и сєстрѫ єѧ и лазара | єгда жє ѹслъіша јако болитъ тогда жє прѣбъістъ на н҄ємь жє бѣ мѣстѣ дъва дьни | по томь жє глагола ѹчєникомъ идѣмъ въ июдѣѭ пакъі | глаголашѧ ємѹ ѹчєници єго равви нъін҄ја искаахѫ тєбє камєньємь побити июдѣи и пакъі идєши тамо | отъвѣща иисѹсъ нє дъвѣ ли на дєсѧтє годинѣ єстє въ дьнє | ащє къто ходитъ въ дьнє нє потъкнєтъ сѧ јако свѣтъ мира сєго видитъ | ащє ли къто ходитъ нощьѭ потъкнєтъ сѧ јако свѣта нѣстъ о н҄ємь | си рєчє и по сємь глагола имъ лазаръ дрѹгъ нашь ѹсъпє нъ идѫ да възбѹждѫ и | рѣшѧ жє ємѹ ѹчєници єго господи ащє ѹсъпє съпасєнъ бѫдєтъ | вѣща жє иисѹсъ о съмрьти єго они жє мьнѣшѧ јако о ѹсъпєньи съна глагол҄єтъ | тогда рєчє имъ иисѹсъ нє обинѹѧ сѧ лазаръ ѹмрѣтъ и радѹѭ сѧ васъ ради да вѣрѫ имєтє јако нє бѣхъ тѹ нъ идємъ къ н҄ємѹ | рєчє жє ѳома нарицаємъи близньць къ ѹчєникомъ идѣмъ мъі да ѹмьрємъ съ н҄имь | пришєдъ жє иисѹсъ въ виѳаньѭ обрѣтє и южє чєтъіри дьни имѫщь въ гробѣ | бѣ жє виѳаньја близ иєрѹсалима јако пѧть на дєсѧтє стадии | мъноѕи жє отъ июдѣи бѣахѫ пришьли къ марѳѣ и марьи да ѹтѣшаѭтъ и о братрѣ єю | марѳа жє єгда ѹслъіша јако иисѹсъ грѧдєтъ сърѣтъ и а марьја дома сѣдѣашє | рєчє жє марѳа къ иисѹсѹ господи ащє би сьдє бъілъ нє би братръ мои ѹмрьлъ | нъін҄ја вѣмь јако єгожє колижьдо просиши ѹ бога дастъ тєбѣ богъ | глагола єи иисѹсъ въскрьсьнєтъ братръ твои |

Translation

Now a certain man was sick, named Lazarus, of Bethany, the town of Mary and her sister Martha. (2) (It was that Mary which anointed the Lord with ointment, and wiped his feet with her hair, whose brother Lazarus was sick.) (3) Therefore his sisters sent unto him, saying, Lord, behold, he whom thou lovest is sick. (4) When Jesus heard that, he said, This sickness is not unto death, but for the glory of God, that the Son of God might be glorified thereby. (5) Now Jesus loved Martha, and her sister, and Lazarus. (6) When he had heard therefore that he was sick, he abode two days still in the same place where he was. (7) Then after that saith he to his disciples, Let us go into Judaea again. (8) His disciples say unto him, Master, the Jews of late sought to stone thee; and goest thou thither again? (9) Jesus answered, Are there not twelve hours in the day? If any man walk in the day, he stumbleth not, because he seeth the light of this world. (10) But if a man walk in the night, he stumbleth, because there is no light in him. (11) These things said he: and after that he saith unto them, Our friend Lazarus sleepeth; but I go, that I may awake him out of sleep. (12) Then said his disciples, Lord, if he sleep, he shall do well. (13) Howbeit Jesus spake of his death: but they thought that he had spoken of taking of rest in sleep. (14) Then said Jesus unto them plainly, Lazarus is dead. (15) And I am glad for your sakes that I was not there, to the intent ye may believe; nevertheless let us go unto him. (16) Then said Thomas, which is called Didymus, unto his fellow disciples, Let us also go, that we may die with him. (17) Then when Jesus came, he found that he had lain in the grave four days already. (18) Now Bethany was nigh unto Jerusalem, about fifteen furlongs off: (19) And many of the Jews came to Martha and Mary, to comfort them concerning their brother. (20) Then Martha, as soon as she heard that Jesus was coming, went and met him: but Mary sat still in the house. (21) Then said Martha unto Jesus, Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died. (22) But I know, that even now, whatsoever thou wilt ask of God, God will give it thee. (23) Jesus saith unto her, Thy brother shall rise again.

Grammar

16. Consonant Stem Nouns

The term consonant stem is used to designate a broad group of less frequent nouns which share a common set of declensional endings. Most may be viewed as original consonant stems back to the Indo-European period. Some, however, are only to be seen as consonant stems within the OCS language itself. The hallmark of this system of declension is the genitive ending -є. Sometimes one finds the genitive in -и by analogy with the i-stem nouns, and in the later stages of the language the distinction between the two declension types is lost.

16.1. v-Stem Nouns

This is a class of nouns not properly deemed "consonant stems" on historical grounds. Originally they were long-u-stems. However because OCS treats v as a consonant, and because the case endings are identical with other consonant stems, it is convenient to treat v-stems as consonant stems. The declension is exemplified by црькъі 'church'.

    Singular   Dual   Plural
N   црькъі   црькъви   црькъви
A   црькъвь   црькъви   црькъви
G   црькъвє   црькъвѹ   црькъвъ
L   црькъвє   црькъвѹ   црькъвахъ
D   црькъви   црькъвама   црькъвамъ
I   црькъвьѭ   црькъвама   *црькъвами
V   *црькъі   *црькъви   *црькъви

At times on finds nouns in this category adopting some endings of the feminine i-stems. An example of this is the noun кръвь 'blood'.

    Singular   Dual   Plural
N   кръвь   -   кръви
A   кръвь   -   кръви
G   кръвє, кръви   -   кръвьи, кръвъ
            кръвъі
L   кръви   -   кръвьхъ
D   кръви   -   кръвьмъ
I   кръвьѭ   -   кръвьми
V   *кръвь   -   *кръви

All nouns of this declension are feminine.

16.2. n-Stem Nouns

The masculine nouns in this declension have nominative in -ъі, the neuter nouns in -ѧ. The suffix -єн- intervenes between root and ending. Some o-stems in -ѣнинъ, -анинъ also follow this declension in the plural. Exemplars are the masculine nouns камъі 'stone' and дьнь 'day', and the neuter имѧ 'name'.

    Masculine   Masculine   Neuter
             
N Sg.   камъі   дьнь   имѧ
    камєнь        
A   камєнь   дьнь   имѧ
G   камєнє   дьнь   имєнє
    камєни   дьни    
L   камєнє   дьнє   имєнє
        дьни    
D   камєни   дьни   имєни
I   камєньмь   дьньмь   имєньмь
             
N Du.   камєни   дьни   имєнѣ, имєни
A   камєни   дьни   имєнѣ, имєни
G   *камєнѹ   дьнѹ, дьнью   *имєнѹ
L   *камєнѹ   дьнѹ, дьнью   *имєнѹ
D   камєньма   дьньма   имєньма
I   камєньма   дьньма   имєньма
             
N Pl.   *камєнє   дьнє, дьньѥ   имєна
A   камєни   дьни   имєна
G   камєнъ   дьнъ   имєнъ
L   камєньхъ   дьньхъ   имєньхъ
D   камєньмъ   дьньмъ   имєньмъ
I   камєньми   дьньми, дьнъі   имєнъі

The nominative singular in -ъі occurs only in камъі 'stone' and пламъі 'flame'. Forms without the є preceding н also occur, for example L sg. камни; likewise there are forms with ь replacing the є, as in G sg. камьньѣ for камєньѥ.

17. Compound Forms of Adjectives

The short form of adjectives has already been presented. For the most part, these simply follow the declension of the corresponding nouns. Thus добръ, добра, добро are the masculine, feminine and neuter nominative singular forms of the adjective 'good'. However there is a second formation for adjectives known as the compound, long, or pronominal form of adjectives, which is derived from the short form by addition of the 3rd person pronoun (*jĭ). Thus the long forms corresponding to добръ, добра, добро are dobrŭ + , dobra + ja, dobro + je > добръі-и, добра-ја, добро-ѥ 'that good one'. The final pronominal element is sometimes clearly distinguished; however contraction and assimilation often occur, obscuring the elements constituting the ending.

As with the short forms, the long forms divide into hard and soft stems. Hard stem compound adjectives are declined like добръ 'good'.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
             
N V Sg.   добръіи   добоѥ   добраја
A   добръіи   доброѥ   добрѫѭ
G   добраѥго   добраѥго   добръіѩ
L   добрѣѥмь   добрѣѥмь   добрѣи
D   добрѹѥмѹ   добрѹѥмѹ   добрѣи
I   добръіимь   добръіимь   добрѫѭ
             
N V Du.   добраја   добрѣи   добрѣи
A   добраја   добрѣи   добрѣи
G   добрѹю   добрѹю   добрѹю
L   добрѹю   добрѹю   добрѹю
D   добръіима   добръіима   добръіима
I   добръіима   добръіима   добръіима
             
N V Pl.   добрии   добраја   добръіѩ
A   добръіѩ   добраја   добръіѩ
G   добръіихъ   добръіихъ   добръіихъ
L   добръіихъ   добръіихъ   добръіихъ
D   добръіимъ   добръіимъ   добръіимъ
I   добръіими   добръіими   добръіими

It should be noted that assimilation and contraction often work to smooth the transition from the short adjective ending to the following pronoun. Thus there are variants such as N sg. masc. добръі, -ръи, -рои; fem. добраа; A sg. fem. добрѫ; G sg. masc./neut. добрааго, добраго; L sg. masc./neut. добѣѣмь, добрѣамь, добрѣмь; D sg. masc./neut. добрѹѹмѹ, добрѹмѹ; I sg. masc./neut. добръимь, добръімь; fem. доброѭ. Similarly for the dual and plural forms.

The soft stem compound adjectives are declined like ништь 'poor'.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
             
N V Sg.   ништьи   ништєѥ   ништаја
A   ништьи   ништєѥ   ништѫѭ
G   ништаѥго   ништаѥго   ништѧѩ
L   ништиимь   ништиимь   ништии
D   ништюѥмѹ   ништюѥмѹ   ништии
I   ништиимь   миштиимь   ништѫѭ
             
N V Du.   ништаја   ништии   ништии
A   ништаја   ништии   ништии
G   ништюю   ништюю   ништюю
L   ништюю   ништюю   ништюю
D   ништиима   ништиима   ништиима
I   ништиима   ништиима   ништиима
             
N V Pl.   ништии   ништаја   ништѧѩ
A   ништѧѩ   ништаја   ништѧѩ
G   ништиихъ   ништиихъ   ништиихъ
L   ништиихъ   ништиихъ   ништиихъ
D   ништиимъ   ништиимъ   ништиимъ
I   ништиими   ништиими   ништиими

As with the hard stems, the soft stem forms also appear in assimilated and contracted variants. For example, N sg. masc. ништии (the result of tense postion of the jer, but thence) ништи; I sg. masc./neut. ништимь; fem. ништєѭ.

18. The l-Participle

The l-participle, sometimes called the resultative participle or second past active participle, is a simple formation derived from the aorist-infinitve stems of verbs. To the stem is added the suffix -лъ, which is then declined as a hard stem, short-form adjective. The participle is not used in an arbitrary adjectival role as are most other participles; rather this particular participle is used only in compound verbal constructions. As a result, it is only found in the nominative singular and plural. The following are examples from the various verbal conjugations.

Conjugation   Infinitive   N sg.
I   нєсти 'to carry'   нєс-лъ, -ла, -ло 'having carried'
II   двигнѫти 'to move'   двиг-лъ, -ла, -ло 'having moved'
III   знати 'to know'   зна-лъ, -ла, -ло 'having known'
IV   молити 'to beg'   моли-лъ, -ла, -ло 'having begged'
V   дати 'to give'   да-лъ, -ла, -ло 'having given'

Verbs of the first conjugation with stems in final -k or -r use a reduced grade of the root-vowel. Hence влѣшти 'to drag, pull', 1st. sg. влѣкѫ, part. влъклъ; трѣти 'to rub', 1st. sg. тьрѫ, part. трьлъ; мрѣти 'to die', 1st. sg. мьрѫ, part. мрьлъ. Stem-final t, d, j is dropped, so that плєсти 'to weave', 1st. sg. плєтѫ, part. плєлъ. The verb ити 'to go', 1st. sg. идѫ, uses the suppletive stem шьд-, hence part. шьлъ 'having gone'.

19. Prefixes and Prepostitions

The OCS language is replete with particles that may be affixed to verbs or nouns to color the root meaning. Likewise, despite having a rather full case system, OCS also make use of several prepositions to add further nuance. Some of the more frequent of these prefixes and prepositions are given below.

Among the particles used solely as prefixes are про- 'through', прѣ- 'over, through', раз- or рас- 'asunder'. Examples are рокъ 'fixed day', but пророкъ 'prophet'; драгъ 'dear', but прѣдрагъ 'very dear'; ѹмъ 'mind', but разѹмъ 'intellect'.

More common are particles which may function either as prefixes or as prepositions. In the instances where they function as prepositions, each one is used only with certain of the nominal cases. In general, the case or cases governed by a given preposition concur with the sense elicited, but at other times the relation between meaning and case is not obvious. The following are some of the more important examples.

въ 'in' with A. (denoting direction), e.g. въ тъ дьнь 'that day'; with L. (place), e.g. въ кѹпѣ 'together'.

въз or въс 'for, in exchange for' with A., e.g. въс кѫѭ 'why?'.

за 'for, after, behind' with A. (direction); with I. (place), e.g. ѩти за власъі 'to seize by the hair'; with G. (in the sense 'because').

из or ис 'from, out' with G., e.g. издрѫкъі < из рѫкъі 'from the hand'.

на 'on, to, upon' with A. (direction); with L. (place), e.g. излијашѧ огнь на зємьѭ 'they poured fire on earth'.

надъ 'on, upon, over' with A. (direction), e.g. надъ главѫ 'over the head'; with I. (place).

о or об 'over, round, about' with A. (direction), e.g. об ношть вьсѫ 'the whole night through'; with L. (place).

отъ 'from, away' with G., e.g. отъ нєбєсє 'from heaven'.

по originally 'under, below', later with A. (extension in space or time), e.g. по вьсѧ градъі 'through all towns'; with L. (temporal and local), e.g. по томь жє 'after that'; with D. (extension in space), e.g. по морѭ ходѧ 'walking over the sea'.

подъ 'under, beneath' with A. (direction), e.g. подъ ногъі 'under the feet'; with I. (situation), e.g. подъ ногама 'under the feet'.

при 'at, at the time' with L., e.g. при враѕѣхъ 'among the heathen'.

прѣдъ 'in front of, before' with A. (direction); with I. (situation), e.g. прѣдъ градомь 'in the vicinity of the city'.

съ 'for the extent of' with A., e.g. съ лакъть 'a cubit long'; 'from, off, away' with G., e.g. съ нєбєсє 'down from heaven'; 'with' with I. (association, not instrument), e.g. съ нимь 'with him'.

ѹ 'at' with G., e.g. ѹ двьрьць 'at the doors'.

20. Adjectives

The long and short forms of the adjective have distinct syntactical roles. In general the long form is used attributively, whereas the short form is predicative: чловѣкъ добръ 'a good man, man is good'; чловѣкъ добръіи 'the good man, the man who is good'. The short form is indefinite in meaning, 'man is good'. The combination of a short-form adjective with substantive is used when the signified entity is presented as new, without prior reference. Hence въ пєшть огн҄ьнѫ 'into a furnace, a fiery one'. The long form, by contrast, acts as a pointer and is definite, 'the good man'. The long-form adjective with substantive combination is used when the adjective presents a quality known to be associated with the substantive modified. Hence въ гєонѫ огн҄ьнѫѭ 'into hell the fiery'. The compound form is often rendered in English by a relative clause: 'into the hell which is fiery'.

Adjectives used as substantives are themselves subject to the long and short form distinction. Again the long form refers to a substantive previously introduced or assumed known. Thus привѣшѧ къ н҄ємѹ слѣпа... и имъ слѣпаєго за рѫкѫ 'they brought to him a blind man... and having taken the blind man by the hand...'.

In a sequence of coordinated participles, when used as substantives, it is typical for only the first to use the long form. The following substantives use the short form. Hence слъішѧи словєса моја и творѧ ја... 'he who hears my words and does them...'.