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Old Church Slavonic Online

Lesson 4

Todd B. Krause and Jonathan Slocum

After his brother's death, Methodius set out to continue their common work. In short order Kocel made a request to the Pope to allow Methodius to return to Moravia. In a letter addressed not only to Kocel, but also to the Princes Rostislav and Sventopluk, the Pope granted permission for the return and the use of the Slavonic liturgy on the condition that the Epistle and Gospel be read first in Latin before Slavonic.

After a brief stay in Pannonia, Methodius returned to Rome and was given papal authority to administer over Pannonia and Moravia. This had the undesirable consequence of enraging the Bavarian bishops in Passau and Salzburg who laid claim to the same territory. When Sventopluk, with the aid of the Franks, dethroned Rostislav in 870 or 871, Methodius was taken into custody and left to the mercy of the German bishops. As a result, Methodius was imprisoned for two and a half years. Finally Pope John VIII became aware of Methodius' plight and petitioned for his release. Methodius immediately returned to Moravia, this time under more favorable auspices, since Sventopluk had since driven out the German clergy. The tides briefly turned against Methodius when, in 879, Pope John VIII forbade the use of the Slavonic liturgy. But Methodius' diligence again gained a sympathetic ear, and the Pope subsequently ordered Sventopluk to reinstate the Slavonic liturgy in 880.

In the final years of his life Methodius endeavored to complete the task of translation started earlier with his brother. The two together seem to have translated the Psalter and New Testament, save Revelation. Methodius continued by translating the Old Testament to the exclusion of Maccabees, and other liturgical texts. Methodius finally passed away on 6 April 885.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The beginning of the story of the Death of Lazarus, John 11:1-23, follows below. This passage represents a climax in the miracles worked by Jesus, and the OCS translation consequently remains very close to the original. Dialogue features prominently within the passage, and its rendering in OCS reveals several questions about our knowledge of the OCS language. The attempt to reconstruct some approximation to the spoken language from its often meager representation in written documents is a task that occupies a central position in historical linguistics. On the surface this passage affords us a rare window into such spoken discourse. One finds herein several direct statements from Jesus, His disciples, and Martha.

Several mitigating factors, however, must inform one's analysis of the dialogue. First and foremost, the wording remains extremely close to the original Greek. For instance,

se egože l'jubiši bolitŭ 'Lo! whom you love is sick'

corresponds word for word to the Greek. The same holds true for the rest of the direct speech in this passage. Hence, as we attempt to tease out the colloquial speech habits of the Slavonic speaking community for whom this was written, we are reined in by the possibility that the sentence structure is dictated more by the Greek than the OCS. As always, one must bear in mind that the translation was made to be understood, and thus the phrasing must be reasonably close to what a native speaker would say; nevertheless such a statement might never be uttered by a native speaker.

In addition to the problem of rendering the mere speech encountered in the passage, the translator here was forced to cope with the problem of rendering vocal misunderstanding. To wit, Jesus tells his disciples that Lazarus "is asleep", yet the disciples misunderstand this as mere slumber instead of the intended euphemism for death. The Greek uses the word kekoimetai 'is asleep'; the basic sense is one of 'lying down', and therefore may be interpreted as lying down in slumber or in death. The Greek then states more precisely which interpretation the disciples chose, saying the disciples thought Jesus spoke of the koimeseos tou hypnou 'of the lying down of sleep'. The problem faced by the translator is to emulate this situation: first to use a phrase with a double meaning; then to resolve the ambiguity by means of another qualifying word or phrase.

The phrase chosen for this resolution is o usŭpenĭi sŭna. The question remains as to how effectively this clears the ambiguity. Both words are clearly cognate to the word for 'sleep' -- is this phrase therefore any more specific than the original word usŭpe '(Our friend Lazarus) is asleep' which led to the initial confusion? Given the rarity of usŭpenĭe in OCS texts, it is difficult to establish in English its distinction from sŭnŭ. It is in fact unclear whether this rare word was actually a word in common use chosen to translate koimesis, or whether it was a coinage devised specifically for translational purposes.

What has happened, in fact, is that the translator has actually followed the morpho-syntactic structure of the Greek: the initial verb kekoimetai is subsequently elucidated by a cognate abstract noun koimesis with a qualifying genitive. Similarly in OCS, the verb usŭpe is subsequently elucidated by a cognate abstract noun usŭpenĭe with a qualifying genitive. Such close following of the original Greek must give the historical linguist pause in drawing any concrete conclusions on the nature of the spoken OCS language as represented in the extant manuscripts.

bě že bolę eterŭ lazarŭ otŭ viθanĭę gradĭca marĭina i marθy sestry eę | bě že marĭja pomazavŭšija gospoda müromŭ i otĭrŭši nodzě ego vlasy svoimi eęže bratŭ lazarŭ bolěaše |

  • -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <byti, bǫdǫ, bǫdeši> be, become -- was
  • že -- conjunction; <že> and, but -- now
  • bolę -- verb; present active participle; nominative singular masculine of <bolěti, -lǫ, -liši> be ill -- sick
  • eterŭ -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <eterŭ> one, a certain -- a certain (man)
  • lazarŭ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Lazarŭ> Lazarus -- (named) Lazarus
  • otŭ -- preposition; <otŭ> by, from, of -- of
  • viθanĭę -- proper noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Viθanĭa> Bethany -- Bethany
  • gradĭca -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <gradĭcĭ> town, garden -- the town
  • marĭina -- adjective; genitive singular masculine of <marĭinŭ> of Mary, Mary's -- of Mary
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • marθy -- proper noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Marθa> Martha -- Martha
  • sestry -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <sestra> sister -- sister
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <*i> he -- her
  • -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <byti, bǫdǫ, bǫdeši> be, become -- it was
  • že -- conjunction; <že> and, but -- ...
  • marĭja -- proper noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Marĭja> Maria, Mary -- (that) Mary
  • pomazavŭšija -- verb; past active participle; nominative singular feminine of <pomazati, -zajǫ, -zaješi> anoint -- which anointed
  • gospoda -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <gospodĭ> lord, master -- the Lord
  • müromŭ -- noun, neuter; instrumental singular of <müro> anointing-oil -- with ointment
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • otĭrŭši -- verb; past active participle; nominative singular feminine of <otrěti, -rǫ, -reši> rub, wipe off -- wiped
  • nodzě -- noun, feminine; accusative dual of <noga> foot -- feet
  • ego -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <*i> he -- his
  • vlasy -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <vlasŭ> hair -- with... hair
  • svoimi -- possessive adjective; instrumental plural masculine of <svoi, svoe, svoja> own, one's own -- her
  • eęže -- relative pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <iže> who, which -- whose
  • bratŭ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <bratrŭ, bratŭ> brother -- brother
  • lazarŭ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Lazarŭ> Lazarus -- Lazarus
  • bolěaše -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <bolěti, -lǫ, -liši> be ill -- was sick

posŭlaste že sestrě ego kŭ n'emu glagol'jǫšti gospodi se egože l'jubiši bolitŭ | slyšavŭ že iisusŭ reče si bolěznĭ něstŭ kŭ sŭmrĭti nŭ o slavě božĭi da proslavitŭ sę synŭ božĭi ejǫ |

  • posŭlaste -- verb; 3rd person dual aorist of <posŭlati, -l'jǫ, -l'ješi> send, summon -- sent
  • že -- conjunction; <že> and, but -- therefore
  • sestrě -- noun, feminine; nominative dual of <sestra> sister -- sisters
  • ego -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <*i> he -- his
  • -- preposition; <> to, for -- unto
  • n'emu -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*i> he -- him
  • glagol'jǫšti -- verb; present active participle; nominative dual feminine of <glagolati, -l'jǫ, -l'ješi> say, speak -- saying
  • gospodi -- noun, masculine; vocative singular of <gospodĭ> lord, master -- Lord
  • se -- interjection; <se> lo, behold -- behold
  • egože -- relative pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <iže> who, which -- he whom
  • l'jubiši -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <ljubiti, -bljǫ, -biši> love -- thou lovest
  • bolitŭ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <bolěti, -lǫ, -liši> be ill -- is sick
  • slyšavŭ -- verb; past active participle; nominative singular masculine of <slyšati, -šǫ, -šiši> hear -- (when)... heard (that)
  • že -- conjunction; <že> and, but -- ...
  • iisusŭ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Iisusŭ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • reče -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <rešti, rekǫ, rečeši> say, tell -- he said
  • si -- demonstrative adjective; nominative singular feminine of <> this -- this
  • bolěznĭ -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <bolěznĭ> sickness -- sickness
  • něstŭ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <ne jes-, jesmĭ, jesi> not be -- is not
  • -- preposition; <> to, for -- unto
  • sŭmrĭti -- noun, feminine; dative singular of <sŭmrĭtĭ> death -- death
  • -- conjunction; <> but -- but
  • o -- preposition; <o> around, concerning; against -- for
  • slavě -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <slava> fame, glory -- the glory
  • božĭi -- possessive adjective; locative singular feminine of <božĭi> divine, of god, god's -- of God
  • da -- conjunction; <da> in order to, that; may, let; and, then -- that
  • proslavitŭ sę -- verb; 3rd person singular passive present of <proslaviti, -vl'jǫ, -viši> praise, glorify -- might be glorified
  • synŭ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <synŭ> son -- the Son
  • božĭi -- possessive adjective; locative singular feminine of <božĭi> divine, of god, god's -- of God
  • ejǫ -- pronoun; instrumental singular feminine of <*i> he -- thereby

ljubl'jaaše že iisusŭ marθǫ i sestrǫ eę i lazara | egda že uslyša jako bolitŭ togda že prěbystŭ na n'emĭ že bě městě dŭva dĭni |

  • ljubl'jaaše -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <ljubiti, -bljǫ, -biši> love -- loved
  • že -- conjunction; <že> and, but -- now
  • iisusŭ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Iisusŭ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • marθǫ -- proper noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Marθa> Martha -- Martha
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • sestrǫ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <sestra> sister -- sister
  • -- pronoun; genitive singular feminine of <*i> he -- her
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • lazara -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Lazarŭ> Lazarus -- Lazarus
  • egda že -- relative adverb; <egda že> when -- when... therefore
  • uslyša -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <uslyšati, -šǫ, -šiši> hear, find out -- he had heard
  • jako -- conjunction; <jako> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- that
  • bolitŭ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <bolěti, -lǫ, -liši> be ill -- he was sick
  • togda že -- correlative adverb; <togda že> then -- ...
  • prěbystŭ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <prěbyti, -bǫdǫ, -bǫdeši> remain, abide -- he abode... (still)
  • na -- preposition; <na> in, on; at, against; for -- in
  • n'emĭ že -- relative pronoun; locative singular neuter of <iže> who, which -- where
  • -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <byti, bǫdǫ, bǫdeši> be, become -- he was
  • městě -- noun, neuter; locative singular of <město> place -- the (same) place
  • dŭva -- adjective; accusative dual masculine of <dŭva, dŭvě> two -- two
  • dĭni -- noun, masculine; accusative dual of <dĭnĭ> day -- days

po tomĭ že glagola učenikomŭ iděmŭ vŭ ijudějǫ paky | glagolašę emu učenici ego ravvi nyn'ja iskaaxǫ tebe kamenĭemĭ pobiti ijuděi i paky ideši tamo |

  • po -- preposition; <po> after; according to -- after
  • tomĭ -- demonstrative pronoun; locative singular neuter of <> that, that one -- that
  • že -- conjunction; <že> and, but -- then
  • glagola -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <glagolati, -l'jǫ, -l'ješi> say, speak -- saith he
  • učenikomŭ -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <učenikŭ> student, disciple -- to (his) disciples
  • iděmŭ -- verb; 1st person plural imperative of <iti, idǫ, ideši> go -- let us go
  • -- preposition; <> in, into -- into
  • ijudějǫ -- proper noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Ijuděa> Judea -- Judea
  • paky -- adverb; <paky> back, again -- again
  • glagolašę -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <glagolati, -l'jǫ, -l'ješi> say, speak -- say
  • emu -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*i> he -- unto him
  • učenici -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <učenikŭ> student, disciple -- disciples
  • ego -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <*i> he -- his
  • ravvi -- noun, masculine; vocative singular of <ravvi> rabbi, teacher -- master
  • nyn'ja -- adverb; <nyn'ja> now -- of late
  • iskaaxǫ -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <iskati, iskajǫ, iskaješi> seek -- sought
  • tebe -- pronoun; genitive singular of <ty> you, thou -- thee
  • kamenĭemĭ -- noun, neuter; instrumental singular of <kamenĭe> stones -- ...
  • pobiti -- verb; infinitive of <pobiti, -bijǫ, -biješi> kill -- to stone
  • ijuděi -- adjective used as substantive; nominative plural masculine of <Ijuděi> Jew, Judean -- the Jews
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • paky -- adverb; <paky> back, again -- again
  • ideši -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <ideti, idǫ, ideši> go -- goest thou
  • tamo -- adverb; <tamo> there, to that place, thither -- thither

otŭvěšta iisusŭ ne dŭvě li na desęte godině este vŭ dĭne | ašte kŭto xoditŭ vŭ dĭne ne potŭknetŭ sę jako světŭ mira sego viditŭ | ašte li kŭto xoditŭ noštĭjǫ potŭknetŭ sę jako světa něstŭ o n'emĭ |

  • otŭvěšta -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <otvěštati, -tajǫ, -taješi> respond, answer -- answered
  • iisusŭ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Iisusŭ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • ne -- particle; <ne> not -- not
  • dŭvě -- adjective; nominative dual feminine of <dŭva, dŭvě> two -- ...
  • li -- interrogative particle; <li> or; whether -- ...
  • na -- preposition; <na> in, on; at, against; for -- ...
  • desęte -- number; locative singular feminine of <desętĭ> ten -- twelve
  • godině -- noun, feminine; nominative dual of <godina> time, hour -- hours
  • este -- verb; 3rd person dual present of <jes-, jesmĭ, jesi> be -- are there
  • -- preposition; <> in, into -- in
  • dĭne -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <dĭnĭ> day -- the day
  • ašte -- particle; <ašte> if, whether -- if
  • kŭto -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <kŭto> someone -- any (man)
  • xoditŭ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <xoditi, -ždǫ, -diši> walk, go -- walk
  • -- preposition; <> in, into -- in
  • dĭne -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <dĭnĭ> day -- the day
  • ne -- particle; <ne> not -- not
  • potŭknetŭ sę -- reflexive verb; 3rd person singular present of <potŭknǫti, -nǫ, -neši> set up, prop up; strike -- he stumbleth
  • jako -- conjunction; <jako> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- because
  • světŭ -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <světŭ> light -- the light
  • mira -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <mirŭ> world; peace -- of... world
  • sego -- demonstrative adjective; genitive singular masculine of <> this -- this
  • viditŭ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <viděti, viždǫ, vidiši> see -- he seeth
  • ašte -- particle; <ašte> if, whether -- if
  • li -- interrogative particle; <li> or; whether -- but
  • kŭto -- indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <kŭto> someone -- a (man)
  • xoditŭ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <xoditi, -ždǫ, -diši> walk, go -- walk
  • noštĭjǫ -- noun, feminine; instrumental singular of <noštĭ> night -- in the night
  • potŭknetŭ sę -- reflexive verb; 3rd person singular present of <potŭknǫti, -nǫ, -neši> set up, prop up; strike -- he stumbleth
  • jako -- conjunction; <jako> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- because
  • světa -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <světŭ> light -- light
  • něstŭ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <ne jes-, jesmĭ, jesi> not be -- there is no
  • o -- preposition; <o> around, concerning; against -- in
  • n'emĭ -- pronoun; locative singular masculine of <*i> he -- him

si reče i po semĭ glagola imŭ lazarŭ drugŭ našĭ usŭpe nŭ idǫ da vŭzbuždǫ i | rěšę že emu učenici ego gospodi ašte usŭpe sŭpasenŭ bǫdetŭ |

  • si -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <> this -- these things
  • reče -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <rešti, rekǫ, rečeši> say, tell -- said he
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • po -- preposition; <po> after; according to -- after
  • semĭ -- demonstrative pronoun; locative singular neuter of <> this -- that
  • glagola -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <glagolati, -l'jǫ, -l'ješi> say, speak -- saith
  • imŭ -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <*i> he -- unto them
  • lazarŭ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Lazarŭ> Lazarus -- Lazarus
  • drugŭ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <drugŭ> friend -- friend
  • našĭ -- possessive adjective; nominative singular masculine of <našĭ> our, of us -- our
  • usŭpe -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <usŭnǫti, -nǫ, -neši> fall asleep -- sleepeth
  • -- conjunction; <> but -- but
  • idǫ -- verb; 1st person singular present of <ideti, idǫ, ideši> go -- I go
  • da -- conjunction; <da> in order to, that; may, let; and, then -- that
  • vŭzbuždǫ -- verb; 1st person singular present of <vŭzbuditi, -ždǫ, -diši> wake up, rouse -- I may awake... out of sleep
  • i -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <*i> he -- him
  • rěšę -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <rešti, rekǫ, rečeši> say, tell -- said
  • že -- conjunction; <že> and, but -- then
  • emu -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*i> he -- ...
  • učenici -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <učenikŭ> student, disciple -- disciples
  • ego -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <*i> he -- his
  • gospodi -- noun, masculine; vocative singular of <gospodĭ> lord, master -- Lord
  • ašte -- particle; <ašte> if, whether -- if
  • usŭpe -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <usŭnǫti, -nǫ, -neši> fall asleep -- he sleep
  • sŭpasenŭ -- verb; past passive participle; nominative singular masculine of <sŭpasti, -sǫ, -seši> save -- do well
  • bǫdetŭ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <byti, bǫdǫ, bǫdeši> be, become -- he shall

věšta že iisusŭ o sŭmrĭti ego oni že mĭněšę jako o usŭpenĭi sŭna glagol'etŭ | togda reče imŭ iisusŭ ne obinuę sę lazarŭ umrětŭ i radujǫ sę vasŭ radi da věrǫ imete jako ne běxŭ tu nŭ idemŭ kŭ n'emu |

  • věšta -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <věštati, -tajǫ, -taješi> speak -- spake
  • že -- conjunction; <že> and, but -- howbeit
  • iisusŭ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Iisusŭ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • o -- preposition; <o> around, concerning; against -- of
  • sŭmrĭti -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <sŭmrĭtĭ> death -- death
  • ego -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <*i> he -- his
  • oni -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <onŭ> that -- they
  • že -- conjunction; <že> and, but -- but
  • mĭněšę -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <mĭněti, -njǫ, -niši> think, assume -- thought
  • jako -- conjunction; <jako> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- that
  • o -- preposition; <o> around, concerning; against -- of
  • usŭpenĭi -- noun, neuter; locative singular of <usŭpenĭe> lying down, going to sleep -- taking of rest
  • sŭna -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <sŭnŭ> sleep -- in sleep
  • glagol'etŭ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <glagolati, -l'jǫ, -l'ješi> say, speak -- he had spoken
  • togda -- adverb; <togda> then -- then
  • reče -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <rešti, rekǫ, rečeši> say, tell -- said
  • imŭ -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <*i> he -- unto them
  • iisusŭ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Iisusŭ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • ne -- particle; <ne> not -- ...
  • obinuę sę -- verb; present reflexive participle; nominative singular masculine of <obinǫti sę, -nǫ, -neši> avoid; restrain oneself -- plainly
  • lazarŭ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Lazarŭ> Lazarus -- Lazarus
  • umrětŭ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <umrěti, -rǫ, -reši> die -- is dead
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • radujǫ sę -- verb; 1st person singular reflexive present of <radovati sę, -dujǫ, -duješi> rejoice, be glad -- I am glad
  • vasŭ -- pronoun; genitive plural of <ty> you, thou -- your
  • radi -- postposition; <radi> for, for the sake of, because of -- for... sakes
  • da -- conjunction; <da> in order to, that; may, let; and, then -- to the intent
  • věrǫ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <věra> faith, belief -- ...
  • imete -- verb; 2nd person plural present of <jęti, imǫ, imeši> take, seize -- ye may believe
  • jako -- conjunction; <jako> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- that
  • ne -- particle; <ne> not -- not
  • běxŭ -- verb; 1st person singular aorist of <byti, bǫdǫ, bǫdeši> be, become -- I was
  • tu -- adverb; <tu> there; then -- there
  • -- conjunction; <> but -- nevertheless
  • idemŭ -- verb; 1st person plural present of <iti, idǫ, ideši> go -- let us go
  • -- preposition; <> to, for -- unto
  • n'emu -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*i> he -- him

reče že θoma naricaemŭi bliznĭcĭ kŭ učenikomŭ iděmŭ my da umĭremŭ sŭ n'imĭ | prišedŭ že iisusŭ vŭ viθanĭjǫ obrěte i juže četyri dĭni imǫštĭ vŭ grobě |

  • reče -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <rešti, rekǫ, rečeši> say, tell -- said
  • že -- conjunction; <že> and, but -- then
  • θoma -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Θoma> Thomas -- Thomas
  • naricaemŭi -- verb; past passive participle; nominative singular masculine of <naricati, -cajǫ, -caješi> call, name -- which is called
  • bliznĭcĭ -- adjective used as substantive; nominative singular masculine of <bliznĭcĭ> twin -- didymus
  • -- preposition; <> to, for -- unto
  • učenikomŭ -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <učenikŭ> student, disciple -- (his fellow) disciples
  • iděmŭ -- verb; 1st person plural imperative of <iti, idǫ, ideši> go -- let us (also) go
  • my -- pronoun; nominative plural of <azŭ> I -- ...
  • da -- conjunction; <da> in order to, that; may, let; and, then -- that
  • umĭremŭ -- verb; 1st person plural present of <umrěti, -rǫ, -reši> die -- we may die
  • -- preposition; <> with -- with
  • n'imĭ -- pronoun; instrumental singular masculine of <*i> he -- him
  • prišedŭ -- verb; past active participle; nominative singular masculine of <priti, -idǫ, -ideši> come, arrive -- (when)... came
  • že -- conjunction; <že> and, but -- then
  • iisusŭ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Iisusŭ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • -- preposition; <> in, into -- ...
  • viθanĭjǫ -- proper noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Viθanĭa> Bethany -- ...
  • obrěte -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <obrěšti, -ręštǫ, -ręšteši> find, discover -- he found (that)
  • i -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <*i> he -- he
  • juže -- adverb; <juže> already -- already
  • četyri -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <četyre, četyri> four -- four
  • dĭni -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <dĭnĭ> day -- days
  • imǫštĭ -- verb; present active participle; accusative singular masculine of <jęti, imǫ, imeši> take, seize -- had (lain)
  • -- preposition; <> in, into -- in
  • grobě -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <grobŭ> grave, ditch -- the grave

bě že viθanĭja bliz ierusalima jako pętĭ na desęte stadii | mŭnodzi že otŭ ijuděi běaxǫ prišĭli kŭ marθě i marĭi da utěšajǫtŭ i o bratrě eju |

  • -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <byti, bǫdǫ, bǫdeši> be, become -- was
  • že -- conjunction; <že> and, but -- now
  • viθanĭja -- proper noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Viθanĭa> Bethany -- Bethany
  • bliz -- preposition; <blizĭ> near (to) -- nigh unto
  • ierusalima -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Ierusalimŭ> Jerusalem -- Jerusalem
  • jako -- conjunction; <jako> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- about
  • pętĭ -- number; accusative singular feminine of <pętĭ> five -- five
  • na -- preposition; <na> in, on; at, against; for -- ...
  • desęte -- number; locative singular feminine of <desętĭ> ten -- teen
  • stadii -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <stadii> stade -- furlongs (off)
  • mŭnodzi -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <mŭnogŭ> much, many -- many
  • že -- conjunction; <že> and, but -- and
  • otŭ -- preposition; <otŭ> by, from, of -- of
  • ijuděi -- adjective used as substantive; genitive plural masculine of <Ijuděi> Jew, Judean -- the Jews
  • běaxǫ -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <byti, bǫdǫ, bǫdeši> be, become -- ...
  • prišĭli -- verb; past active participle; nominative plural masculine of <priti, -idǫ, -ideši> come, arrive -- came
  • -- preposition; <> to, for -- to
  • marθě -- proper noun, feminine; dative singular of <Marθa> Martha -- Martha
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • marĭi -- proper noun, feminine; dative singular of <Marĭja> Maria, Mary -- Mary
  • da -- conjunction; <da> in order to, that; may, let; and, then -- to
  • utěšajǫtŭ -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <utěšati, -šajǫ, -šaješi> comfort -- comfort
  • i -- pronoun; accusative dual feminine of <*i> he -- them
  • o -- preposition; <o> around, concerning; against -- concerning
  • bratrě -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <bratrŭ, bratŭ> brother -- brother
  • eju -- pronoun; genitive dual feminine of <*i> he -- their

marθa že egda uslyša jako iisusŭ grędetŭ sŭrětŭ i a marĭja doma sěděaše | reče že marθa kŭ iisusu gospodi ašte bi sĭde bylŭ ne bi bratrŭ moi umrĭlŭ |

  • marθa -- proper noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Marθa> Martha -- Martha
  • že -- conjunction; <že> and, but -- then
  • egda -- relative adverb; <egda> when -- as soon as
  • uslyša -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <uslyšati, -šǫ, -šiši> hear, find out -- she heard
  • jako -- conjunction; <jako> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- that
  • iisusŭ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Iisusŭ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • grędetŭ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <gręsti, grędǫ, grędeši> come, walk -- was coming
  • sŭrětŭ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <sŭrěsti, -ręštǫ, -ręšteši> meet -- (went and) met
  • i -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <*i> he -- him
  • a -- conjunction; <a> and, but; if -- but
  • marĭja -- proper noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Marĭja> Maria, Mary -- Mary
  • doma -- adverb; <doma> at home -- in the house
  • sěděaše -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <sěděti, -ždǫ, -diši> sit, remain -- sat still
  • reče -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <rešti, rekǫ, rečeši> say, tell -- said
  • že -- conjunction; <že> and, but -- then
  • marθa -- proper noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Marθa> Martha -- Martha
  • -- preposition; <> to, for -- unto
  • iisusu -- proper noun, masculine; dative singular of <Iisusŭ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • gospodi -- noun, masculine; vocative singular of <gospodĭ> lord, master -- Lord
  • ašte -- particle; <ašte> if, whether -- if
  • bi -- verb; 2nd person singular conditional-optative of <byti, bǫdǫ, bǫdeši> be, become -- thou hadst
  • sĭde -- adverb; <sĭde> here -- here
  • bylŭ -- verb; past active participle; nominative singular masculine of <byti, bǫdǫ, bǫdeši> be, become -- been
  • ne -- particle; <ne> not -- not
  • bi -- verb; 3rd person singular conditional-optative of <byti, bǫdǫ, bǫdeši> be, become -- had
  • bratrŭ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <bratrŭ, bratŭ> brother -- brother
  • moi -- possessive adjective; nominative singular masculine of <moi> my -- my
  • umrĭlŭ -- verb; past active participle; nominative singular masculine of <umrěti, -rǫ, -reši> die -- died

nyn'ja věmĭ jako egože koližĭdo prosiši u boga dastŭ tebě bogŭ | glagola ei iisusŭ vŭskrĭsĭnetŭ bratrŭ tvoi |

  • nyn'ja -- adverb; <nyn'ja> now -- even now
  • věmĭ -- verb; 1st person singular present of <věděti, věmĭ, věsi> see, know -- (but) ... I know
  • jako -- conjunction; <jako> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- that
  • egože -- relative pronoun; genitive singular neuter of <iže> who, which -- what
  • koližĭdo -- participle; <koližĭdo> ever -- soever
  • prosiši -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <prositi, -šǫ, -siši> ask, demand -- thou wilt ask
  • u -- preposition; <u> near, by; from -- of
  • boga -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <bogŭ> god -- God
  • dastŭ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <dati, damĭ, dasi> give -- will give (it)
  • tebě -- pronoun; dative singular of <ty> you, thou -- thee
  • bogŭ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <bogŭ> god -- God
  • glagola -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <glagolati, -l'jǫ, -l'ješi> say, speak -- saith
  • ei -- pronoun; dative singular feminine of <*i> he -- unto her
  • iisusŭ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Iisusŭ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • vŭskrĭsĭnetŭ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <vŭskrŭsnǫti, -nǫ, -neši> rise again, be resurrected -- shall rise again
  • bratrŭ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <bratrŭ, bratŭ> brother -- brother
  • tvoi -- possessive adjective; nominative singular masculine of <tvoi> your, thy -- thy

Lesson Text

bě že bolę eterŭ lazarŭ otŭ viθanĭę gradĭca marĭina i marθy sestry eę | bě že marĭja pomazavŭšija gospoda müromŭ i otĭrŭši nodzě ego vlasy svoimi eęže bratŭ lazarŭ bolěaše | posŭlaste že sestrě ego kŭ n'emu glagol'jǫšti gospodi se egože l'jubiši bolitŭ | slyšavŭ že iisusŭ reče si bolěznĭ něstŭ kŭ sŭmrĭti nŭ o slavě božĭi da proslavitŭ sę synŭ božĭi ejǫ | ljubl'jaaše že iisusŭ marθǫ i sestrǫ eę i lazara | egda že uslyša jako bolitŭ togda že prěbystŭ na n'emĭ že bě městě dŭva dĭni | po tomĭ že glagola učenikomŭ iděmŭ vŭ ijudějǫ paky | glagolašę emu učenici ego ravvi nyn'ja iskaaxǫ tebe kamenĭemĭ pobiti ijuděi i paky ideši tamo | otŭvěšta iisusŭ ne dŭvě li na desęte godině este vŭ dĭne | ašte kŭto xoditŭ vŭ dĭne ne potŭknetŭ sę jako světŭ mira sego viditŭ | ašte li kŭto xoditŭ noštĭjǫ potŭknetŭ sę jako světa něstŭ o n'emĭ | si reče i po semĭ glagola imŭ lazarŭ drugŭ našĭ usŭpe nŭ idǫ da vŭzbuždǫ i | rěšę že emu učenici ego gospodi ašte usŭpe sŭpasenŭ bǫdetŭ | věšta že iisusŭ o sŭmrĭti ego oni že mĭněšę jako o usŭpenĭi sŭna glagol'etŭ | togda reče imŭ iisusŭ ne obinuę sę lazarŭ umrětŭ i radujǫ sę vasŭ radi da věrǫ imete jako ne běxŭ tu nŭ idemŭ kŭ n'emu | reče že θoma naricaemŭi bliznĭcĭ kŭ učenikomŭ iděmŭ my da umĭremŭ sŭ n'imĭ | prišedŭ že iisusŭ vŭ viθanĭjǫ obrěte i juže četyri dĭni imǫštĭ vŭ grobě | bě že viθanĭja bliz ierusalima jako pętĭ na desęte stadii | mŭnodzi že otŭ ijuděi běaxǫ prišĭli kŭ marθě i marĭi da utěšajǫtŭ i o bratrě eju | marθa že egda uslyša jako iisusŭ grędetŭ sŭrětŭ i a marĭja doma sěděaše | reče že marθa kŭ iisusu gospodi ašte bi sĭde bylŭ ne bi bratrŭ moi umrĭlŭ | nyn'ja věmĭ jako egože koližĭdo prosiši u boga dastŭ tebě bogŭ | glagola ei iisusŭ vŭskrĭsĭnetŭ bratrŭ tvoi |

Translation

Now a certain man was sick, named Lazarus, of Bethany, the town of Mary and her sister Martha. (2) (It was that Mary which anointed the Lord with ointment, and wiped his feet with her hair, whose brother Lazarus was sick.) (3) Therefore his sisters sent unto him, saying, Lord, behold, he whom thou lovest is sick. (4) When Jesus heard that, he said, This sickness is not unto death, but for the glory of God, that the Son of God might be glorified thereby. (5) Now Jesus loved Martha, and her sister, and Lazarus. (6) When he had heard therefore that he was sick, he abode two days still in the same place where he was. (7) Then after that saith he to his disciples, Let us go into Judaea again. (8) His disciples say unto him, Master, the Jews of late sought to stone thee; and goest thou thither again? (9) Jesus answered, Are there not twelve hours in the day? If any man walk in the day, he stumbleth not, because he seeth the light of this world. (10) But if a man walk in the night, he stumbleth, because there is no light in him. (11) These things said he: and after that he saith unto them, Our friend Lazarus sleepeth; but I go, that I may awake him out of sleep. (12) Then said his disciples, Lord, if he sleep, he shall do well. (13) Howbeit Jesus spake of his death: but they thought that he had spoken of taking of rest in sleep. (14) Then said Jesus unto them plainly, Lazarus is dead. (15) And I am glad for your sakes that I was not there, to the intent ye may believe; nevertheless let us go unto him. (16) Then said Thomas, which is called Didymus, unto his fellow disciples, Let us also go, that we may die with him. (17) Then when Jesus came, he found that he had lain in the grave four days already. (18) Now Bethany was nigh unto Jerusalem, about fifteen furlongs off: (19) And many of the Jews came to Martha and Mary, to comfort them concerning their brother. (20) Then Martha, as soon as she heard that Jesus was coming, went and met him: but Mary sat still in the house. (21) Then said Martha unto Jesus, Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died. (22) But I know, that even now, whatsoever thou wilt ask of God, God will give it thee. (23) Jesus saith unto her, Thy brother shall rise again.

Grammar

16. Consonant Stem Nouns

The term consonant stem is used to designate a broad group of less frequent nouns which share a common set of declensional endings. Most may be viewed as original consonant stems back to the Indo-European period. Some, however, are only to be seen as consonant stems within the OCS language itself. The hallmark of this system of declension is the genitive ending -e. Sometimes one finds the genitive in -i by analogy with the i-stem nouns, and in the later stages of the language the distinction between the two declension types is lost.

16.1. v-Stem Nouns

This is a class of nouns not properly deemed "consonant stems" on historical grounds. Originally they were long-u-stems. However because OCS treats v as a consonant, and because the case endings are identical with other consonant stems, it is convenient to treat v-stems as consonant stems. The declension is exemplified by crĭky 'church'.

    Singular   Dual   Plural
N   crĭky   crĭkŭvi   crĭkŭvi
A   crĭkŭvĭ   crĭkŭvi   crĭkŭvi
G   crĭkŭve   crĭkŭvu   crĭkŭvŭ
L   crĭkŭve   crĭkŭvu   crĭkŭvaxŭ
D   crĭkŭvi   crĭkŭvama   crĭkŭvamŭ
I   crĭkŭvĭjǫ   crĭkŭvama   *crĭkŭvami
V   *crĭky   *crĭkŭvi   *crĭkŭvi

At times on finds nouns in this category adopting some endings of the feminine i-stems. An example of this is the noun krŭvĭ 'blood'.

    Singular   Dual   Plural
N   krŭvĭ   -   krŭvi
A   krŭvĭ   -   krŭvi
G   krŭve, krŭvi   -   krŭvĭi, krŭvŭ
            krŭvy
L   krŭvi   -   krŭvĭxŭ
D   krŭvi   -   krŭvĭmŭ
I   krŭvĭjǫ   -   krŭvĭmi
V   *krŭvĭ   -   *krŭvi

All nouns of this declension are feminine.

16.2. n-Stem Nouns

The masculine nouns in this declension have nominative in -y, the neuter nouns in -ę. The suffix -en- intervenes between root and ending. Some o-stems in -ěninŭ, -aninŭ also follow this declension in the plural. Exemplars are the masculine nouns kamy 'stone' and dĭnĭ 'day', and the neuter imę 'name'.

    Masculine   Masculine   Neuter
             
N Sg.   kamy   dĭnĭ   imę
    kamenĭ        
A   kamenĭ   dĭnĭ   imę
G   kamene   dĭnĭ   imene
    kameni   dĭni    
L   kamene   dĭne   imene
        dĭni    
D   kameni   dĭni   imeni
I   kamenĭmĭ   dĭnĭmĭ   imenĭmĭ
             
N Du.   kameni   dĭni   imeně, imeni
A   kameni   dĭni   imeně, imeni
G   *kamenu   dĭnu, dĭnĭju   *imenu
L   *kamenu   dĭnu, dĭnĭju   *imenu
D   kamenĭma   dĭnĭma   imenĭma
I   kamenĭma   dĭnĭma   imenĭma
             
N Pl.   *kamene   dĭne, dĭnĭje   imena
A   kameni   dĭni   imena
G   kamenŭ   dĭnŭ   imenŭ
L   kamenĭxŭ   dĭnĭxŭ   imenĭxŭ
D   kamenĭmŭ   dĭnĭmŭ   imenĭmŭ
I   kamenĭmi   dĭnĭmi, dĭny   imeny

The nominative singular in -y occurs only in kamy 'stone' and plamy 'flame'. Forms without the e preceding n also occur, for example L sg. kamni; likewise there are forms with ĭ replacing the e, as in G sg. kamĭnĭě for kamenĭje.

17. Compound Forms of Adjectives

The short form of adjectives has already been presented. For the most part, these simply follow the declension of the corresponding nouns. Thus dobrŭ, dobra, dobro are the masculine, feminine and neuter nominative singular forms of the adjective 'good'. However there is a second formation for adjectives known as the compound, long, or pronominal form of adjectives, which is derived from the short form by addition of the 3rd person pronoun *i (*jĭ). Thus the long forms corresponding to dobrŭ, dobra, dobro are dobrŭ + , dobra + ja, dobro + je > dobry-i, dobra-ja, dobro-je 'that good one'. The final pronominal element is sometimes clearly distinguished; however contraction and assimilation often occur, obscuring the elements constituting the ending.

As with the short forms, the long forms divide into hard and soft stems. Hard stem compound adjectives are declined like dobrŭ 'good'.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
             
N V Sg.   dobryi   doboje   dobraja
A   dobryi   dobroje   dobrǫjǫ
G   dobrajego   dobrajego   dobryję
L   dobrějemĭ   dobrějemĭ   dobrěi
D   dobrujemu   dobrujemu   dobrěi
I   dobryimĭ   dobryimĭ   dobrǫjǫ
             
N V Du.   dobraja   dobrěi   dobrěi
A   dobraja   dobrěi   dobrěi
G   dobruju   dobruju   dobruju
L   dobruju   dobruju   dobruju
D   dobryima   dobryima   dobryima
I   dobryima   dobryima   dobryima
             
N V Pl.   dobrii   dobraja   dobryję
A   dobryję   dobraja   dobryję
G   dobryixŭ   dobryixŭ   dobryixŭ
L   dobryixŭ   dobryixŭ   dobryixŭ
D   dobryimŭ   dobryimŭ   dobryimŭ
I   dobryimi   dobryimi   dobryimi

It should be noted that assimilation and contraction often work to smooth the transition from the short adjective ending to the following pronoun. Thus there are variants such as N sg. masc. dobry, -rŭi, -roi; fem. dobraa; A sg. fem. dobrǫ; G sg. masc./neut. dobraago, dobrago; L sg. masc./neut. doběěmĭ, dobrěamĭ, dobrěmĭ; D sg. masc./neut. dobruumu, dobrumu; I sg. masc./neut. dobrŭimĭ, dobrymĭ; fem. dobrojǫ. Similarly for the dual and plural forms.

The soft stem compound adjectives are declined like ništĭ 'poor'.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
             
N V Sg.   ništĭi   ništeje   ništaja
A   ništĭi   ništeje   ništǫjǫ
G   ništajego   ništajego   ništęję
L   ništiimĭ   ništiimĭ   ništii
D   ništjujemu   ništjujemu   ništii
I   ništiimĭ   mištiimĭ   ništǫjǫ
             
N V Du.   ništaja   ništii   ništii
A   ništaja   ništii   ništii
G   ništjuju   ništjuju   ništjuju
L   ništjuju   ništjuju   ništjuju
D   ništiima   ništiima   ništiima
I   ništiima   ništiima   ništiima
             
N V Pl.   ništii   ništaja   ništęję
A   ništęję   ništaja   ništęję
G   ništiixŭ   ništiixŭ   ništiixŭ
L   ništiixŭ   ništiixŭ   ništiixŭ
D   ništiimŭ   ništiimŭ   ništiimŭ
I   ništiimi   ništiimi   ništiimi

As with the hard stems, the soft stem forms also appear in assimilated and contracted variants. For example, N sg. masc. ništii (the result of tense postion of the jer, but thence) ništi; I sg. masc./neut. ništimĭ; fem. ništejǫ.

18. The l-Participle

The l-participle, sometimes called the resultative participle or second past active participle, is a simple formation derived from the aorist-infinitve stems of verbs. To the stem is added the suffix -, which is then declined as a hard stem, short-form adjective. The participle is not used in an arbitrary adjectival role as are most other participles; rather this particular participle is used only in compound verbal constructions. As a result, it is only found in the nominative singular and plural. The following are examples from the various verbal conjugations.

Conjugation   Infinitive   N sg.
I   nesti 'to carry'   nes-, -la, -lo 'having carried'
II   dvignǫti 'to move'   dvig-, -la, -lo 'having moved'
III   znati 'to know'   zna-, -la, -lo 'having known'
IV   moliti 'to beg'   moli-, -la, -lo 'having begged'
V   dati 'to give'   da-, -la, -lo 'having given'

Verbs of the first conjugation with stems in final -k or -r use a reduced grade of the root-vowel. Hence vlěšti 'to drag, pull', 1st. sg. vlěkǫ, part. vlŭklŭ; trěti 'to rub', 1st. sg. tĭrǫ, part. trĭlŭ; mrěti 'to die', 1st. sg. mĭrǫ, part. mrĭlŭ. Stem-final t, d, j is dropped, so that plesti 'to weave', 1st. sg. pletǫ, part. plelŭ. The verb iti 'to go', 1st. sg. idǫ, uses the suppletive stem šĭd-, hence part. šĭlŭ 'having gone'.

19. Prefixes and Prepostitions

The OCS language is replete with particles that may be affixed to verbs or nouns to color the root meaning. Likewise, despite having a rather full case system, OCS also make use of several prepositions to add further nuance. Some of the more frequent of these prefixes and prepositions are given below.

Among the particles used solely as prefixes are pro- 'through', prě- 'over, through', raz- or ras- 'asunder'. Examples are rokŭ 'fixed day', but prorokŭ 'prophet'; dragŭ 'dear', but prědragŭ 'very dear'; umŭ 'mind', but razumŭ 'intellect'.

More common are particles which may function either as prefixes or as prepositions. In the instances where they function as prepositions, each one is used only with certain of the nominal cases. In general, the case or cases governed by a given preposition concur with the sense elicited, but at other times the relation between meaning and case is not obvious. The following are some of the more important examples.

'in' with A. (denoting direction), e.g. vŭ tŭ dĭnĭ 'that day'; with L. (place), e.g. vŭ kupě 'together'.

vŭz or vŭs 'for, in exchange for' with A., e.g. vŭs kǫjǫ 'why?'.

za 'for, after, behind' with A. (direction); with I. (place), e.g. jęti za vlasy 'to seize by the hair'; with G. (in the sense 'because').

iz or is 'from, out' with G., e.g. izdrǫky < iz rǫky 'from the hand'.

na 'on, to, upon' with A. (direction); with L. (place), e.g. izlijašę ognĭ na zemĭjǫ 'they poured fire on earth'.

nadŭ 'on, upon, over' with A. (direction), e.g. nadŭ glavǫ 'over the head'; with I. (place).

o or ob 'over, round, about' with A. (direction), e.g. ob noštĭ vĭsǫ 'the whole night through'; with L. (place).

otŭ 'from, away' with G., e.g. otŭ nebese 'from heaven'.

po originally 'under, below', later with A. (extension in space or time), e.g. po vĭsę grady 'through all towns'; with L. (temporal and local), e.g. po tomĭ že 'after that'; with D. (extension in space), e.g. po morjǫ xodę 'walking over the sea'.

podŭ 'under, beneath' with A. (direction), e.g. podŭ nogy 'under the feet'; with I. (situation), e.g. podŭ nogama 'under the feet'.

pri 'at, at the time' with L., e.g. pri vradzěxŭ 'among the heathen'.

prědŭ 'in front of, before' with A. (direction); with I. (situation), e.g. prědŭ gradomĭ 'in the vicinity of the city'.

'for the extent of' with A., e.g. lakŭtĭ 'a cubit long'; 'from, off, away' with G., e.g. nebese 'down from heaven'; 'with' with I. (association, not instrument), e.g. nimĭ 'with him'.

u 'at' with G., e.g. u dvĭrĭcĭ 'at the doors'.

20. Adjectives

The long and short forms of the adjective have distinct syntactical roles. In general the long form is used attributively, whereas the short form is predicative: člověkŭ dobrŭ 'a good man, man is good'; člověkŭ dobryi 'the good man, the man who is good'. The short form is indefinite in meaning, 'man is good'. The combination of a short-form adjective with substantive is used when the signified entity is presented as new, without prior reference. Hence vŭ peštĭ ogn'ĭnǫ 'into a furnace, a fiery one'. The long form, by contrast, acts as a pointer and is definite, 'the good man'. The long-form adjective with substantive combination is used when the adjective presents a quality known to be associated with the substantive modified. Hence vŭ geonǫ ogn'ĭnǫjǫ 'into hell the fiery'. The compound form is often rendered in English by a relative clause: 'into the hell which is fiery'.

Adjectives used as substantives are themselves subject to the long and short form distinction. Again the long form refers to a substantive previously introduced or assumed known. Thus privěšę n'emu slěpa... i imŭ slěpaego za rǫkǫ 'they brought to him a blind man... and having taken the blind man by the hand...'.

In a sequence of coordinated participles, when used as substantives, it is typical for only the first to use the long form. The following substantives use the short form. Hence slyšęi slovesa moja i tvorę ja... 'he who hears my words and does them...'.