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Old Church Slavonic Online

Lesson 5

Todd B. Krause and Jonathan Slocum

Shortly after the death of Methodius, the German clergy once again gained prominence in the Moravian region. In conjunction with Pope Stephen V's decree to ban the Slavonic liturgy, a German Viching was placed as successor to Methodius. This contradicted Methodius' own wish to be succeeded by the native Moravian Gorazd. During this period of German dominance, the disciples of Methodius were persecuted relentlessly, some being driven from the country, others being sold into slavery. This effectively stamped out the last remnants of the original missionary work of Sts. Cyril and Methodius in the regions of their earliest travels. The OCS ecclesiastic tradition was only able to survive outside the reaches of the Moravian empire, in those areas where the disciples of the two saints were able to find refuge.

Initially the influence of the saints' work spread to Bohemia, Croatia, and Bulgaria. These regions were soon followed by Bosnia and Serbia. After Christian conversion took foothold in the region of Kyiv (Russian Kiev), Bulgarian missionaries brought the Slavonic liturgy to the Russian speaking peoples late in the tenth century. This liturgy even spread to non-Slavic Rumania, where it was in use in the churches until the sixteenth century. In the process of this expansion, the Church Slavonic language took on local attributes and ceased to be as homogeneous as it appears in our earliest texts. In most regions to which it spread, the Church Slavonic language became the basis for the earliest literary language of the respective regions. It is therefore not to be viewed simply as the language of the Church in Slavic-speaking areas, but as the common thread unifying the inchoate stages of several developing literary traditions.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The following passage is Matthew 4:1-5, relating the temptation of Jesus in the desert. It is worth noting, in verse 4, that where English has a passive construction 'it is written', OCS employs an active verb pišetŭ 'he/it writes'. This translates a Greek passive perfect gegraptai 'it has been written'.

One will also notice the orthographic convention of using letters of the alphabet to denote numerals, as in verse 2. The system is based on the Greek method, whereby the first nine letters of the alphabet denote the units 1, 2, 3,... 9; the next nine denote the tens 10, 20, 30,... 90; the following letters the hundreds 100, 200, 300,... 900. Thus the number 11 is written by taking the letter for 10, and following it by the letter for 1. The situation, however, is complicated by the fact that the sequence of the Glagolitic and the Cyrillic alphabets differed slightly. Hence the Glagolitic symbol which k transcribes has the numerical value 40; however, within the Cyrillic alphabet, k has the value 20. The passage below is a Cyrillic rendering of an original Glagolitic manuscript, hence k denotes the number 40.

togda iisusŭ vŭzvedenŭ bystŭ duxomĭ vŭ pustyn'jǫ iskusiti sę otŭ nepriězni | i poštĭ sę dĭnii k i noštii k poslědĭ vŭzlaka |

  • togda -- adverb; <togda> then -- then
  • iisusŭ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Iisusŭ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • vŭzvedenŭ -- verb; past passive participle; nominative singular masculine of <vŭzvesti, -vedǫ, -vedeši> lead, lead up -- led up
  • bystŭ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <byti, bǫdǫ, bǫdeši> be, become -- was
  • duxomĭ -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <duxŭ> spirit -- of the spirit
  • -- preposition; <> in, into -- into
  • pustyn'jǫ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <pustyn'i> desert -- the wilderness
  • iskusiti sę -- verb; infinitive reflexive of <iskusiti, -šǫ, -siši> try, prove, tempt -- to be tempted
  • otŭ -- preposition; <otŭ> by, from, of -- of
  • nepriězni -- noun, feminine; genitive singular of <neprijaznĭ> the devil; wickedness -- the devil
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • poštĭ sę -- verb; past reflexive participle; nominative singular masculine of <postiti s(, -štǫ, -stiši> fast -- when he had fasted
  • dĭnii -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <dĭnĭ> day -- days
  • k -- number; accusative plural feminine of <četyre desęte> forty -- forty
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • noštii -- noun, feminine; genitive plural of <noštĭ> night -- nights
  • k -- number; accusative plural feminine of <četyre desęte> forty -- forty
  • poslědĭ -- adverb; <poslědĭ> then, afterward -- afterward
  • vŭzlaka -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <vŭzlakati, -lačǫ, -lačeši> become hungry -- he was... an hungered

i pristǫpi kŭ n'emu diěvolŭ iskušaę i i reče ašte synŭ esi božii rĭci da kamenie se xlěbi bǫdǫtŭ |

  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and when
  • pristǫpi -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <pristǫpiti, -pl'jǫ, -piši> come up to, step up -- came
  • -- preposition; <> to, for -- to
  • n'emu -- demonstrative pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*i> he -- him
  • diěvolŭ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <dĭěvolŭ> devil -- (the devil)
  • iskušaę -- verb; present active participle; nominative singular masculine of <iskušati, -šajǫ, -šaješi> tempt, try -- the tempter
  • i -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <*i> he -- (him)
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- (and)
  • reče -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <rešti, rekǫ, rečeši> say, tell -- he said
  • ašte -- particle; <ašte> if, whether -- if
  • synŭ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <synŭ> son -- the Son
  • esi -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <jes-, jesmĭ, jesi> be -- thou be
  • božii -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <božĭi> divine, of god, god's -- of God
  • rĭci -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative of <rešti, rekǫ, rečeši> say, tell -- command
  • da -- conjunction; <da> in order to, that; may, let; and, then -- that
  • kamenie -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <kamenĭe> stones -- stones
  • se -- demonstrative adjective; nominative singular neuter of <> this -- these
  • xlěbi -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <xlěbŭ> bread, loaf of bread -- bread
  • bǫdǫtŭ -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <byti, bǫdǫ, bǫdeši> be, become -- be made

onŭ že otŭvěštavŭ reče pišetŭ ne o xlěbě edinomĭ poživetŭ člověkŭ nŭ o vsemĭ glagolě isxodęštiimĭ idz ustŭ božii |

  • onŭ -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <onŭ> that -- he
  • že -- conjunction; <že> and, but -- but
  • otŭvěštavŭ -- verb; past active participle; nominative singular masculine of <otvěštati, -tajǫ, -taješi> respond, answer -- answered
  • reče -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <rešti, rekǫ, rečeši> say, tell -- (and) said
  • pišetŭ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <pĭsati, pĭšǫ, pĭšeši> write -- it is written
  • ne -- particle; <ne> not -- not
  • o -- preposition; <o> around, concerning; against -- by
  • xlěbě -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <xlěbŭ> bread, loaf of bread -- bread
  • edinomĭ -- adjective; locative singular masculine of <edinŭ> one, only -- alone
  • poživetŭ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <požiti, -živǫ, -živeši> live -- shall... live
  • člověkŭ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <člověkŭ> man, human -- man
  • -- conjunction; <> but -- but
  • o -- preposition; <o> around, concerning; against -- by
  • vsemĭ -- adjective; locative singular masculine of <vĭsĭ> all, every; whole -- every
  • glagolě -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <glagolŭ> word, speech -- word
  • isxodęštiimĭ -- verb; present active participle; locative singular masculine of <isxoditi, -ždǫ, -diši> exit from, go out of -- that proceedeth
  • idz -- preposition; <ic> from, out of -- out of
  • ustŭ -- noun, neuter; genitive plural of <usta> mouth, lips -- the mouth
  • božii -- adjective; genitive plural neuter of <božĭi> divine, of god, god's -- of God

togda poętŭ i diěvolŭ vĭ svęty gradŭ i postavi i na krilě crŭk'bĭněemĭ |

  • togda -- adverb; <togda> then -- then
  • poętŭ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <poęti, -imǫ, -imeši> take -- taketh... up
  • i -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <*i> he -- him
  • diěvolŭ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <dĭěvolŭ> devil -- the devil
  • -- preposition; <> in, into -- into
  • svęty -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <svętŭ> holy, blessed -- the holy
  • gradŭ -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <gradŭ> city -- city
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • postavi -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <postaviti, -vl'jǫ, -viši> establish, place, set -- setteth
  • i -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <*i> he -- him
  • na -- preposition; <na> in, on; at, against; for -- on
  • krilě -- noun, neuter; locative singular of <krilo> wing; pinnacle -- a pinnacle
  • crŭk'bĭněemĭ -- adjective; locative singular neuter of <crŭkŭvĭnŭ> church, churchly -- of the temple

i glagola emu ašte synŭ esi božĭi pusti sebe dolu | pišetŭ bo ěko ag'elomŭ svoimŭ zapověstŭ o tebě i na rǫkaxŭ vŭzŭmǫtŭ tę da ne kogda prětŭkneši o kamenĭ nogǫ svojǫ |

  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • glagola -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <glagolati, -l'jǫ, -l'ješi> say, speak -- saith
  • emu -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*i> he -- unto him
  • ašte -- particle; <ašte> if, whether -- if
  • synŭ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <synŭ> son -- the Son
  • esi -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <jes-, jesmĭ, jesi> be -- thou be
  • božĭi -- possessive adjective; locative singular feminine of <božĭi> divine, of god, god's -- of God
  • pusti -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative of <pustiti, -štǫ, -stiši> allow, let, free; send (away) -- cast
  • sebe -- reflexive pronoun; genitive singular of <sebe> self -- thyself
  • dolu -- adverb; <dolu> down(wards), below -- down
  • pišetŭ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <pĭsati, pĭšǫ, pĭšeši> write -- it is written
  • bo -- conjunction; <bo> for -- for
  • ěko -- conjunction; <jako> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- ...
  • ag'elomŭ -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <aggelŭ> angel -- angels
  • svoimŭ -- reflexive adjective; dative plural masculine of <svoi, svoe, svoja> own, one's own -- his
  • zapověstŭ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <zapověděti, -věmĭ, -věsi> command -- give... charge
  • o -- preposition; <o> around, concerning; against -- concerning
  • tebě -- pronoun; locative singular of <ty> you, thou -- thee
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • na -- preposition; <na> in, on; at, against; for -- in
  • rǫkaxŭ -- noun, feminine; locative plural of <rǫka> hand -- (their) hands
  • vŭzŭmǫtŭ -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <vŭzęti, -zĭmǫ, -zĭmeši> pick up, take -- shall they bear... up
  • -- pronoun; accusative singular of <ty> you, thou -- thee
  • da -- conjunction; <da> in order to, that; may, let; and, then -- ...
  • ne -- particle; <ne> not -- lest
  • kogda -- interrogative adverb; <kogda> when; sometime -- at any time
  • prětŭkneši -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <prětŭknǫti, -nǫ, -neši> hit, stumble -- thou dash
  • o -- preposition; <o> around, concerning; against -- against
  • kamenĭ -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <kamenĭe> stones -- a stone
  • nogǫ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <noga> foot -- foot
  • svojǫ -- reflexive adjective; accusative singular feminine of <svoi, svoe, svoja> own, one's own -- thy

reče že emu iisusŭ paky pišetŭ ne iskusiši gospoda boga svoego |

  • reče -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <rešti, rekǫ, rečeši> say, tell -- said
  • že -- conjunction; <že> and, but -- ...
  • emu -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*i> he -- unto him
  • iisusŭ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Iisusŭ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • paky -- adverb; <paky> back, again -- again
  • pišetŭ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <pĭsati, pĭšǫ, pĭšeši> write -- it is written
  • ne -- particle; <ne> not -- not
  • iskusiši -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <iskusiti, -šǫ, -siši> try, prove, tempt -- thou shalt... tempt
  • gospoda -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <gospodĭ> lord, master -- the Lord
  • boga -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <bogŭ> god -- God
  • svoego -- reflexive adjective; genitive singular masculine of <svoi, svoe, svoja> own, one's own -- thy

paky poětŭ ego nepriěznĭ na gorǫ vysokǫ dzělo i pokaza emu vĭsě cěsarĭstbiě mira i clavǫ ego |

  • paky -- adverb; <paky> back, again -- again
  • poětŭ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <poęti, -imǫ, -imeši> take -- taketh... up
  • ego -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <*i> he -- him
  • nepriěznĭ -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <neprijaznĭ> the devil; wickedness -- the devil
  • na -- preposition; <na> in, on; at, against; for -- into
  • gorǫ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <gora> mountain -- mountain
  • vysokǫ -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <vysokŭ> high, tall -- an... high
  • dzělo -- adverb; <zělo> very -- exceeding
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • pokaza -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <pokazati, -zajǫ, -zaješi> show, instruct, correct, chasten -- sheweth
  • emu -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*i> he -- him
  • vĭsě -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <vĭsĭ> all, every; whole -- all
  • cěsarĭstbiě -- noun, neuter; accusative plural of <cěsarĭstvĭe> kingdom -- the kingdoms
  • mira -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <mirŭ> world; peace -- of the world
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • clavǫ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <clava> glory -- the glory
  • ego -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <*i> he -- of them

i glagola emu vĭsě si damĭ ti ašte padŭ pokloniši mi sę |

  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • glagola -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <glagolati, -l'jǫ, -l'ješi> say, speak -- saith
  • emu -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*i> he -- unto him
  • vĭsě -- adjective; accusative plural neuter of <vĭsĭ> all, every; whole -- all
  • si -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <> this -- these things
  • damĭ -- verb; 1st person singular present of <dati, damĭ, dasi> give -- will I give
  • ti -- pronoun; dative singular of <ty> you, thou -- thee
  • ašte -- particle; <ašte> if, whether -- if
  • padŭ -- verb; past active participle; nominative singular masculine of <pasti, padǫ, padeši> fall -- (thou wilt) fall
  • pokloniši -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <pokloniti, -n'jǫ, -niši> bow, incline -- (and) worship
  • mi -- pronoun; dative singular of <azŭ> I -- me
  • -- reflexive pronoun; accusative singular of <sebe> self -- ...

togda glagola emu iisusŭ otidi diěvol'e | pišetŭ bo gospodju bogu svoemu pokloniši sę i tomu edinomu poslužiši |

  • togda -- adverb; <togda> then -- then
  • glagola -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <glagolati, -l'jǫ, -l'ješi> say, speak -- saith
  • emu -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*i> he -- unto him
  • iisusŭ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Iisusŭ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • otidi -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative of <otiti, -idǫ, -ideši> go out, depart -- get thee hence
  • diěvol'e -- noun, masculine; vocative singular of <dĭěvolŭ> devil -- Satan
  • pišetŭ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <pĭsati, pĭšǫ, pĭšeši> write -- it is written
  • bo -- conjunction; <bo> for -- for
  • gospodju -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <gospodĭ> lord, master -- the Lord
  • bogu -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <bogŭ> god -- God
  • svoemu -- reflexive adjective; dative singular masculine of <svoi, svoe, svoja> own, one's own -- thy
  • pokloniši -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <pokloniti, -n'jǫ, -niši> bow, incline -- thou shalt worship
  • -- reflexive pronoun; accusative singular of <sebe> self -- ...
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • tomu -- demonstrative pronoun; dative singular masculine of <> that, that one -- him
  • edinomu -- adjective; dative singular masculine of <edinŭ> one, only -- only
  • poslužiši -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <poslužiti, -žǫ, -žiši> serve -- shalt thou serve

togda ostavi ego diěvolŭ i se ag'eli pristǫpišę i služaaxǫ emu |

  • togda -- adverb; <togda> then -- then
  • ostavi -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ostaviti, -vl'jǫ, -viši> let, leave, neglect, forget -- leaveth
  • ego -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <*i> he -- him
  • diěvolŭ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <dĭěvolŭ> devil -- the devil
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • se -- interjection; <se> lo, behold -- behold
  • ag'eli -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <aggelŭ> angel -- angels
  • pristǫpišę -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <pristǫpiti, -pl'jǫ, -piši> come up to, step up -- came
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • služaaxǫ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <služiti, -žǫ, -žiši> minister (to), serve -- ministered
  • emu -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*i> he -- unto him

Lesson Text

togda iisusŭ vŭzvedenŭ bystŭ duxomĭ vŭ pustyn'jǫ iskusiti sę otŭ nepriězni | i poštĭ sę dĭnii k i noštii k poslědĭ vŭzlaka | i pristǫpi kŭ n'emu diěvolŭ iskušaę i i reče ašte synŭ esi božii rĭci da kamenie se xlěbi bǫdǫtŭ | onŭ že otŭvěštavŭ reče pišetŭ ne o xlěbě edinomĭ poživetŭ člověkŭ nŭ o vsemĭ glagolě isxodęštiimĭ idz ustŭ božii | togda poętŭ i diěvolŭ vĭ svęty gradŭ i postavi i na krilě crŭk'bĭněemĭ | i glagola emu ašte synŭ esi božĭi pusti sebe dolu | pišetŭ bo ěko ag'elomŭ svoimŭ zapověstŭ o tebě i na rǫkaxŭ vŭzŭmǫtŭ tę da ne kogda prětŭkneši o kamenĭ nogǫ svojǫ | reče že emu iisusŭ paky pišetŭ ne iskusiši gospoda boga svoego | paky poětŭ ego nepriěznĭ na gorǫ vysokǫ dzělo i pokaza emu vĭsě cěsarĭstbiě mira i clavǫ ego | i glagola emu vĭsě si damĭ ti ašte padŭ pokloniši mi sę | togda glagola emu iisusŭ otidi diěvol'e | pišetŭ bo gospodju bogu svoemu pokloniši sę i tomu edinomu poslužiši | togda ostavi ego diěvolŭ i se ag'eli pristǫpišę i služaaxǫ emu |

Translation

(Matthew 4:1) Then was Jesus led up of the spirit into the wilderness to be tempted of the devil. (2) And when he had fasted forty days and forty nights, he was afterward an hungered. (3) And when the tempter came to him, he said, If thou be the Son of God, command that these stones be made bread. (4) But he answered and said, It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God. (5) Then the devil taketh him up into the holy city, and setteth him on a pinnacle of the temple, (6) And saith unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down: for it is written, He shall give his angels charge concerning thee: and in their hands shall they bear thee up, lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone. (7) Jesus said unto him, It is written again, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God. (8) Again the devil taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain, and sheweth him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them; (9) And saith unto him, All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me. (10) Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve. (11) Then the devil leaveth him, and, behold, angels came and ministered unto him.

Grammar

21. Further Consonant Stem Nouns

Section 16 of Lesson 4 discussed v- and n-stem nouns. There are three other types of consonant stems: s, nt, r. These all share the characteristic genitive ending -e. As with the other consonant stem nouns, the endings of the i-declension often replace these endings, and in the later stages of OCS the i-declension replaces the e-declension.

21.1. s-Stem Nouns

All s-stem nouns are neuter, with the N/A/V sg. ending -o. Because this ending coincides with o-stem neuters, the two declensions are confused. Many nouns display forms from both declensions. In the remaining oblique cases of the s-stem declension, the affix -es- joins root to ending. slovo 'word' illustrates the declension.

    Singular   Dual   Plural
N   slovo   slovesě   slovesa
A   slovo   slovesě   slovesa
G   slovese   slovesu   slovesŭ
L   slovese   slovesu   slovesĭxŭ
D   slovesi   *slovesĭma   slovesĭmŭ
I   slovesĭmĭ   *slovesĭma   slovesy
V   slovo   slovesě   slovesa

Jers in strong position may be promoted to full vowels, so that one finds alternate forms I sg. slovesemĭ, D pl. slovesemŭ, L pl. slovesexŭ. Conflation with the i-declension produces the forms G L sg. slovesi. The forms D sg. slovu and N/A/V pl. slova result from interference with the o-stem neuters.

The nouns oko 'eye' and uxo 'ear' are members of this declension. The -e- of the affix -es- causes the changes k > č and x > š of the root-final consonants: G sg. očese, ušese. Plural forms are rare, and they more often form the dual according to the i-declension.

    oko   uxo
N A V Du.   oči   uši
G L   očĭju   ušĭju
D I   očima   ušima
21.2. nt-Stem Nouns

The nt-stem nouns are diminutives referring to living beings. All the nouns of this type are neuter. The affix intervening between root and ending is -ęt < -ent-, which in the nominative simplifies to -ę. The paradigm for otročę 'child' is given below. Many of the forms, however, are not attested.

    Singular   Dual   Plural
N   otročę   *otročętě   *otročęta
A   otročę   *otročętě   *otročęta
G   otročęte   *otročętu   otročętŭ
L   otročęte   *otročętu   otročętĭxŭ
D   *otročęti   *otročętĭma   *otročętĭmŭ
I   *otročętĭmĭ   *otročętĭma   *otročęty
V   otročę   *otročętě   *otročęta

Some nouns ending in - and properly belonging to the i-declension show case endings from this declension: desętĭ 'ten' has L sg. desęte, N pl. desęte, G pl. desętŭ, I pl. desęty.

21.3. r-Stem Nouns

Only two feminine nouns belong to the r-stem declension: mati 'mother' and dŭšti 'daughter'. mati will illustrate the declension.

    Singular   Dual   Plural
N   mati   *materi   materi
A   materĭ   *materi   materi
G   matere   *materu   materŭ
L   *materi   *materu   *materĭxŭ
D   materi   *materĭma   materĭmŭ
I   materĭjǫ   *materĭma   materĭmi
V   mati   *materi   materi

The form matere also appears for the A sg. The I sg. materĭjǫ shows conflation with the i-declension. The G sg. materi is also found.

The numeral četyre is a member of this declension:

    Masc.   Neut.   Fem.
N Pl.   četyre   četyri   četyri
A   četyri   četyri   četyri
G   četyrŭ   četyrŭ   četyrŭ
L   četyrexŭ   četyrexŭ   četyrexŭ
D   četyremŭ   četyremŭ   četyremŭ
I   četyrĭmĭ   četyrĭmĭ   četyrĭmĭ

One finds the alternate G pl. form četyrĭ.

22. Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

The comparative adjective has both short and long forms. The short form derives from the earlier suffix *-jĭs, cf. Lat. mag-is. The long from adds a preceding -ě-, resulting in *-ějĭs. The ĭ, which derived from an original short-i, subjects the s in both forms to the RUKI law, yielding -jĭš and -ějĭš.

The nominative singular masculine form loses the final š, leaving - and -ějĭ. The long form -ějĭ is written -ěi in the Cyrillic script. The short form nominative, however, is used only as a definite (long-form) adjective, where the pronoun is added. This results in the ending -jĭjĭ, which is written -ii, with palatalization of the preceding consonant resulting from the jot.

22.1. Short Form of the Comparative

The short form adds the suffix -jĭš to the base of the word, to which are appended the usual adjective endings. The nominative adds -jĭjĭ. In all forms the presence of the -j- results in palatalization of the preceding consonant. Many adjectives ending in -ĭk-, -ŭk-, or -ok- form the comparative by means of the short form suffix, before which the -ĭk-, -ŭk-, or -ok- are dropped. For example, vysokŭ 'high' uses the comparative base vyš- 'higher'. The paradigm is as follows.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
N V Sg.   vyšii   vyše   vyšĭši
A   vyšii   vyše   vyšĭšǫ
    vyšĭšĭ        
G   vyšĭša   vyšĭša   vyšĭšę
L   vyšĭši   vyšĭši   vyšĭši
D   vyšĭšu   vyšĭšu   vyšĭši
    vyšĭšju   vyšĭšju    
I   vyšĭšemĭ   vyšĭšemĭ   vyšĭšejǫ
             
N V Du.   vyšĭša   vyšĭši   vyšĭši
A   vyšĭša   vyšĭši   vyšĭši
G   vyšĭšu   vyšĭšu   vyšĭšu
    vyšĭšju   vyšĭšju   vyšĭšju
L   vyšĭšu   vyšĭšu   vyšĭšu
    vyšĭšju   vyšĭšju   vyšĭšju
D   vyšsĭšema   vyšĭšema   vyšĭšama
I   vyšsĭšema   vyšĭšema   vyšĭšama
             
N V Pl.   vyšĭše   vyšĭša   vyšĭšę
    vyšĭši        
A   vyšĭšę   vyšĭša   vyšĭšę
G   vyšĭšĭ   vyšĭšĭ   vyšĭšĭ
L   vysĭšixŭ   vyšĭšixŭ   vyšĭšaxŭ
D   vyšĭšemŭ   vyšĭšemŭ   vyšĭšamŭ
I   vyšĭši   vyšĭši   vyšĭšami
22.2. Long Form of the Comparative

The long form adds the suffix -ějĭš- to the word base. The ě here derives from an original long-e, so that a preceding velar consonant is palatalized according to the rules of First Palatalization. In this situation the suffix -ějĭš- is then replaced by -ajĭš-. For example, star-ŭ 'old' forms the comparative star-ějĭš-, but ubog-ŭ 'poor' forms ubož-ajĭš- < *ubož-ějiš- < *aubag-e:-jĭš-. The comparative of starŭ 'old' illustrates the declension.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
N V Sg.   starěi   starěje   starěiši
A   starěi   starěje   starěišǫ
    starěiša   starěiše   starěišjǫ
G   starěiša   starěiša   starěišę
L   starěiši   starěiši   starěiši
D   starěišu   starěišu   starěiši
    starěišju   starěišju    
I   starěišemĭ   starěišemĭ   starěišejǫ
             
N V Du.   starěiša   starěiši   starěiši
A   starěiša   starěiši   starěiši
G   starěišu   starěišu   starěišu
    starěišju   starěišju   starěišju
L   starěišu   starěišu   starěišu
    starěišju   starěišju   starěišju
D   starěišema   starěišema   starěišama
I   starěišema   starěišema   starěišama
             
N V Pl.   starěiše   starěiša   starěišę
    starěiši        
A   starěišę   starěiša   starěišę
G   starěišĭ   starěišĭ   starěišĭ
L   starěišixŭ   starěišixŭ   starěišaxŭ
D   starěišemŭ   starěišemŭ   starěišamŭ
I   starěiši   starěiši   starěišami
22.3. Comparatives without Positive Bases

Several comparatives derive from stems whose positive form had fallen into disuse by the time of the OCS documents. The corresponding positive adjective forms were taken from other stems. The following are common examples.

    Positive   Comparative Masc.   Neut.   Fem.
    velii, velikŭ   bol'ii 'bigger'   bol'e   bol'ĭši
    'big'            
    mŭnogŭ 'many'   vęštii 'larger, more'   vęšte   vęštĭši
    malŭ 'small'   mĭn'ii 'smaller'   mĭn'e   mĭn'ĭši
    blagŭ, dobrŭ   lučii 'better'   luče   lučĭši
    'good'            
        un'ii 'better'   unje   un'ĭši
            uněje    
        sul'ii 'better'   sulje   sul'ĭši
        sulěi   sulěje   sulěiši
        račii 'better'   račje   račĭši
    zŭlŭ 'bad'   gor'ii 'worse'   gorje   gor'ĭši
22.4. The Superlative

The superlative of adverbs is formed by adding the prefix nan- to the comparative, e.g. paky 'again', pače 'more', nanpače 'the most'. The superlative of adjectives is most often expressed by means of the comparative in conjunction with a genitive denoting the point of reference for the comparison: vĭsěxŭ bol'ii 'biggest of all'. An absolute superlative is formed by use of the adverb dzelo 'very' with the positive degree of the adjective, or by means of the prefix prě- added to the positive: svętŭ 'holy', prěsvętŭ 'holiest'.

23. Relatives, Interrogatives, and Indefinites
23.1. The Relative Pronoun

The relative pronoun is formed by appending the enclitic že 'but, and' to the forms of the third person pronoun *i 'he'. The pronoun is declined, while the enclitic remains invariable. In contrast to the third person pronoun, the nominative forms of the relative pronoun do occur.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
N Sg.   iže   ježe   jaže
A   iže   ježe   jǫže
G   jegože   jegože   jejęže
L   jemi/že   jemĭže   jeiže
D   jemuže   jemuže   jeiže
I   imĭže   imĭže   jejǫže
             
N A Du.   jaže   iže   iže
G L   jejuže   jejuže   jejuže
D I   imaže   imaže   imaže
             
N Pl.   iže   jaže   jęže
A   jęže   jaže   jęže
G   ixŭže   ixŭže   ixŭže
L   ixŭže   ixŭže   ixŭže
D   imŭže   imŭže   imŭže
I   imiže   imiže   imiže

As with the third person pronoun, a prothetic n- occurs when used with prepositions, e.g. n'ĭže 'in which'.

23.2. The Interrogative Pronoun and Adjective

The interrogative pronoun is declined only in the singular. The masculine and feminine forms are the same, while the neuter has a separate stem.

    Masc./Fem.   Neut.
N   kŭto   čĭto
A   kogo   čĭto
G   kogo   česo
L   komĭ   čemĭ
D   komu   česomu
I   cěmĭ   čimĭ

kŭto means 'who?', referring to masculine or feminine substantives; čĭto means 'what?'. čĭto has variant forms for some of the oblique cases: G česogo, čĭso, čĭsogo; D čĭsomu, čemu, L česomĭ.

The interrogative adjective is kyi, koje, kaja 'which?, what sort of?'. The declension is given below.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
N Sg.   kyi   koje   kaja
A   kyi   koje   kǫjǫ
G   kojego   kojego   kojeję
L   kojemĭ   kojemĭ   kojei
D   kojemu   kojemu   kojei
I   kyimĭ   kyimĭ   kojejǫ
             
N A Du.   (kaja)   -   -
G L   (kojeju)   (kojeju)   (kojeju)
D I   kyima   kyima   kyima
             
N Pl.   cii   kaja   kyję
A   kyję   kaja   kyję
G   kyixŭ   kyixŭ   kyixŭ
L   kyixŭ   kyixŭ   kyixŭ
D   kyimŭ   kyimŭ   kyimŭ
I   kyimi   kyimi   kyimi

There are variant forms: N sg. masc. ky, G sg. fem. koję, D sg. fem. koi, A sg. fem. kojǫ, I sg. fem. kojǫ, and G pl. koixŭ.

The possessive interrogative adjective čii, čija, čije 'whose' follows the same declension.

23.3. Indefinite Pronouns and Adjectives

In addition to the meaning 'who?, what?', the pronouns kŭto, čĭto may have the indefinite meanings 'anybody, anything', respectively.

The prefix - imparts indefinite meaning to the word to which it is attached. kŭto 'who?' becomes někŭto 'someone', čĭto 'what?' becomes něčĭto 'something'. Similarly, the prefix ni- imparts a negative meaning: nikŭto 'no one', ničĭto 'no thing'. These prefixes were still flexible in OCS, so that prepositions may come between prefix and base word: u kogo 'with someone', ni o komĭže nerodiši 'you care for no one'.

24. Compound Tense Formation

Past tenses other than the imperfect and aorist were formed by means of periphrastic constructions. These were based on the l-participle used in conjunction with a corresponding tense of 'to be'. The future was also at times expressed with constructions using an auxiliary verb.

24.1. The Perfect

The IE perfect formation survives in OCS only in the form vědě 'I know' < *voidai, corresponding to Lat. vidi, Grk. (w)oida, Skt. veda. The perfect of other verbs is formed in OCS by using the corresponding l-participle of the verb plus the present tense of 'to be', that is, finite forms built from the stem es-. The participle takes its gender and number from the subject. For example, the perfect of nesti, -, -seši 'carry' is as follows.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
1st Sg.   neslŭ   neslo   nesla jesmĭ 'I carried'
2   neslŭ   neslo   nesla jesi 'you carried'
3   neslŭ   neslo   nesla jestŭ 'he/it/she carried'
             
1st Du.   nesla   neslě   neslě jesvě 'we two carried'
2   nesla   neslě   neslě jesta 'you two carried'
3   nesla   neslě   neslě jeste 'they two carried'
             
1st Pl.   nesli   nesla   nesly jesmŭ 'we carried'
2   nesli   nesla   nesly jeste 'you carried'
3   nesli   nesla   nesly sǫtŭ 'they carried'

The exact difference between the OCS perfect and aorist is still a matter of scholarly debate. Many state that the perfect in OCS denotes a past action whose result is still relevant in the present. This is distinct from the aorist, which denotes a past action without regard to the time of the speaker. The oft-quoted example in support of this distinction comes from the story of Jairus' daughter in Mark 5:22-43. The messengers tell Jairus dŭšti tvoě umrětŭ 'your daughter has died', where umrětŭ is the third singular aorist form. However Jesus later says něstŭ umrŭla sŭpitŭ 'she is not dead, but sleeps', where něstŭ (= ne jestŭ) umrŭla is the perfect, and sŭpitŭ is present. One must be cautious, however, in asserting that such a distinction was felt in OCS, because here both the aorist umrětŭ and the perfect (jestŭ) umrŭla translate the Greek aorist apethanen. The fact that the OCS perfect often translates the Greek aorist, together with the fact that later Slavic languages use the l-participle construction for the simple past, suggest that the OCS perfect may have expressed the past generally and without reference to the present time of the speaker.

24.2. The Pluperfect

The pluperfect denotes an action which occurred prior to a point of time in the past. It is formed analogously to the perfect, replacing the present tense of the auxiliary 'be' with its imperfect or aorist form. nesti, -, -seši 'carry' serves as an example.

    Participle   Auxiliary (Imperf./Aor.)    
1st Sg.   neslŭ, -lo, -la   běaxŭ / běxŭ   'I had carried'
2   neslŭ, -lo, -la   běaše /   'you had carried'
3   neslŭ, -lo, -la   běaše /   'he/it/she had carried'
             
1st Du.   nesla, -, -   běaxově / běxově   'we two had carried'
2   nesla, -, -   běašeta / běsta   'you two had carried'
3   nesla, -, -   běašete / běste   'they two had carried'
             
1st Pl.   nesli, -la, -ly   běaxomŭ / běxomŭ   'we had carried'
2   nesli, -la, -ly   běašete / běste   'you had carried'
3   nesli, -la, -ly   běaxǫ / běšę   'they had carried'

The auxiliary 'be' is also found in the perfect: neslŭ bylŭ jesmĭ 'I had carried'.

24.3. The Future

Future time was usually expressed using the present tense form of the verb. Another construction existed, however, which involved the infinitive used in conjunction with a finite form of one of the verbs vŭčęti, načęti 'to begin', iměti 'to have', xotěti 'to will'. For example, one finds glagolati imatŭ 'he will speak', nenaviděti načĭnǫtŭ 'they will despise one another'.

A periphrastic future construction is occasionally formed by using the present participle with a form of byti, bǫdǫ, bǫdeši 'be, become'. For example the verb mlĭčati, -čǫ, -čiši 'be silent' forms a future bǫdeši mlĭčę 'you will be silent'; and žiti, živǫ, živeši 'live' forms the future živŭ bǫdeši 'you will live'.

24.4. The Future Perfect

The present tense also fills the function of the future perfect. There is, however, a periphrastic formation of the future perfect given by the l-participle in conjunction with a finite form of byti, bǫdǫ, bǫdeši 'be'. For example, čitati, -ajǫ, -aješi 'read' forms a future perfect čitalŭ bǫdǫ 'I will have read'; the future perfect of roditi, -ždǫ, -diši 'give birth' is found in to vŭskǫjǫ i rodili bǫdemŭ 'then for what shall we be born?'

25. The Nominative and Vocative Cases

The nominative is the case of the subject and of adjectives or substantives predicated to the subject. Thus in běašete bo rybarja 'for they two were fishermen', the predicate rybarja is in the nominative. The nominative is also used abosolutely for naming. This includes titles such as evangelie otŭ luky 'the Gospel according to Luke', as well as predicates with verbs of naming: velii narečetŭ 'he will be called great', where velii 'great' is nominative in agreement with the subject.

The vocative is the case used for direct address. For example, duše 'soul!' is vocative in the phrase rekǫ duši moei duše 'I will say to my soul, Soul!...'. Distinct forms for the vocative are found only in the singular of masculine and feminine nouns. In other numbers the form is the same as the nominative. The nominative is in fact often found in instances where a distinct vocative form would be expected.