The basic corpus of OCS, centered around the 10th-11th centuries, is very limited in scope. The primary Glagolitic manuscripts are:
(i) The Kiev Missal, from the mid 10th cent. This consists of seven folia containing prayers for Mass according to the Roman rite. The language displays West Slavic characteristics: CS tj, dj > ts, z rather than sht, zhd; CS stj > shtch rather than sht; the instr. sg. masc. o-stem ending is -u'mi' rather than -omi'. The vocabulary shows numerous elements from the West: prje'fatsija < Lat. praefatio; oplatu' < Lat. oblata; pogani'sku' < Lat. paganus.
(ii) The Codex Zographensis, from the 11th cent. This has 303 folia, most of which furnish an incomplete version of the four Gospels; the rest are in Cyrillic and provide a list of Saints' days with the accompanying Gospel reading for that day. The language is characterized by assimilation of jers: u' > i' before a front vowel, i' > u' before a back vowel.
(iii) The Codex Marianus, from the late 10th, early 11th cent. This consists of 174 folia containing an incomplete version of the four Gospels. This is assigned to the Serbo-Croat area on the basis of the following linguistic characteristics: o^ > u; y > i; gen. sg. sego > sega; vu'- > u-.
(iv) The Glagolita Clozianus. This contains 14 folia recording a collection of Saints' Lives and homilies to be read during festivals of the ecclesiastical year. This is characterized by the linguistic shifts o^ > u and y > i.
(v) The Codex Assemanianus. This contains 158 folia collecting gospel passages read in the liturgy, followed by a calendar of Saints' days. The large proportion of Macedonian saints in the calendar leads one to assume a Macedonian provenance.
(vi) The Psalterium Sinaiticum, from the 11th cent. This has 177 folia with translations of the Greek Psalms 1-137.
(vii) The Euchologium Sinaiticum, from the 11th cent. This comprehends 109 folia containing a collection of prayers for different occasions.
The major Cyrillic documents are the following:
(viii) Savvina Kniga, from the 11th cent. This consists of 166 folia, containing an incomplete evangelistary and list of Saints' days. The name derives from mention within the document that it was written by popu' Savva. Thought to be of Bulgarian provenance based on the fact that u' is not strengthened to o.
(ix) The Codex Suprasliensis, from the 11th cent. This consists of 285 folia giving a menology for the month of March, that is, a collection of readings ecclesiastical festivals of March. There are twenty-four saints' lives and legends, twenty-three homilies, and one prayer. The back jer u' is not strengthened to o, nor i' to e; the text is assumed to come from the Bulgarian region.
(x) The Inscription of Tsar Samuel, dated 993. This is a marble inscription commissioned by the Tsar over Macedonia and Western Bulgaria from 976 to 1014. It commemorates his deceased parents and brother.
The following passage is the beginning of the Nativity, Luke 2:1-20. The first line is the introduction to the passage at hand, and not part of the Gospel. Noteworthy is the frequent use of je' where a or ja is to be expected, e.g. kesarje' for kesar'ja. In the second verse, one also finds scribal confusion, where kiriiiejo^ is written for the more proper dative kiriiju agreeing with the participle vlado^shtu. That this could be mere conflation of o^ and u is mitigated by the fact that o^ is correctly used elsewhere. This rather seems a case of attraction to the preceding suriejo^, brought on by lack of familiarity with foreign names. Note also the use of adjectival forms of names, e.g. davydovu', to denote possession or relation, rather than a simple genitive form.
mje'se^tsa deke^br'ja ig vu' navetcherije rozhdi'stva khri'stova evang'elije otu' luky glava v
vu' ono vrje'me^ izide zapovje'di' otu' kesarje' avgosta napisati v'so^ vi'seleno^jo^ |
se napisanie pru'voe bystu' vlado^shtu suriejo^ i kiriniejo^ |
i idje'akho^ vi'si napisatu' se^ ki'zhdo vu' svoi gradu' |
vi'zide zhe iosifi' otu' galilee^ i grada nazareti'ska vi' ijudejo^ vi' gradu' davydovu' izhe naritsaetu' se^ vithleemi' zane bje'ashe otu' domu i oti'tchi'stvije' davydova |
napisatu' se^ su' mariejo^ obro^tcheno^jo^ emu zhenojo^ so^shtejo^ neprazdu'nojo^ |
bystu' zhe egda byste tu isplu'nishe^ se^ denie da roditu' | i rodi synu' svoi pru'vje'netsi' i obity i i polozhi i vu' je'slekhu' zane ne bje' ima mje'sta vu' obitje'li |
i pastu'iri bje'akho^ vu' toizhde st'ranje' bu'de^shte i strje'go^shte strazho^ noshti'no^jo^ o stadje' svoemu' |
i se ang'elu' gospodi'ni' sta vi' nikhu' i slava gospodi'nje' osije' e^ i uboje'she^ se^ st'rakhomu' veliemu' |
i retche imu' ang'elu' ne boite se^ se bo blagovje'shtajo^ vamu' radosti' velijo^ je'zhe bo^det bi'sje'mi' ljudemu' |
je'ko rodi se^ vamu' su'pasu' izhe estu' khristu' gospodi' vu' gradje' davydovje' | i se vamu' z'namenie obre^stete mladi'netsi' povitu' i lezhe^shti' vi' je'slekhu' |
i vu'nezaapo^ bystu' su' angje'lomu' m'nozhi'stvo voi nebesnyikh khvale^shtiikhu' boga i glagoljo^shti' |
sla vu' vyshniikh bogu i na zemi miru' vu' tchlovje'tsje'khu' blagovolenie |
i bystu' je'ko otido^ oti' nikhu' ang'eli na nebo i tchlovje'tsi pastu'iri rje'she^ drugi' ki' drugu prje'idje'mu' ubo do vithleoma i vidimu' glagoli' si' byvi'shii egozhe gospodi' su'kaza nam |
i prje'ido^ pod'vigi'she se^ i obrje'to^ marijo^ i iosifa i mladi'netsi' lezhe^shti' vi' je'slekhu' |
vidje'vu'she zhe si'kazashe^ o glagolje' glagolanje'mi' o otrotche^ti semu' | i vu'si slyshavu'she divishe^ se^ o glagolanyikhu' otu' pastu'iri' ki' nimu' |
marije' zhe vi'se^ su'bljudaashe glagoly sii vu' sri'di'tsi svoemu' | i vu'zvratishe^ se^ pastyri slave^shte i khvale^shte boga o v'sje'khu' je'zhe slyshashe^ i vidje'she^ je'kozhe glagolano bu'isti' ki' nimu' |
mje'se^tsa deke^br'ja ig vu' navetcherije rozhdi'stva khri'stova evang'elije otu' luky glava v vu' ono vrje'me^ izide zapovje'di' otu' kesarje' avgosta napisati v'so^ vi'seleno^jo^ | se napisanie pru'voe bystu' vlado^shtu suriejo^ i kiriniejo^ | i idje'akho^ vi'si napisatu' se^ ki'zhdo vu' svoi gradu' | vi'zide zhe iosifi' otu' galilee^ i grada nazareti'ska vi' ijudejo^ vi' gradu' davydovu' izhe naritsaetu' se^ vithleemi' zane bje'ashe otu' domu i oti'tchi'stvije' davydova | napisatu' se^ su' mariejo^ obro^tcheno^jo^ emu zhenojo^ so^shtejo^ neprazdu'nojo^ | bystu' zhe egda byste tu isplu'nishe^ se^ denie da roditu' | i rodi synu' svoi pru'vje'netsi' i obity i i polozhi i vu' je'slekhu' zane ne bje' ima mje'sta vu' obitje'li | i pastu'iri bje'akho^ vu' toizhde st'ranje' bu'de^shte i strje'go^shte strazho^ noshti'no^jo^ o stadje' svoemu' | i se ang'elu' gospodi'ni' sta vi' nikhu' i slava gospodi'nje' osije' e^ i uboje'she^ se^ st'rakhomu' veliemu' | i retche imu' ang'elu' ne boite se^ se bo blagovje'shtajo^ vamu' radosti' velijo^ je'zhe bo^det bi'sje'mi' ljudemu' | je'ko rodi se^ vamu' su'pasu' izhe estu' khristu' gospodi' vu' gradje' davydovje' | i se vamu' z'namenie obre^stete mladi'netsi' povitu' i lezhe^shti' vi' je'slekhu' | i vu'nezaapo^ bystu' su' angje'lomu' m'nozhi'stvo voi nebesnyikh khvale^shtiikhu' boga i glagoljo^shti' | sla vu' vyshniikh bogu i na zemi miru' vu' tchlovje'tsje'khu' blagovolenie | i bystu' je'ko otido^ oti' nikhu' ang'eli na nebo i tchlovje'tsi pastu'iri rje'she^ drugi' ki' drugu prje'idje'mu' ubo do vithleoma i vidimu' glagoli' si' byvi'shii egozhe gospodi' su'kaza nam | i prje'ido^ pod'vigi'she se^ i obrje'to^ marijo^ i iosifa i mladi'netsi' lezhe^shti' vi' je'slekhu' | vidje'vu'she zhe si'kazashe^ o glagolje' glagolanje'mi' o otrotche^ti semu' | i vu'si slyshavu'she divishe^ se^ o glagolanyikhu' otu' pastu'iri' ki' nimu' | marije' zhe vi'se^ su'bljudaashe glagoly sii vu' sri'di'tsi svoemu' | i vu'zvratishe^ se^ pastyri slave^shte i khvale^shte boga o v'sje'khu' je'zhe slyshashe^ i vidje'she^ je'kozhe glagolano bu'isti' ki' nimu' |
24th of the month December, on the eve of the birth of Christ. Gospel according to Luke, 2nd chapter:
(1) And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed. (2) (And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria.) (3) And all went up to be taxed, every one in his own city. (4) And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judaea, unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem; (because he was of the house and lineage of David:) (5) To be taxed with Mary his espoused wife, being great with child. (6) And so it was, that, while they were there, the days were accomplished that she should be delivered. (7) And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger; because there was no room for them in the inn. (8) And there were in the same country shepherds abiding in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night. (9) And, lo, the angel of the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone round about them: and they were sore afraid. (10) And the angel said unto them, Fear not: for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people. (11) For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Savior, which is Christ the Lord. (12) And this shall be a sign unto you: Ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger. (13) And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God, and saying, (14) Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men. (15) And it came to pass, as the angels were gone away from them into heaven, the shepherds said one to another, Let us now go even unto Bethlehem, and see this thing which is come to pass, which the Lord hath made known unto us. (16) And they came with haste, and found Mary, and Joseph, and the babe lying in a manger. (17) And when they had seen it, they made known abroad the saying which was told them concerning this child. (18) And all they that heard it wondered at those things which were told them by the shepherds. (19) But Mary kept all these things, and pondered them in her heart. (20) And the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all the things that they had heard and seen, as it was told unto them.
There are two types of past active participle in OCS. One of these, the resultative or l-participle, has been discussed in Section 18. This section discusses what most grammars term the past active participle.
The past active participle is formed by attaching the suffix -u'sh- or -vu'sh- to the stem of the verb. To this suffix are added the endings of the soft twofold nominal (cf. Section 12) or compound (cf. Section 17) adjectives, with special forms of the nominative and accusative. The ending -u'sh- is suffixed to verbal stems ending in -i or a consonant -- in this situation, -j and -ov- do not count as consonants. -no^- verbs which drop the -no^- also take the suffix -u'sh-. All other stems, i.e. -ov, -j, -no^, -je', -a, take the suffix -vu'sh-.
Before -u'sh-, -i becomes -j, with accompanying palatalization of the preceding consonant and fronting of the following -u'- to -i'-. prositi, prosho^, prosishi 'ask' furnishes an example: the nominative singular feminine form is pros-i+u'sh+i > prosj-i'shi > proshi'shi 'having asked'. Before -vu'sh-, final -j is deleted and -ov- becomes -u. dje'lati, dje'lajo^, dje'lajeshi 'do' has the stem dje'laj-, so that the nominative singular feminine is dje'laj+vu'sh+i > dje'la-vu'shi > dje'lavu'shi 'having done'. Similarly, otu'pluti, -plovo^, -ploveshi 'sail away' has otu'plov+vu'sh+i > otu'plu-vu'shi > otu'pluvu'shi 'having sailed away'.
Verbs whose stem ends in -i occasionally have alternate forms with the suffix -vu'sh-. For example, moliti, mol'jo^, mol'jeshi 'beg' shows the forms mol'i'shi and molivu'shi. The nominative singular masculine and neuter ending is zero, so that OCS deletion of final consonants gives -u', -i' (in front environments), or -vu'.
In terms of the conjugational classifications of these lessons, the suffixes -u'sh- and -vu'sh- are added to the infinitive stem of the verb. The suffix -u'sh- is appended to hard stems ending in a consonant; -vu'sh- is added to hard stems ending in a vowel. Verbs of conjugation II drop the -no^- / -ne- suffix before forming the past active participle. Verbs of conjugation IV take the suffix -i'sh-; in later texts they appear with -ivu'sh-.
The verb nesti, neso^, neseshi 'carry' illustrates the declension of the past active participle. The short forms are as follows.
|N V Sg.||nesu'||nesu'||nesu'shi|
|N A V Du.||nesu'sha||nesu'shi||nesu'shi|
|N V Pl.||nesu'she||nesu'sha||nesu'she^|
The long forms are given below.
|N V Sg.||nesu'shyi||nesu'sheje||nesu'shija|
|N A V Du.||nesu'shaja||nesu'shii||nesu'shii|
|N V Pl.||nesu'shei||nesu'shaja||nesu'she^je^|
There are assimilated forms, e.g. feminine I sg. neso^jo^ and masculine G sg. nesaago, and contracted forms, e.g. masculine G sg. nesago. The masculine and neuter N sg. form for participles in -i' is -i'i, where the tense jer sometimes gives -ii. In the oblique cases, all the same endings are attached to the suffix -i'sh-.
The past passive participle is formed by means of the suffixes -tu' (cf. English (finely) wrought), -nu', or -enu' (cf. English eaten). The suffixes are added to the infinitve stem and declined as twofold short or long adjectives.
The -tu' suffix is used only in a restricted class of verbs. Verbs with present stem ending in -i' + nasal employ this suffix. It is added to the infinitive stem, which ends in -e^. Thus e^ti, imo^, imeshi 'take' (present stem i'm-) forms e^tu' 'taken'; pe^ti, pi'no^, pi'neshi 'stretch' forms pe^tu' 'stretched'.
Other verbs with different stems form the past passive participle by means of -tu': izvje'dje'ti, -vje'mi', -vje'si 'know' forms izvje'stu' 'known'; otu'vrje'sti, -vru'zo^, -vru'zeshi 'open' forms otu'vri'stu' 'opened'.
The -nu' suffix is used for verbs whose present stems end in -a, -aj, -je', -je'j. These lose the final -j in the infinitive stem, to which the suffix is added. For example, sje'jati, sje'jo^, sje'jeshi 'sow' yields sje'janu' 'sown'; razumje'ti, -mje'jo^, -mje'jeshi 'understand' forms razumje'nu' 'understood'.
All other stems form the past passive participle by means of the -enu' suffix. This includes verbs whose stems end in consonants, in particular -no^- verbs which drop this suffix in the past tense: dvigno^ti, dvigno^, dvigneshi 'move' yields dvizhenu' 'moved'. Verbs which retain the -no^- suffix in the past tense form the participle in -nov-enu', e.g. otu'rino^ti, -rino^, -rineshi yields otu'rinovenu'. This intervening -v- is also found in the participles of roots ending in a back vowel followed by -j, e.g. kru'venu' 'covered' from kryti, kryjo^, kryjeshi 'cover'. In this situation, -yj- is the tense reflex of -u'j-. In some instances stem-final -i yields -j, which produces palatalization: prositi, prosho^, prosishi 'beg' gives proshenu'.
Some verbs form participles by means of both the nasal suffix and the mute suffix. For example, biti, bi'jo^, bi'jeshi 'beat' has participles bitu' and bi'jenu' 'beaten'. sje'ti, sje'jo^, sje'jeshi 'sow' shows prefixed participles osje'tu' and osje'nu' 'sown'. Some verbs with root-final -l show formations with both -nu' and -enu', e.g. klati, kol'jo^, kol'jeshi 'stab' forms both klanu' and kolenu'.
The present passive participle is formed from the present tense stem by the addition of the endings -imu', -emu', or -omu'. These are declined as twofold short or long adjectives. Verbs whose present tense stems end in -i take the ending -imu'. Other soft stems take the ending -emu'. The remaining consonant stems and -no^- verbs take the ending -omu'. The following are examples according to declension.
|I||nesti, neso^, neseshi||nesomu'||'being carried'|
|II||dvigno^ti, -no^, -neshi||dvigomu'||'being moved'|
|III||znati, znajo^, znajeshi||znajemu'||'being known'|
|IV||moliti, mol'jo^, mol'jeshi||molimu'||'being asked'|
|V||dati, dami', dasi||dadomu'||'being given'|
The verb vidje'ti, vizhdo^, vidishi 'see', being originally athematic, forms the participle vidomu' alongside the expected vidimu'. Similarly, alkati (lakati), altcho^ (latcho^), altcheshi (latcheshi) 'hunger' has the participle lakomu'.
The present passive participle may be used with forms of the verb 'be' to create a periphrastic passive voice, e.g. nesomu' jesmi' 'I am being carried', nesomi bykhomu' 'we were being carried'.
The verbs of the second declension display the affix -ne- between root and ending. The affix -no^- appears in the infinitive. Preceding the affix may be either a stem-final consonant or stem-final vowel. Some roots drop the affix in certain verbal forms. For example, dvigno^ti, dvigno^, dvigneshi 'move' forms the aorist dvigu' directly from the root, while mino^ti, mino^, mineshi 'pass by' retains the affix -no^- in the aorist mino^khu'.
The conjugation is illustrated by the verbs dvigno^ti, -no^, -neshi 'move'; stati, stano^, staneshi 'stand'; rino^ti, rino^, rineshi push'; mino^ti, -no^, -neshi 'pass by'. Many forms are unattested. The verb dru'zno^ti, dru'zno^, dru'zneshi 'dare' supplies some forms where they are lacking in the other paradigm verbs.
|Pres. Act. Part.|
|Pres. Pass. Part.|
|Past Act. Part.|
|Past Pass. Part.|
The third person plural, sigmatic aorist form -stano^she^ occurs for the verb stati 'stand'. The -no^- affix, originally dropped in the aorist and past participle forms, seems to have been reintroduced for some verbs by analogy with the present system.
The genitive case has several uses. It may be the complement of both verbs and substantives.
The genitive is often used as the complement of certain verbs in a manner akin to a direct object. For example, vidje'ti 'see' may take an object in either the accusative or genitive, while zu'rje'ti 'see' typically takes the genitive. alkati 'hunger (for)', zhu'dati 'await', vu'sprositi 'beg', and napli'niti 'fill (with)' are examples of other verbs which regularly take the genitive. Some verbs normally taking an accusative object may take a genitive denoting a part of a whole. An example is vu'kusiti 'taste': jako zhe vu'kusi arkhitriklinu' vina byvu'shaego otu' vody 'and when the ruler tasted (some of) the wine made from water'. The genitive is used also by some verbs representing separation from or lack of something, e.g. izbaviti 'rid (of)', svoboditi 'free (from)', plakati 'mourn (over)'.
The use of the genitive with a negated copula or negated transitive verb has been discussed in Section 15.
The genitive is the usual complement of the supine: pride ... vidje'tu' groba 'she came for the seeing of the tomb', 'she came to see the tomb'.
The genitive may also be the complement of a substantive, with a wide variety of meanings. These all serve to somehow delimit the range of the substantive, whether by mere possession, by quantity, or by quality. Take the follwoing examples: dukhu' oti'tsa vashaego 'spirit of your father'; tchlovje'ku' edinu' dobra roda 'a certain man of a good family'; du'shti du'voju na dese^te lje'tu 'daughter of twelve years', 'twelve-year-old daughter'; sedmi' koshi'nitsi' 'seven (of) baskets'. The following are examples where a substantive and genitive construction is used to denote part of a whole: ku'to ikhu' 'who of them', 'who among them'; koliko khlje'bu' 'how much of bread', 'how many (loaves) of bread'; malo ikhu' estu' 'there are few of them'.
Some adjectives take a genitive complement: su'so^du' ... pli'nu' otsi'ta 'a vessel full of vinegar'. The comparative adjectives and adverbs use the genitive to denote the reference of comparison: este lutsi'shi pu'titsi' 'you are better than birds'; tetche skorje'e petra 'he ran faster than Peter'.
The passive voice is represented morphologically only in the present passive and past passive participles. Their formation is discussed in Sections 31 and 32 above. These participles may be used with forms of byti 'be' to form periphrastic passive constructions. For example nesomu' jesmi' 'I am being carried' represents a present passive construction, while prje'danu' bo^detu' 'He will be betrayed' represents a future passive.
se^ in its basic role represents the accusative form of the reflexive pronoun, e.g. javl'jo^ se^ emu samu' 'I will manifest myself to him'. In the presence of negation, this reflexive may be substituted by the genitive form sebe. Likewise, se^ used as a personal or animate object may be replaced by the genitive sebe, cf. Section 15. An example of this is vy este opravi'dajo^shtei sebe 'you are the ones justifying yourselves'.
A related but more common usage of se^ is with verbs to denote not a definite object but rather a shift from transitivity to intransitivity. se^ in this role occupies the place of an accusative without expressing an explicit object, and in this function is not substituted by sebe. It typically either follows the verb or the first accented word of its clause. For example, ashte se^ bi ne rodilu' 'if he had not been born'; unje'e estu' ne zheniti se^ 'it is better not to marry'. Some verbs acquire a different shade of meaning with se^, e.g. kle^ti 'curse', but kle^ti se^ 'swear, take an oath'. Other verbs never occur without se^, like bojati se^ 'fear'.
Inasmuch as se^ makes transitive verbs intransitive, it often serves to mark passive meaning. This interpretation is borne out by variant translations in the different manuscripts, one having a reflexive form, another a morphological passive: Zographensis has synu' tchlovje'tchi'sku'i prje'dastu' se^, while Marianus has ...prje'danu' bo^detu' 'the Son of Man will be betrayed'.