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Old Church Slavonic Online

Lesson 7

Todd B. Krause and Jonathan Slocum

The basic corpus of OCS, centered around the 10th-11th centuries, is very limited in scope. The primary Glagolitic manuscripts are:

(i) The Kiev Missal, from the mid 10th cent. This consists of seven folia containing prayers for Mass according to the Roman rite. The language displays West Slavic characteristics: CS tj, dj > ts, z rather than sht, zhd; CS stj > shtch rather than sht; the instr. sg. masc. o-stem ending is -u'mi' rather than -omi'. The vocabulary shows numerous elements from the West: prje'fatsija < Lat. praefatio; oplatu' < Lat. oblata; pogani'sku' < Lat. paganus.

(ii) The Codex Zographensis, from the 11th cent. This has 303 folia, most of which furnish an incomplete version of the four Gospels; the rest are in Cyrillic and provide a list of Saints' days with the accompanying Gospel reading for that day. The language is characterized by assimilation of jers: u' > i' before a front vowel, i' > u' before a back vowel.

(iii) The Codex Marianus, from the late 10th, early 11th cent. This consists of 174 folia containing an incomplete version of the four Gospels. This is assigned to the Serbo-Croat area on the basis of the following linguistic characteristics: o^ > u; y > i; gen. sg. sego > sega; vu'- > u-.

(iv) The Glagolita Clozianus. This contains 14 folia recording a collection of Saints' Lives and homilies to be read during festivals of the ecclesiastical year. This is characterized by the linguistic shifts o^ > u and y > i.

(v) The Codex Assemanianus. This contains 158 folia collecting gospel passages read in the liturgy, followed by a calendar of Saints' days. The large proportion of Macedonian saints in the calendar leads one to assume a Macedonian provenance.

(vi) The Psalterium Sinaiticum, from the 11th cent. This has 177 folia with translations of the Greek Psalms 1-137.

(vii) The Euchologium Sinaiticum, from the 11th cent. This comprehends 109 folia containing a collection of prayers for different occasions.

The major Cyrillic documents are the following:

(viii) Savvina Kniga, from the 11th cent. This consists of 166 folia, containing an incomplete evangelistary and list of Saints' days. The name derives from mention within the document that it was written by popu' Savva. Thought to be of Bulgarian provenance based on the fact that u' is not strengthened to o.

(ix) The Codex Suprasliensis, from the 11th cent. This consists of 285 folia giving a menology for the month of March, that is, a collection of readings ecclesiastical festivals of March. There are twenty-four saints' lives and legends, twenty-three homilies, and one prayer. The back jer u' is not strengthened to o, nor i' to e; the text is assumed to come from the Bulgarian region.

(x) The Inscription of Tsar Samuel, dated 993. This is a marble inscription commissioned by the Tsar over Macedonia and Western Bulgaria from 976 to 1014. It commemorates his deceased parents and brother.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The following passage is the beginning of the Nativity, Luke 2:1-20. The first line is the introduction to the passage at hand, and not part of the Gospel. Noteworthy is the frequent use of je' where a or ja is to be expected, e.g. kesarje' for kesar'ja. In the second verse, one also finds scribal confusion, where kiriiiejo^ is written for the more proper dative kiriiju agreeing with the participle vlado^shtu. That this could be mere conflation of o^ and u is mitigated by the fact that o^ is correctly used elsewhere. This rather seems a case of attraction to the preceding suriejo^, brought on by lack of familiarity with foreign names. Note also the use of adjectival forms of names, e.g. davydovu', to denote possession or relation, rather than a simple genitive form.

mje'se^tsa deke^br'ja ig vu' navetcherije rozhdi'stva khri'stova evang'elije otu' luky glava v

  • mje'se^tsa -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <mje'se^tsi'> moon, month -- of the month
  • deke^br'ja -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <dek'e^br'i'> December -- December
  • ig -- number adjective; nominative singular neuter of <du'vadese^ti'nyi i tchetvru'tyi, tchetvru'ti'jeje, tchetvru'ti'jaja> twenty-fourth -- 24th
  • vu' -- preposition; <vu'> in, into -- on
  • navetcherije -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <navetcheri'je> eve, evening before -- the eve
  • rozhdi'stva -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <rozhdi'stvo> birth -- of the birth
  • khri'stova -- adjective; genitive singular neuter of <khri'stovu'> of Christ, Christ's -- of Christ
  • evang'elije -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <evang'eli'je> gospel, evangel -- gospel
  • otu' -- preposition; <otu'> by, from, of -- according to
  • luky -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Luka> Luke -- Luke
  • glava -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <glava> head; chapter -- chapter
  • v -- number adjective; nominative singular feminine of <vu'toryi, -roje, -raja> second -- 2nd

vu' ono vrje'me^ izide zapovje'di' otu' kesarje' avgosta napisati v'so^ vi'seleno^jo^ |

  • vu' -- preposition; <vu'> in, into -- in
  • ono -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <onu'> that -- those
  • vrje'me^ -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <vrje'me^> time -- days
  • izide -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <iziti, -ido^, -ideshi> go out -- there went out
  • zapovje'di' -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <zapovje'di'> command, commandment -- a decree
  • otu' -- preposition; <otu'> by, from, of -- from
  • kesarje' -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Kesar'i'> Caesar -- Caesar
  • avgosta -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Avgostu'> Augustus -- Augustus
  • napisati -- verb; infinitive of <napisati, -sho^, -sheshi> write (down), inscribe -- should be taxed
  • v'so^ -- pronoun adjective; accusative singular feminine of <vi'si'> all, every; whole -- all
  • vi'seleno^jo^ -- adjective used as substantive; accusative singular feminine of <vu'selenu'> inhabited -- the world

se napisanie pru'voe bystu' vlado^shtu suriejo^ i kiriniejo^ |

  • se -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <si'> this -- this
  • napisanie -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <napisani'je> writing (down), inscription -- taxing
  • pru'voe -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of <pri'vu'> first, primary -- first
  • bystu' -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <byti, bo^do^, bo^deshi> be, become -- was made
  • vlado^shtu -- verb; present active participle; dative singular masculine of <vlasti, vlado^, -deshi> rule (+ instrumental ) -- when... was governor of
  • suriejo^ -- proper noun, feminine; instrumental singular of <Surija> Syria -- Syria
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- ...
  • kiriniejo^ -- proper noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <Kirinii> Cyrenius, Quirinius -- Cyrenius

i idje'akho^ vi'si napisatu' se^ ki'zhdo vu' svoi gradu' |

  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • idje'akho^ -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <iti, ido^, ideshi> go -- went up
  • vi'si -- demonstrative adjective used as substantive; nominative plural masculine of <vi'si'> all, every; whole -- all
  • napisatu' se^ -- reflexive verb; supine of <napisati, -sho^, -sheshi> write (down), inscribe -- to be taxed
  • ki'zhdo -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <ku'zhdo> every, everyone -- every one
  • vu' -- preposition; <vu'> in, into -- in
  • svoi -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <svoi, svoe, svoja> own, one's own -- his own
  • gradu' -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <gradu'> city -- city

vi'zide zhe iosifi' otu' galilee^ i grada nazareti'ska vi' ijudejo^ vi' gradu' davydovu' izhe naritsaetu' se^ vithleemi' zane bje'ashe otu' domu i oti'tchi'stvije' davydova |

  • vi'zide -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <vu'ziti, -ido^, -ideshi> go up -- went up
  • zhe -- conjunction; <zhe> and, but -- and also
  • iosifi' -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Iosifu'> Joseph -- Joseph
  • otu' -- preposition; <otu'> by, from, of -- from
  • galilee^ -- proper noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Galileja> Galilee -- Galilee
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • grada -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <gradu'> city -- the city
  • nazareti'ska -- adjective; genitive singular masculine of <Nazareti'sku'> Nazarene, of Nazareth -- of Nazareth
  • vi' -- preposition; <vu'> in, into -- into
  • ijudejo^ -- proper noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Ijudje'a> Judea -- Judea
  • vi' -- preposition; <vu'> in, into -- unto
  • gradu' -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <gradu'> city -- the city
  • davydovu' -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <davydovu'> of David, David's -- of David
  • izhe -- relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <izhe> who, which -- which
  • naritsaetu' se^ -- reflexive verb; 3rd person singular present of <naritsati, -tsajo^, -tsajeshi> call, name -- is called
  • vithleemi' -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Vithleemu'> Bethlehem -- Bethlehem
  • zane -- conjunction; <zan'e> because -- because
  • bje'ashe -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <byti, bo^do^, bo^deshi> be, become -- he was
  • otu' -- preposition; <otu'> by, from, of -- of
  • domu -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <domu'> house -- the house
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • oti'tchi'stvije' -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <oti'tchi'stvi'e> own country, lineage, kindred -- lineage
  • davydova -- adjective; genitive singular neuter of <davydovu'> of David, David's -- of David

napisatu' se^ su' mariejo^ obro^tcheno^jo^ emu zhenojo^ so^shtejo^ neprazdu'nojo^ |

  • napisatu' se^ -- reflexive verb; supine of <napisati, -sho^, -sheshi> write (down), inscribe -- to be taxed
  • su' -- preposition; <su'> with -- with
  • mariejo^ -- proper noun, feminine; instrumental singular of <Mari'ja> Maria, Mary -- Mary
  • obro^tcheno^jo^ -- verb; past passive participle; instrumental singular feminine of <obro^tchiti, -tcho^, -tchishi> affiance, betrothe -- espoused
  • emu -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*i> he -- his
  • zhenojo^ -- noun, feminine; instrumental singular of <zhena> woman, wife -- wife
  • so^shtejo^ -- verb; present active participle; instrumental singular feminine of <jes-, jesmi', jesi> be -- being
  • neprazdu'nojo^ -- adjective; instrumental singular feminine of <neprazdi'nu'> pregnant -- great with child

bystu' zhe egda byste tu isplu'nishe^ se^ denie da roditu' | i rodi synu' svoi pru'vje'netsi' i obity i i polozhi i vu' je'slekhu' zane ne bje' ima mje'sta vu' obitje'li |

  • bystu' -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <byti, bo^do^, bo^deshi> be, become -- (so) it was (that)
  • zhe -- conjunction; <zhe> and, but -- and
  • egda -- relative adverb; <egda> when -- while
  • byste -- verb; 3rd person dual aorist of <byti, bo^do^, bo^deshi> be, become -- they were
  • tu -- adverb; <tu> there; then -- there
  • isplu'nishe^ se^ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist reflexive of <ispli'niti, -n'jo^, -nishi> fill up, fulfill -- were accomplished
  • denie -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <di'ni'> day -- the days
  • da -- conjunction; <da> in order to, that; may, let; and, then -- that
  • roditu' -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <roditi, -zhdo^, -dishi> bear, produce -- she should be delivered
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • rodi -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <roditi, -zhdo^, -dishi> bear, produce -- she brought forth
  • synu' -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <synu'> son -- son
  • svoi -- possessive adjective; accusative singular masculine of <svoi, svoe, svoja> own, one's own -- her
  • pru'vje'netsi' -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <pri'vje'ni'tsi'> firstborn child -- firstborn
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • obity -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <obiti, -i'jo^, -i'jeshi> wrap, bind in -- wrapped... in swaddling clothes # #usual spelling obitu', where final -u' is tense before the following i
  • i -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <*i> he -- him
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • polozhi -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <polozhiti, -zho^, -zhishi> lay down, set down -- laid
  • i -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <*i> he -- him
  • vu' -- preposition; <vu'> in, into -- in
  • je'slekhu' -- noun, feminine; locative plural of <jasli> (plural form for singular meaning) manger -- a manger
  • zane -- conjunction; <zan'e> because -- because
  • ne -- particle; <ne> not -- no
  • bje' -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <byti, bo^do^, bo^deshi> be, become -- there was
  • ima -- pronoun; dative dual masculine of <*i> he -- for them
  • mje'sta -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <mje'sto> place -- room # #genitive with negated copula
  • vu' -- preposition; <vu'> in, into -- in
  • obitje'li -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <obitje'li'> inn, lodging, monastery -- the inn

i pastu'iri bje'akho^ vu' toizhde st'ranje' bu'de^shte i strje'go^shte strazho^ noshti'no^jo^ o stadje' svoemu' |

  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • pastu'iri -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <pastu'ir'i'> shepherd -- shepherds
  • bje'akho^ -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <byti, bo^do^, bo^deshi> be, become -- there were
  • vu' -- preposition; <vu'> in, into -- in
  • toizhde -- adverb; <tuizhde> there; there where -- the same
  • st'ranje' -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <strana> country; area, region; (pl) heathen -- country
  • bu'de^shte -- verb; present active participle; nominative plural masculine of <bu'de^ti, bu'zhdo^, bu'zhdishi> be awake, stay awake -- abiding (in the field)
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- ...
  • strje'go^shte -- verb; present active participle; nominative plural masculine of <strje'shti, strje'go^, strje'geshi> watch, guard, protect -- keeping
  • strazho^ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <strazha> guard -- watch
  • noshti'no^jo^ -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <noshti'nu'> nocturnal -- by night
  • o -- preposition; <o> around, concerning; against -- over
  • stadje' -- noun, neuter; locative singular of <stado> herd -- flock
  • svoemu' -- possessive adjective; locative singular neuter of <svoi, svoe, svoja> own, one's own -- their

i se ang'elu' gospodi'ni' sta vi' nikhu' i slava gospodi'nje' osije' e^ i uboje'she^ se^ st'rakhomu' veliemu' |

  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • se -- interjection; <se> lo, behold -- lo
  • ang'elu' -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <aggelu'> angel -- the angel
  • gospodi'ni' -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <gospodi'n'i'> lord's -- of the Lord
  • sta -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <stati, stano^, staneshi> stand -- came
  • vi' -- preposition; <vu'> in, into -- upon
  • nikhu' -- pronoun; locative plural masculine of <*i> he -- them
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • slava -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <slava> fame, glory -- the glory
  • gospodi'nje' -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <gospodi'n'i'> lord's -- of the Lord
  • osije' -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <osi'jati, -jajo^, -jajeshi> illumine, shine about, overshadow -- shone round about
  • e^ -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <*i> he -- them
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • uboje'she^ se^ -- reflexive verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <ubojati se^, -bojo^, -boishi> fear, become afraid -- they were... afraid
  • st'rakhomu' -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <strakhu'> terror -- ...
  • veliemu' -- adjective; instrumental singular masculine of <velii> big, great -- sore

i retche imu' ang'elu' ne boite se^ se bo blagovje'shtajo^ vamu' radosti' velijo^ je'zhe bo^det bi'sje'mi' ljudemu' |

  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • retche -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <reshti, reko^, retcheshi> say, tell -- said
  • imu' -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <*i> he -- unto them
  • ang'elu' -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <aggelu'> angel -- the angel
  • ne -- particle; <ne> not -- not
  • boite se^ -- reflexive verb; 2nd person plural imperfect of <bojati se^, bojo^, boishi> fear -- fear
  • se -- interjection; <se> lo, behold -- behold
  • bo -- conjunction; <bo> for -- for
  • blagovje'shtajo^ -- verb; 1st person singular present of <blagovje'shtati, -tajo^, -tajeshi> proclaim (the Good News) -- I bring you good tidings of
  • vamu' -- pronoun; dative plural of <ty> you, thou -- you
  • radosti' -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <radosti'> joy -- joy
  • velijo^ -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <velii> big, great -- great
  • je'zhe -- relative pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <izhe> who, which -- which
  • bo^det -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <byti, bo^do^, bo^deshi> be, become -- shall be
  • bi'sje'mi' -- adjective; dative plural masculine of <vi'si'> all, every; whole -- to all # #b for more proper v
  • ljudemu' -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <ljudu'> people -- people

je'ko rodi se^ vamu' su'pasu' izhe estu' khristu' gospodi' vu' gradje' davydovje' | i se vamu' z'namenie obre^stete mladi'netsi' povitu' i lezhe^shti' vi' je'slekhu' |

  • je'ko -- conjunction; <jako> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- for
  • rodi se^ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist reflexive of <roditi, -zhdo^, -dishi> bear, produce -- is born (this day)
  • vamu' -- pronoun; dative plural of <ty> you, thou -- unto you
  • su'pasu' -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <su'pasu'> savior -- a Savior
  • izhe -- relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <izhe> who, which -- which
  • estu' -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <jes-, jesmi', jesi> be -- is
  • khristu' -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Khristu'> Christ -- Christ
  • gospodi' -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <gospodi'> lord, master -- the Lord
  • vu' -- preposition; <vu'> in, into -- in
  • gradje' -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <gradu'> city -- the city
  • davydovje' -- adjective; locative singular masculine of <davydovu'> of David, David's -- of David
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • se -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <si'> this -- this (shall be)
  • vamu' -- pronoun; dative plural of <ty> you, thou -- unto you
  • z'namenie -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <znameni'je> sign -- a sign
  • obre^stete -- verb; 2nd person plural present of <obrje'shti, -re^shto^, -re^shteshi> find, discover -- ye shall find
  • mladi'netsi' -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <mladi'ni'tsi'> child -- the babe
  • povitu' -- verb; past passive participle; accusative singular masculine of <poviti, -vi'jo^, -vi'jeshi> wind, wrap -- wrapped in swaddling clothes
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- ...
  • lezhe^shti' -- verb; present active participle; accusative singular masculine of <lezhati, -zho^, -zhishi> lie, recline -- lying
  • vi' -- preposition; <vu'> in, into -- in
  • je'slekhu' -- noun, feminine; locative plural of <jasli> (plural form for singular meaning) manger -- a manger

i vu'nezaapo^ bystu' su' angje'lomu' m'nozhi'stvo voi nebesnyikh khvale^shtiikhu' boga i glagoljo^shti' |

  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • vu'nezaapo^ -- adverb; <vu'nezaapo^> suddenly -- suddenly
  • bystu' -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <byti, bo^do^, bo^deshi> be, become -- there was
  • su' -- preposition; <su'> with -- with
  • angje'lomu' -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <aggelu'> angel -- the angel
  • m'nozhi'stvo -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <mu'nozhi'stvo> multitude -- a multitude
  • voi -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <voi> (plural form) troops, army -- host
  • nebesnyikh -- adjective; genitive plural masculine of <nebesi'nu'> heavenly, of heaven -- of the heavenly
  • khvale^shtiikhu' -- verb; present active participle; genitive plural masculine of <khvaliti, -l'jo^, -lishi> praise -- praising
  • boga -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <bogu'> god -- God
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • glagoljo^shti' -- verb; present active participle; genitive plural masculine of <glagolati, -l'jo^, -l'jeshi> say, speak -- saying

sla vu' vyshniikh bogu i na zemi miru' vu' tchlovje'tsje'khu' blagovolenie |

  • sla -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <slava> fame, glory -- glory # #abbreviation for slava or scribal error based on following vu'
  • vu' -- preposition; <vu'> in, into -- in
  • vyshniikh -- adjective used as substantive; locative plural neuter of <vyshn'i'i, -n'ee, -n'jaja> on high, highest -- the highest
  • bogu -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <bogu'> god -- to God
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • na -- preposition; <na> in, on; at, against; for -- on
  • zemi -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <zeml'ja> earth, land -- earth # #lack of -l- following softened labials a typical West Slavic feature
  • miru' -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <miru'> world; peace -- peace
  • vu' -- preposition; <vu'> in, into -- toward
  • tchlovje'tsje'khu' -- noun, masculine; locative plural of <tchlovje'ku'> man, human -- men
  • blagovolenie -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <blagovol'eni'e> good-will; good -- good will

i bystu' je'ko otido^ oti' nikhu' ang'eli na nebo i tchlovje'tsi pastu'iri rje'she^ drugi' ki' drugu prje'idje'mu' ubo do vithleoma i vidimu' glagoli' si' byvi'shii egozhe gospodi' su'kaza nam |

  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • bystu' -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <byti, bo^do^, bo^deshi> be, become -- it came to pass
  • je'ko -- conjunction; <jako> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- as
  • otido^ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <otiti, -ido^, -ideshi> go out, depart -- were gone away
  • oti' -- preposition; <otu'> by, from, of -- from
  • nikhu' -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <*i> he -- them
  • ang'eli -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <aggelu'> angel -- the angels
  • na -- preposition; <na> in, on; at, against; for -- into
  • nebo -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <nebo> heaven, sky -- heaven
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • tchlovje'tsi -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <tchlovje'ku'> man, human -- ...
  • pastu'iri -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <pastu'ir'i'> shepherd -- the shepherds
  • rje'she^ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <reshti, reko^, retcheshi> say, tell -- said
  • drugi' -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <drugu'> one, another -- one
  • ki' -- preposition; <ku'> to, for -- to
  • drugu -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <drugu'> one, another -- another
  • prje'idje'mu' -- verb; 1st person plural imperative of <prje'iti, -ido^, -ideshi> go, go forth -- let us now go
  • ubo -- conjunction; <ubo> but, even, now, therefore -- even
  • do -- preposition; <do> to, up to; (with numerals) about -- unto
  • vithleoma -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Vithleemu'> Bethlehem -- Bethlehem
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • vidimu' -- verb; 1st person plural imperative of <vidje'ti, vizhdo^, vidishi> see -- see
  • glagoli' -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <glagolu'> word, speech -- thing
  • si' -- demonstrative adjective; accusative singular masculine of <si'> this -- this
  • byvi'shii -- verb; past active participle; accusative singular masculine of <byti, bo^do^, bo^deshi> be, become -- which is come to pass
  • egozhe -- relative pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <izhe> who, which -- which
  • gospodi' -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <gospodi'> lord, master -- the Lord
  • su'kaza -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <su'kazati, -zajo^, -zajeshi> announce, explain, make known -- hath made known
  • nam -- pronoun; dative plural of <azu'> I -- unto us

i prje'ido^ pod'vigi'she se^ i obrje'to^ marijo^ i iosifa i mladi'netsi' lezhe^shti' vi' je'slekhu' |

  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • prje'ido^ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <prje'iti, -ido^, -ideshi> go, go forth -- they came
  • pod'vigi'she se^ -- verb; past active participle; nominative plural masculine reflexive of <podvigno^ti, -no^, -neshi> move, arouse -- with haste
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • obrje'to^ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <obrje'shti, -re^shto^, -re^shteshi> find, discover -- found
  • marijo^ -- proper noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Mari'ja> Maria, Mary -- Mary
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • iosifa -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Iosifu'> Joseph -- Joseph
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • mladi'netsi' -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <mladi'ni'tsi'> child -- the babe
  • lezhe^shti' -- verb; present active participle; accusative singular masculine of <lezhati, -zho^, -zhishi> lie, recline -- lying
  • vi' -- preposition; <vu'> in, into -- in
  • je'slekhu' -- noun, feminine; locative plural of <jasli> (plural form for singular meaning) manger -- a manger

vidje'vu'she zhe si'kazashe^ o glagolje' glagolanje'mi' o otrotche^ti semu' | i vu'si slyshavu'she divishe^ se^ o glagolanyikhu' otu' pastu'iri' ki' nimu' |

  • vidje'vu'she -- verb; past active participle; nominative plural masculine of <vidje'ti, vizhdo^, vidishi> see -- when they had seen (it)
  • zhe -- conjunction; <zhe> and, but -- and
  • si'kazashe^ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <su'kazati, -zajo^, -zajeshi> announce, explain, make known -- they made known abroad
  • o -- preposition; <o> around, concerning; against -- ...
  • glagolje' -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <glagolu'> word, speech -- the saying
  • glagolanje'mi' -- verb; past passive participle; locative singular masculine of <glagolati, -l'jo^, -l'jeshi> say, speak -- which was told (them)
  • o -- preposition; <o> around, concerning; against -- concerning
  • otrotche^ti -- noun, neuter; locative singular of <otrotche^> child -- child
  • semu' -- demonstrative adjective; locative singular neuter of <si'> this -- this
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • vu'si -- adjective used as substantive; nominative plural masculine of <vi'si'> all, every; whole -- all they
  • slyshavu'she -- verb; past active participle; nominative plural masculine of <slyshati, -sho^, -shishi> hear -- that heard (it)
  • divishe^ se^ -- reflexive verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <diviti se^, -v'l'jo^, -vishi> wonder, marvel -- wondered
  • o -- preposition; <o> around, concerning; against -- at
  • glagolanyikhu' -- verb; past passive participle; locative plural masculine of <glagolati, -l'jo^, -l'jeshi> say, speak -- those things which were told
  • otu' -- preposition; <otu'> by, from, of -- by
  • pastu'iri' -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <pastu'ir'i'> shepherd -- the shepherds
  • ki' -- preposition; <ku'> to, for -- ...
  • nimu' -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <*i> he -- them

marije' zhe vi'se^ su'bljudaashe glagoly sii vu' sri'di'tsi svoemu' | i vu'zvratishe^ se^ pastyri slave^shte i khvale^shte boga o v'sje'khu' je'zhe slyshashe^ i vidje'she^ je'kozhe glagolano bu'isti' ki' nimu' |

  • marije' -- proper noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Mari'ja> Maria, Mary -- Mary
  • zhe -- conjunction; <zhe> and, but -- but
  • vi'se^ -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural masculine of <vi'si'> all, every; whole -- all
  • su'bljudaashe -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <su'bljudati, -ajo^, -ajeshi> protect, keep -- kept... (and pondered them)
  • glagoly -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <glagolu'> word, speech -- things
  • sii -- demonstrative adjective; accusative plural masculine of <si'> this -- these
  • vu' -- preposition; <vu'> in, into -- in
  • sri'di'tsi -- noun, neuter; locative singular of <sri'di'tsi'> heart -- heart
  • svoemu' -- possessive adjective; locative singular neuter of <svoi, svoe, svoja> own, one's own -- her
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • vu'zvratishe^ se^ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <vu'zvratiti, -shto^, -tishi> give back; (refl.) come back -- returned
  • pastyri -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <pastu'ir'i'> shepherd -- the shepherds
  • slave^shte -- verb; present active participle; nominative plural masculine of <slaviti, -vl'jo^, -vishi> glorify -- glorifying
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • khvale^shte -- verb; present active participle; nominative plural masculine of <khvaliti, -l'jo^, -lishi> praise -- praising
  • boga -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <bogu'> god -- God
  • o -- preposition; <o> around, concerning; against -- for
  • v'sje'khu' -- adjective used as substantive; genitive plural neuter of <vi'si'> all, every; whole -- all the things
  • je'zhe -- relative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <izhe> who, which -- that
  • slyshashe^ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <slyshati, -sho^, -shishi> hear -- they had heard
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • vidje'she^ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <vidje'ti, vizhdo^, vidishi> see -- seen
  • je'kozhe -- conjunction; <jakozhe> as, like, than, so as to -- as
  • glagolano -- verb; past passive participle; nominative singular neuter of <glagolati, -l'jo^, -l'jeshi> say, speak -- told
  • bu'isti' -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <byti, bo^do^, bo^deshi> be, become -- it was
  • ki' -- preposition; <ku'> to, for -- unto
  • nimu' -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <*i> he -- them

Lesson Text

mje'se^tsa deke^br'ja ig vu' navetcherije rozhdi'stva khri'stova evang'elije otu' luky glava v vu' ono vrje'me^ izide zapovje'di' otu' kesarje' avgosta napisati v'so^ vi'seleno^jo^ | se napisanie pru'voe bystu' vlado^shtu suriejo^ i kiriniejo^ | i idje'akho^ vi'si napisatu' se^ ki'zhdo vu' svoi gradu' | vi'zide zhe iosifi' otu' galilee^ i grada nazareti'ska vi' ijudejo^ vi' gradu' davydovu' izhe naritsaetu' se^ vithleemi' zane bje'ashe otu' domu i oti'tchi'stvije' davydova | napisatu' se^ su' mariejo^ obro^tcheno^jo^ emu zhenojo^ so^shtejo^ neprazdu'nojo^ | bystu' zhe egda byste tu isplu'nishe^ se^ denie da roditu' | i rodi synu' svoi pru'vje'netsi' i obity i i polozhi i vu' je'slekhu' zane ne bje' ima mje'sta vu' obitje'li | i pastu'iri bje'akho^ vu' toizhde st'ranje' bu'de^shte i strje'go^shte strazho^ noshti'no^jo^ o stadje' svoemu' | i se ang'elu' gospodi'ni' sta vi' nikhu' i slava gospodi'nje' osije' e^ i uboje'she^ se^ st'rakhomu' veliemu' | i retche imu' ang'elu' ne boite se^ se bo blagovje'shtajo^ vamu' radosti' velijo^ je'zhe bo^det bi'sje'mi' ljudemu' | je'ko rodi se^ vamu' su'pasu' izhe estu' khristu' gospodi' vu' gradje' davydovje' | i se vamu' z'namenie obre^stete mladi'netsi' povitu' i lezhe^shti' vi' je'slekhu' | i vu'nezaapo^ bystu' su' angje'lomu' m'nozhi'stvo voi nebesnyikh khvale^shtiikhu' boga i glagoljo^shti' | sla vu' vyshniikh bogu i na zemi miru' vu' tchlovje'tsje'khu' blagovolenie | i bystu' je'ko otido^ oti' nikhu' ang'eli na nebo i tchlovje'tsi pastu'iri rje'she^ drugi' ki' drugu prje'idje'mu' ubo do vithleoma i vidimu' glagoli' si' byvi'shii egozhe gospodi' su'kaza nam | i prje'ido^ pod'vigi'she se^ i obrje'to^ marijo^ i iosifa i mladi'netsi' lezhe^shti' vi' je'slekhu' | vidje'vu'she zhe si'kazashe^ o glagolje' glagolanje'mi' o otrotche^ti semu' | i vu'si slyshavu'she divishe^ se^ o glagolanyikhu' otu' pastu'iri' ki' nimu' | marije' zhe vi'se^ su'bljudaashe glagoly sii vu' sri'di'tsi svoemu' | i vu'zvratishe^ se^ pastyri slave^shte i khvale^shte boga o v'sje'khu' je'zhe slyshashe^ i vidje'she^ je'kozhe glagolano bu'isti' ki' nimu' |

Translation

24th of the month December, on the eve of the birth of Christ. Gospel according to Luke, 2nd chapter:
(1) And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed. (2) (And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria.) (3) And all went up to be taxed, every one in his own city. (4) And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judaea, unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem; (because he was of the house and lineage of David:) (5) To be taxed with Mary his espoused wife, being great with child. (6) And so it was, that, while they were there, the days were accomplished that she should be delivered. (7) And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger; because there was no room for them in the inn. (8) And there were in the same country shepherds abiding in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night. (9) And, lo, the angel of the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone round about them: and they were sore afraid. (10) And the angel said unto them, Fear not: for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people. (11) For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Savior, which is Christ the Lord. (12) And this shall be a sign unto you: Ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger. (13) And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God, and saying, (14) Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men. (15) And it came to pass, as the angels were gone away from them into heaven, the shepherds said one to another, Let us now go even unto Bethlehem, and see this thing which is come to pass, which the Lord hath made known unto us. (16) And they came with haste, and found Mary, and Joseph, and the babe lying in a manger. (17) And when they had seen it, they made known abroad the saying which was told them concerning this child. (18) And all they that heard it wondered at those things which were told them by the shepherds. (19) But Mary kept all these things, and pondered them in her heart. (20) And the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all the things that they had heard and seen, as it was told unto them.

Grammar

31. Past Participles
31.1. Past Participle Active

There are two types of past active participle in OCS. One of these, the resultative or l-participle, has been discussed in Section 18. This section discusses what most grammars term the past active participle.

The past active participle is formed by attaching the suffix -u'sh- or -vu'sh- to the stem of the verb. To this suffix are added the endings of the soft twofold nominal (cf. Section 12) or compound (cf. Section 17) adjectives, with special forms of the nominative and accusative. The ending -u'sh- is suffixed to verbal stems ending in -i or a consonant -- in this situation, -j and -ov- do not count as consonants. -no^- verbs which drop the -no^- also take the suffix -u'sh-. All other stems, i.e. -ov, -j, -no^, -je', -a, take the suffix -vu'sh-.

Before -u'sh-, -i becomes -j, with accompanying palatalization of the preceding consonant and fronting of the following -u'- to -i'-. prositi, prosho^, prosishi 'ask' furnishes an example: the nominative singular feminine form is pros-i+u'sh+i > prosj-i'shi > proshi'shi 'having asked'. Before -vu'sh-, final -j is deleted and -ov- becomes -u. dje'lati, dje'lajo^, dje'lajeshi 'do' has the stem dje'laj-, so that the nominative singular feminine is dje'laj+vu'sh+i > dje'la-vu'shi > dje'lavu'shi 'having done'. Similarly, otu'pluti, -plovo^, -ploveshi 'sail away' has otu'plov+vu'sh+i > otu'plu-vu'shi > otu'pluvu'shi 'having sailed away'.

Verbs whose stem ends in -i occasionally have alternate forms with the suffix -vu'sh-. For example, moliti, mol'jo^, mol'jeshi 'beg' shows the forms mol'i'shi and molivu'shi. The nominative singular masculine and neuter ending is zero, so that OCS deletion of final consonants gives -u', -i' (in front environments), or -vu'.

In terms of the conjugational classifications of these lessons, the suffixes -u'sh- and -vu'sh- are added to the infinitive stem of the verb. The suffix -u'sh- is appended to hard stems ending in a consonant; -vu'sh- is added to hard stems ending in a vowel. Verbs of conjugation II drop the -no^- / -ne- suffix before forming the past active participle. Verbs of conjugation IV take the suffix -i'sh-; in later texts they appear with -ivu'sh-.

The verb nesti, neso^, neseshi 'carry' illustrates the declension of the past active participle. The short forms are as follows.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
N V Sg.   nesu'   nesu'   nesu'shi
A   nesu'shi'   nesu'she   nesu'sho^
G   nesu'sha   nesu'sha   nesu'she^
L   nesu'shi   nesu'shi   nesu'shi
D   nesu'shu   nesu'shu   nesu'shi
I   nesu'shemi'   nesu'shemi'   nesu'shejo^
             
N A V Du.   nesu'sha   nesu'shi   nesu'shi
G L   nesu'shu   nesu'shu   nesu'shu
D I   nesu'shema   nesu'shema   nesu'shama
             
N V Pl.   nesu'she   nesu'sha   nesu'she^
A   nesu'she^   nesu'sha   nesu'she^
G   nesu'shi'   nesu'shi'   nesu'shi'
L   nesu'shikhu'   nesu'shikhu'   nesu'shikhu'
D   nesu'shemu'   nesu'shemu'   nesu'shamu'
I   nesu'shi   nesu'shi   nesu'shami

The long forms are given below.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
N V Sg.   nesu'shyi   nesu'sheje   nesu'shija
A   nesu'shi'i   nesu'sheje   nesu'sho^jo^
G   nesu'shajego   nesu'shajego   nesu'she^je^
L   nesu'shiimu'   nesu'shiimi'   nesu'shii
D   nesu'shujemu   nesu'shujemu   nesu'shii
I   nesu'shiimi'   nesu'shiimi'   nesu'shejo^
             
N A V Du.   nesu'shaja   nesu'shii   nesu'shii
G L   nesu'shuju   nesu'shuju   nesu'shuju
D I   nesu'shiima   nesu'shiima   nesu'shiima
             
N V Pl.   nesu'shei   nesu'shaja   nesu'she^je^
A   nesu'she^je^   nesu'shaja   nesu'she^je^
G   nesu'shiikhu'   nesu'shiikhu'   nesu'shiikhu'
L   nesu'shiikhu'   nesu'shiikhu'   nesu'shiikhu'
D   nesu'shiimu'   nesu'shiimu'   nesu'shiimu'
I   nesu'shiimi   nesu'shiimi   nesu'shiimi

There are assimilated forms, e.g. feminine I sg. neso^jo^ and masculine G sg. nesaago, and contracted forms, e.g. masculine G sg. nesago. The masculine and neuter N sg. form for participles in -i' is -i'i, where the tense jer sometimes gives -ii. In the oblique cases, all the same endings are attached to the suffix -i'sh-.

31.2. Past Participle Passive

The past passive participle is formed by means of the suffixes -tu' (cf. English (finely) wrought), -nu', or -enu' (cf. English eaten). The suffixes are added to the infinitve stem and declined as twofold short or long adjectives.

The -tu' suffix is used only in a restricted class of verbs. Verbs with present stem ending in -i' + nasal employ this suffix. It is added to the infinitive stem, which ends in -e^. Thus e^ti, imo^, imeshi 'take' (present stem i'm-) forms e^tu' 'taken'; pe^ti, pi'no^, pi'neshi 'stretch' forms pe^tu' 'stretched'.

Other verbs with different stems form the past passive participle by means of -tu': izvje'dje'ti, -vje'mi', -vje'si 'know' forms izvje'stu' 'known'; otu'vrje'sti, -vru'zo^, -vru'zeshi 'open' forms otu'vri'stu' 'opened'.

The -nu' suffix is used for verbs whose present stems end in -a, -aj, -je', -je'j. These lose the final -j in the infinitive stem, to which the suffix is added. For example, sje'jati, sje'jo^, sje'jeshi 'sow' yields sje'janu' 'sown'; razumje'ti, -mje'jo^, -mje'jeshi 'understand' forms razumje'nu' 'understood'.

All other stems form the past passive participle by means of the -enu' suffix. This includes verbs whose stems end in consonants, in particular -no^- verbs which drop this suffix in the past tense: dvigno^ti, dvigno^, dvigneshi 'move' yields dvizhenu' 'moved'. Verbs which retain the -no^- suffix in the past tense form the participle in -nov-enu', e.g. otu'rino^ti, -rino^, -rineshi yields otu'rinovenu'. This intervening -v- is also found in the participles of roots ending in a back vowel followed by -j, e.g. kru'venu' 'covered' from kryti, kryjo^, kryjeshi 'cover'. In this situation, -yj- is the tense reflex of -u'j-. In some instances stem-final -i yields -j, which produces palatalization: prositi, prosho^, prosishi 'beg' gives proshenu'.

Some verbs form participles by means of both the nasal suffix and the mute suffix. For example, biti, bi'jo^, bi'jeshi 'beat' has participles bitu' and bi'jenu' 'beaten'. sje'ti, sje'jo^, sje'jeshi 'sow' shows prefixed participles osje'tu' and osje'nu' 'sown'. Some verbs with root-final -l show formations with both -nu' and -enu', e.g. klati, kol'jo^, kol'jeshi 'stab' forms both klanu' and kolenu'.

32. Present Participle Passive

The present passive participle is formed from the present tense stem by the addition of the endings -imu', -emu', or -omu'. These are declined as twofold short or long adjectives. Verbs whose present tense stems end in -i take the ending -imu'. Other soft stems take the ending -emu'. The remaining consonant stems and -no^- verbs take the ending -omu'. The following are examples according to declension.

Conjugation   Verb   Participle   Translation
I   nesti, neso^, neseshi   nesomu'   'being carried'
II   dvigno^ti, -no^, -neshi   dvigomu'   'being moved'
III   znati, znajo^, znajeshi   znajemu'   'being known'
IV   moliti, mol'jo^, mol'jeshi   molimu'   'being asked'
V   dati, dami', dasi   dadomu'   'being given'

The verb vidje'ti, vizhdo^, vidishi 'see', being originally athematic, forms the participle vidomu' alongside the expected vidimu'. Similarly, alkati (lakati), altcho^ (latcho^), altcheshi (latcheshi) 'hunger' has the participle lakomu'.

The present passive participle may be used with forms of the verb 'be' to create a periphrastic passive voice, e.g. nesomu' jesmi' 'I am being carried', nesomi bykhomu' 'we were being carried'.

33. Second Conjugation

The verbs of the second declension display the affix -ne- between root and ending. The affix -no^- appears in the infinitive. Preceding the affix may be either a stem-final consonant or stem-final vowel. Some roots drop the affix in certain verbal forms. For example, dvigno^ti, dvigno^, dvigneshi 'move' forms the aorist dvigu' directly from the root, while mino^ti, mino^, mineshi 'pass by' retains the affix -no^- in the aorist mino^khu'.

The conjugation is illustrated by the verbs dvigno^ti, -no^, -neshi 'move'; stati, stano^, staneshi 'stand'; rino^ti, rino^, rineshi push'; mino^ti, -no^, -neshi 'pass by'. Many forms are unattested. The verb dru'zno^ti, dru'zno^, dru'zneshi 'dare' supplies some forms where they are lacking in the other paradigm verbs.

Present   dvig-ne-   sta-ne-   ri-ne-   mi-ne-
                 
1st Sg.   dvigno^   stano^   rino^   mino^
2nd   dvigneshi   staneshi   rineshi   mineshi
3rd   dvignetu'   stanetu'   rinetu'   minetu'
                 
1st Du.   dvignevje'   stanevje'   rinevje'   minevje'
2nd   dvigneta   staneta   rineta   mineta
3rd   dvignete   stanete   rinete   minete
                 
1st Pl.   dvignemu'   stanemu'   rinemu'   minemu'
2nd   dvignete   stanete   rinete   minete
3rd   dvigno^tu'   stano^tu'   rino^tu'   mino^tu'
                 
Imperative                
1st Sg.   -   -   -   -
2nd   dvigni   stani   rini   mini
3rd   dvigni   stani   rini   mini
                 
1st Du.   dvignje'vje'   stanje'vje'   rinje'vje'   minje'vje'
2nd   dvignje'ta   stanje'ta   rinje'ta   minje'ta
3rd   -   -   -   -
                 
1st Pl.   dvignje'mu'   stanje'mu'   rinje'mu'   minje'mu'
2nd   dvignje'te   stanje'te   rinje'te   minje'te
3rd   -   -   -   -
                 
Pres. Act. Part.                
Masc/Neut. N   dvigny   stany   riny   miny
Fem. N   dvigno^shti   stano^shti   rino^shti   mino^shti
                 
Pres. Pass. Part.                
Masc. N   dvignomu'   -   rinomu'   minomu'
                 
Imperfect                
1st Sg.   dvignje'akhu'   o-stanje'akhu'   rinje'akhu'   minje'akhu'
2nd   dvignje'ashe   o-stanje'ashe   rinje'ashe   minje'ashe
3rd   dvignje'ashe   o-stanje'ashe   rinje'ashe   minje'ashe
                 
1st Du.   dvignje'akhovje'   o-stanje'akhovje'   rinje'akhovje'   minje'akhovje'
2nd   dvignje'asheta   o-stanje'asheta   rinje'asheta   minje'asheta
3rd   dvignje'ashete   o-stanje'ashete   rinje'ashete   minje'ashete
                 
1st Pl.   dvignje'akhomu'   o-stanje'akhomu'   rinje'akhomu'   minje'akhomu'
2nd   dvignje'ashete   o-stanje'ashete   rinje'ashete   minje'ashete
3rd   dvignje'akho^   o-stanje'akho^   rinje'akho^   minje'akho^
                 
Asigmatic Aorist                
1st Sg.   dvigu'   *stanu'   -   -
2nd   dvizhe   sta   -   -
3rd   dvizhe   sta   -   -
                 
1st Du.   dvigovje'   *stanovje'   -   -
2nd   dvizheta   *staneta   -   -
3rd   dvizhete   *stanete   -   -
                 
1st Pl.   dvigomu'   *stanomu'   -   -
2nd   dvizhete   *stanete   -   -
3rd   dvigo^   *stano^   -   -
                 
New Aorist                
1st Sg.   dvigokhu'   dru'zno^khu'   rino^khu'   mino^khu'
2nd   dvizhe   dru'zno^   rino^   mino^
3rd   dvizhe   dru'zno^   rino^   mino^
                 
1st Du.   dvigokhovje'   dru'zno^khovje'   rino^khovje'   mino^khovje'
2nd   dvigosta   dru'zno^sta   rino^sta   mino^sta
3rd   dvigoste   dru'zno^ste   rino^ste   mino^ste
                 
1st Pl.   dvigokhomu'   dru'zno^khomu'   rino^khomu'   mino^khomu'
2nd   dvigoste   dru'zno^ste   rino^ste   mino^ste
3rd   dvigoshe^   dru'zno^she^   rino^she^   mino^she^
                 
Past Act. Part.                
Masc/Neut. N   dvigu'   dru'zno^vu'   rino^vu'   mino^vu'
Fem. N   dvigu'shi   dru'zno^vu'shi   rino^vu'shi   mino^vu'shi
                 
Resultative Part.                
Masc. N   dviglu'   stalu'   rino^lu'   mino^lu'
                 
Past Pass. Part.                
Masc. N   dvizhenu'   dru'znovenu'   rinovenu'   minovenu'
                 
Infinitive   dvigno^ti   stati   rino^ti   mino^ti
                 
Supine   dvigno^tu'   statu'   rino^tu'   mino^tu'
                 
Verbal Noun   dvizheni'je   vu'-stani'je   rinoveni'je   minoveni'je

The third person plural, sigmatic aorist form -stano^she^ occurs for the verb stati 'stand'. The -no^- affix, originally dropped in the aorist and past participle forms, seems to have been reintroduced for some verbs by analogy with the present system.

34. Genitive Case

The genitive case has several uses. It may be the complement of both verbs and substantives.

The genitive is often used as the complement of certain verbs in a manner akin to a direct object. For example, vidje'ti 'see' may take an object in either the accusative or genitive, while zu'rje'ti 'see' typically takes the genitive. alkati 'hunger (for)', zhu'dati 'await', vu'sprositi 'beg', and napli'niti 'fill (with)' are examples of other verbs which regularly take the genitive. Some verbs normally taking an accusative object may take a genitive denoting a part of a whole. An example is vu'kusiti 'taste': jako zhe vu'kusi arkhitriklinu' vina byvu'shaego otu' vody 'and when the ruler tasted (some of) the wine made from water'. The genitive is used also by some verbs representing separation from or lack of something, e.g. izbaviti 'rid (of)', svoboditi 'free (from)', plakati 'mourn (over)'.

The use of the genitive with a negated copula or negated transitive verb has been discussed in Section 15.

The genitive is the usual complement of the supine: pride ... vidje'tu' groba 'she came for the seeing of the tomb', 'she came to see the tomb'.

The genitive may also be the complement of a substantive, with a wide variety of meanings. These all serve to somehow delimit the range of the substantive, whether by mere possession, by quantity, or by quality. Take the follwoing examples: dukhu' oti'tsa vashaego 'spirit of your father'; tchlovje'ku' edinu' dobra roda 'a certain man of a good family'; du'shti du'voju na dese^te lje'tu 'daughter of twelve years', 'twelve-year-old daughter'; sedmi' koshi'nitsi' 'seven (of) baskets'. The following are examples where a substantive and genitive construction is used to denote part of a whole: ku'to ikhu' 'who of them', 'who among them'; koliko khlje'bu' 'how much of bread', 'how many (loaves) of bread'; malo ikhu' estu' 'there are few of them'.

Some adjectives take a genitive complement: su'so^du' ... pli'nu' otsi'ta 'a vessel full of vinegar'. The comparative adjectives and adverbs use the genitive to denote the reference of comparison: este lutsi'shi pu'titsi' 'you are better than birds'; tetche skorje'e petra 'he ran faster than Peter'.

35. Passive Voice, se^, and Reflexive Verbs
35.1. Passive Voice

The passive voice is represented morphologically only in the present passive and past passive participles. Their formation is discussed in Sections 31 and 32 above. These participles may be used with forms of byti 'be' to form periphrastic passive constructions. For example nesomu' jesmi' 'I am being carried' represents a present passive construction, while prje'danu' bo^detu' 'He will be betrayed' represents a future passive.

35.2. se^ and Reflexive Verbs

se^ in its basic role represents the accusative form of the reflexive pronoun, e.g. javl'jo^ se^ emu samu' 'I will manifest myself to him'. In the presence of negation, this reflexive may be substituted by the genitive form sebe. Likewise, se^ used as a personal or animate object may be replaced by the genitive sebe, cf. Section 15. An example of this is vy este opravi'dajo^shtei sebe 'you are the ones justifying yourselves'.

A related but more common usage of se^ is with verbs to denote not a definite object but rather a shift from transitivity to intransitivity. se^ in this role occupies the place of an accusative without expressing an explicit object, and in this function is not substituted by sebe. It typically either follows the verb or the first accented word of its clause. For example, ashte se^ bi ne rodilu' 'if he had not been born'; unje'e estu' ne zheniti se^ 'it is better not to marry'. Some verbs acquire a different shade of meaning with se^, e.g. kle^ti 'curse', but kle^ti se^ 'swear, take an oath'. Other verbs never occur without se^, like bojati se^ 'fear'.

Inasmuch as se^ makes transitive verbs intransitive, it often serves to mark passive meaning. This interpretation is borne out by variant translations in the different manuscripts, one having a reflexive form, another a morphological passive: Zographensis has synu' tchlovje'tchi'sku'i prje'dastu' se^, while Marianus has ...prje'danu' bo^detu' 'the Son of Man will be betrayed'.