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Old Church Slavonic Online

Lesson 7

Todd B. Krause and Jonathan Slocum

The basic corpus of OCS, centered around the 10th-11th centuries, is very limited in scope. The primary Glagolitic manuscripts are:

(i) The Kiev Missal, from the mid 10th cent. This consists of seven folia containing prayers for Mass according to the Roman rite. The language displays West Slavic characteristics: CS tj, dj > c, z rather than št, žd; CS stj > šč rather than št; the instr. sg. masc. o-stem ending is -ŭmĭ rather than -omĭ. The vocabulary shows numerous elements from the West: prěfacija < Lat. praefatio; oplatŭ < Lat. oblata; poganĭskŭ < Lat. paganus.

(ii) The Codex Zographensis, from the 11th cent. This has 303 folia, most of which furnish an incomplete version of the four Gospels; the rest are in Cyrillic and provide a list of Saints' days with the accompanying Gospel reading for that day. The language is characterized by assimilation of jers: ŭ > ĭ before a front vowel, ĭ > ŭ before a back vowel.

(iii) The Codex Marianus, from the late 10th, early 11th cent. This consists of 174 folia containing an incomplete version of the four Gospels. This is assigned to the Serbo-Croat area on the basis of the following linguistic characteristics: ǫ > u; y > i; gen. sg. sego > sega; - > u-.

(iv) The Glagolita Clozianus. This contains 14 folia recording a collection of Saints' Lives and homilies to be read during festivals of the ecclesiastical year. This is characterized by the linguistic shifts ǫ > u and y > i.

(v) The Codex Assemanianus. This contains 158 folia collecting gospel passages read in the liturgy, followed by a calendar of Saints' days. The large proportion of Macedonian saints in the calendar leads one to assume a Macedonian provenance.

(vi) The Psalterium Sinaiticum, from the 11th cent. This has 177 folia with translations of the Greek Psalms 1-137.

(vii) The Euchologium Sinaiticum, from the 11th cent. This comprehends 109 folia containing a collection of prayers for different occasions.

The major Cyrillic documents are the following:

(viii) Savvina Kniga, from the 11th cent. This consists of 166 folia, containing an incomplete evangelistary and list of Saints' days. The name derives from mention within the document that it was written by popŭ Savva. Thought to be of Bulgarian provenance based on the fact that ŭ is not strengthened to o.

(ix) The Codex Suprasliensis, from the 11th cent. This consists of 285 folia giving a menology for the month of March, that is, a collection of readings ecclesiastical festivals of March. There are twenty-four saints' lives and legends, twenty-three homilies, and one prayer. The back jer ŭ is not strengthened to o, nor ĭ to e; the text is assumed to come from the Bulgarian region.

(x) The Inscription of Tsar Samuel, dated 993. This is a marble inscription commissioned by the Tsar over Macedonia and Western Bulgaria from 976 to 1014. It commemorates his deceased parents and brother.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The following passage is the beginning of the Nativity, Luke 2:1-20. The first line is the introduction to the passage at hand, and not part of the Gospel. Noteworthy is the frequent use of ѣ where а or ја is to be expected, e.g. кєсарѣ for кєсар҄ја. In the second verse, one also finds scribal confusion, where кѵріиієѭ is written for the more proper dative кѵріію agreeing with the participle владѫщѹ. That this could be mere conflation of ǫ and u is mitigated by the fact that ǫ is correctly used elsewhere. This rather seems a case of attraction to the preceding сѹрієѭ, brought on by lack of familiarity with foreign names. Note also the use of adjectival forms of names, e.g. давъідовъ, to denote possession or relation, rather than a simple genitive form.

мѣсѧца дєкѧбр҄ја иг въ навєчєриѥ рождьства хрьстова єванћєлиѥ отъ лѹкъі глава в

  • мѣсѧца -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <мѣсѧць> moon, month -- of the month
  • дєкѧбр҄ја -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <дєк҄ѧбр҄ь> December -- December
  • иг -- number adjective; nominative singular neuter of <дъвадєсѧтьнъіи и чєтврътъіи, чєтврътьѥѥ, чєтврътьјаја> twenty-fourth -- 24th
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- on
  • навєчєриѥ -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <навєчєрьѥ> eve, evening before -- the eve
  • рождьства -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <рождьство> birth -- of the birth
  • хрьстова -- adjective; genitive singular neuter of <хрьстовъ> of Christ, Christ's -- of Christ
  • єванћєлиѥ -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <єванћєльѥ> gospel, evangel -- gospel
  • отъ -- preposition; <отъ> by, from, of -- according to
  • лѹкъі -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Лѹка> Luke -- Luke
  • глава -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <глава> head; chapter -- chapter
  • в -- number adjective; nominative singular feminine of <въторъіи, -роѥ, -раја> second -- 2nd

въ оно врѣмѧ изідє заповѣдь отъ кєсарѣ авгоста напісаті в҄сѫ вьсєлєнѫѭ |

  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • оно -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <онъ> that -- those
  • врѣмѧ -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <врѣмѧ> time -- days
  • изідє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <изіти, -идѫ, -идєши> go out -- there went out
  • заповѣдь -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <заповѣдь> command, commandment -- a decree
  • отъ -- preposition; <отъ> by, from, of -- from
  • кєсарѣ -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Кєсар҄ь> Caesar -- Caesar
  • авгоста -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Авгостъ> Augustus -- Augustus
  • напісаті -- verb; infinitive of <напісаті, -шѫ, -шєши> write (down), inscribe -- should be taxed
  • в҄сѫ -- pronoun adjective; accusative singular feminine of <вьсь> all, every; whole -- all
  • вьсєлєнѫѭ -- adjective used as substantive; accusative singular feminine of <въсєлєнъ> inhabited -- the world

сє напісаніє пръвоє бъістъ владѫщѹ сѹрієѭ и кѵрінієѭ |

  • сє -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <сь> this -- this
  • напісаніє -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <напісаньѥ> writing (down), inscription -- taxing
  • пръвоє -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of <прьвъ> first, primary -- first
  • бъістъ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- was made
  • владѫщѹ -- verb; present active participle; dative singular masculine of <власти, владѫ, -дєши> rule (+ instrumental ) -- when... was governor of
  • сѹрієѭ -- proper noun, feminine; instrumental singular of <Сѹріја> Syria -- Syria
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- ...
  • кѵрінієѭ -- proper noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <Кѵринии> Cyrenius, Quirinius -- Cyrenius

и идѣахѫ вьсі напісатъ сѧ кьждо въ свои градъ |

  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • идѣахѫ -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <ити, идѫ, идєши> go -- went up
  • вьсі -- demonstrative adjective used as substantive; nominative plural masculine of <вьсь> all, every; whole -- all
  • напісатъ сѧ -- reflexive verb; supine of <напісаті, -шѫ, -шєши> write (down), inscribe -- to be taxed
  • кьждо -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <къждо> every, everyone -- every one
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • свои -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <свои, своє, своја> own, one's own -- his own
  • градъ -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <градъ> city -- city

вьзідє жє иосіфь отъ галілєѧ и града назарєтьска вь июдєѭ вь градъ давъідовъ іжє наріцаєтъ сѧ віѳлєємь занє бѣашє отъ домѹ и отьчьствіѣ давъідова |

  • вьзідє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <възити, -идѫ, -идєши> go up -- went up
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- and also
  • иосіфь -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Иосіфъ> Joseph -- Joseph
  • отъ -- preposition; <отъ> by, from, of -- from
  • галілєѧ -- proper noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Галілєја> Galilee -- Galilee
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • града -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <градъ> city -- the city
  • назарєтьска -- adjective; genitive singular masculine of <Назарєтьскъ> Nazarene, of Nazareth -- of Nazareth
  • вь -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- into
  • июдєѭ -- proper noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Июдѣа> Judea -- Judea
  • вь -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- unto
  • градъ -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <градъ> city -- the city
  • давъідовъ -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <давъідовъ> of David, David's -- of David
  • іжє -- relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <ижє> who, which -- which
  • наріцаєтъ сѧ -- reflexive verb; 3rd person singular present of <наріцати, -цаѭ, -цаѥши> call, name -- is called
  • віѳлєємь -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Виѳлєємъ> Bethlehem -- Bethlehem
  • занє -- conjunction; <зан҄є> because -- because
  • бѣашє -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- he was
  • отъ -- preposition; <отъ> by, from, of -- of
  • домѹ -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <домъ> house -- the house
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • отьчьствіѣ -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <отьчьствьє> own country, lineage, kindred -- lineage
  • давъідова -- adjective; genitive singular neuter of <давъідовъ> of David, David's -- of David

напісатъ сѧ съ марієѭ обрѫчєнѫѭ ємѹ жєноѭ сѫштєѭ нєпраздъноѭ |

  • напісатъ сѧ -- reflexive verb; supine of <напісаті, -шѫ, -шєши> write (down), inscribe -- to be taxed
  • съ -- preposition; <съ> with -- with
  • марієѭ -- proper noun, feminine; instrumental singular of <Марьја> Maria, Mary -- Mary
  • обрѫчєнѫѭ -- verb; past passive participle; instrumental singular feminine of <обрѫчити, -чѫ, -чиши> affiance, betrothe -- espoused
  • ємѹ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <> he -- his
  • жєноѭ -- noun, feminine; instrumental singular of <жєна> woman, wife -- wife
  • сѫштєѭ -- verb; present active participle; instrumental singular feminine of <ѥс-, ѥсмь, ѥси> be -- being
  • нєпраздъноѭ -- adjective; instrumental singular feminine of <нєпраздьнъ> pregnant -- great with child

бъістъ жє єгда бъістє тѹ исплънишѧ сѧ дєниє да родітъ | и роді съінъ свои пръвѣнєць и обитъі и и положі и въ ѣслєхъ занє нє бѣ има мѣста въ обитѣли |

  • бъістъ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- (so) it was (that)
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- and
  • єгда -- relative adverb; <єгда> when -- while
  • бъістє -- verb; 3rd person dual aorist of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- they were
  • тѹ -- adverb; <тѹ> there; then -- there
  • исплънишѧ сѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist reflexive of <испльнити, -н҄ѭ, -ниши> fill up, fulfill -- were accomplished
  • дєниє -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <дьнь> day -- the days
  • да -- conjunction; <да> in order to, that; may, let; and, then -- that
  • родітъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <родити, -ждѫ, -диши> bear, produce -- she should be delivered
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • роді -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <родити, -ждѫ, -диши> bear, produce -- she brought forth
  • съінъ -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <съінъ> son -- son
  • свои -- possessive adjective; accusative singular masculine of <свои, своє, своја> own, one's own -- her
  • пръвѣнєць -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <прьвѣньць> firstborn child -- firstborn
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • обитъі -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <обити, -ьѭ, -ьѥши> wrap, bind in -- wrapped... in swaddling clothes # #usual spelling обитъ, where final -ъ is tense before the following и
  • и -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <> he -- him
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • положі -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <положити, -жѫ, -жиши> lay down, set down -- laid
  • и -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <> he -- him
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • ѣслєхъ -- noun, feminine; locative plural of <јасли> (plural form for singular meaning) manger -- a manger
  • занє -- conjunction; <зан҄є> because -- because
  • нє -- particle; <нє> not -- no
  • бѣ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- there was
  • има -- pronoun; dative dual masculine of <> he -- for them
  • мѣста -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <мѣсто> place -- room # #genitive with negated copula
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • обитѣли -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <обитѣль> inn, lodging, monastery -- the inn

и пастъирі бѣахѫ въ тоиждє ст҄ранѣ бъдѧщє и стрѣгѫщє стражѫ нощьнѫѭ о стадѣ своємъ |

  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • пастъирі -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <пастъир҄ь> shepherd -- shepherds
  • бѣахѫ -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- there were
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • тоиждє -- adverb; <тѹиждє> there; there where -- the same
  • ст҄ранѣ -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <страна> country; area, region; (pl) heathen -- country
  • бъдѧщє -- verb; present active participle; nominative plural masculine of <бъдѧти, бъждѫ, бъждиши> be awake, stay awake -- abiding (in the field)
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- ...
  • стрѣгѫщє -- verb; present active participle; nominative plural masculine of <стрѣшти, стрѣгѫ, стрѣгєши> watch, guard, protect -- keeping
  • стражѫ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <стража> guard -- watch
  • нощьнѫѭ -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <ноштьнъ> nocturnal -- by night
  • о -- preposition; <о> around, concerning; against -- over
  • стадѣ -- noun, neuter; locative singular of <стадо> herd -- flock
  • своємъ -- possessive adjective; locative singular neuter of <свои, своє, своја> own, one's own -- their

и сє анћєлъ господьнь ста вь нихъ и слава господьнѣ осіѣ ѧ и ѹбоѣшѧ сѧ ст҄рахомъ вєлиємъ |

  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • сє -- interjection; <сє> lo, behold -- lo
  • анћєлъ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <аггєлъ> angel -- the angel
  • господьнь -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <господьн҄ь> lord's -- of the Lord
  • ста -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <стати, станѫ, станєши> stand -- came
  • вь -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- upon
  • нихъ -- pronoun; locative plural masculine of <> he -- them
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • слава -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <слава> fame, glory -- the glory
  • господьнѣ -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <господьн҄ь> lord's -- of the Lord
  • осіѣ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <осьјати, -јаѭ, -јаѥши> illumine, shine about, overshadow -- shone round about
  • ѧ -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <> he -- them
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • ѹбоѣшѧ сѧ -- reflexive verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <ѹбојати сѧ, -боѭ, -боиши> fear, become afraid -- they were... afraid
  • ст҄рахомъ -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <страхъ> terror -- ...
  • вєлиємъ -- adjective; instrumental singular masculine of <вєлии> big, great -- sore

и рєчє имъ анћєлъ нє боитє сѧ сє бо благовѣщаѭ вамъ радость вєліѭ ѣжє бѫдєт бьсѣмь людємъ |

  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • рєчє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- said
  • имъ -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <> he -- unto them
  • анћєлъ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <аггєлъ> angel -- the angel
  • нє -- particle; <нє> not -- not
  • боитє сѧ -- reflexive verb; 2nd person plural imperfect of <бојати сѧ, боѭ, боиши> fear -- fear
  • сє -- interjection; <сє> lo, behold -- behold
  • бо -- conjunction; <бо> for -- for
  • благовѣщаѭ -- verb; 1st person singular present of <благовѣштати, -таѭ, -таѥши> proclaim (the Good News) -- I bring you good tidings of
  • вамъ -- pronoun; dative plural of <тъі> you, thou -- you
  • радость -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <радость> joy -- joy
  • вєліѭ -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <вєлии> big, great -- great
  • ѣжє -- relative pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <ижє> who, which -- which
  • бѫдєт -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- shall be
  • бьсѣмь -- adjective; dative plural masculine of <вьсь> all, every; whole -- to all # #б for more proper в
  • людємъ -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <людъ> people -- people

ѣко роді сѧ вамъ съпасъ іжє єстъ христъ господь въ градѣ давъідовѣ | и сє вамъ з҄намєниє обрѧстєтє младьнєць повітъ и лєжѧшть вь ѣслєхъ |

  • ѣко -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- for
  • роді сѧ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist reflexive of <родити, -ждѫ, -диши> bear, produce -- is born (this day)
  • вамъ -- pronoun; dative plural of <тъі> you, thou -- unto you
  • съпасъ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <съпасъ> savior -- a Savior
  • іжє -- relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <ижє> who, which -- which
  • єстъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <ѥс-, ѥсмь, ѥси> be -- is
  • христъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Христъ> Christ -- Christ
  • господь -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <господь> lord, master -- the Lord
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • градѣ -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <градъ> city -- the city
  • давъідовѣ -- adjective; locative singular masculine of <давъідовъ> of David, David's -- of David
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • сє -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <сь> this -- this (shall be)
  • вамъ -- pronoun; dative plural of <тъі> you, thou -- unto you
  • з҄намєниє -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <знамєньѥ> sign -- a sign
  • обрѧстєтє -- verb; 2nd person plural present of <обрѣшти, -рѧштѫ, -рѧштєши> find, discover -- ye shall find
  • младьнєць -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <младьньць> child -- the babe
  • повітъ -- verb; past passive participle; accusative singular masculine of <повити, -вьѭ, -вьѥши> wind, wrap -- wrapped in swaddling clothes
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- ...
  • лєжѧшть -- verb; present active participle; accusative singular masculine of <лєжати, -жѫ, -жиши> lie, recline -- lying
  • вь -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • ѣслєхъ -- noun, feminine; locative plural of <јасли> (plural form for singular meaning) manger -- a manger

и вънєзаапѫ бъістъ съ ангѣломъ м҄ножьство вои нєбєснъіих хвалѧштиихъ бога и глаголѭшть |

  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • вънєзаапѫ -- adverb; <вънєзаапѫ> suddenly -- suddenly
  • бъістъ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- there was
  • съ -- preposition; <съ> with -- with
  • ангѣломъ -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <аггєлъ> angel -- the angel
  • м҄ножьство -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <мъножьство> multitude -- a multitude
  • вои -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <вои> (plural form) troops, army -- host
  • нєбєснъіих -- adjective; genitive plural masculine of <нєбєсьнъ> heavenly, of heaven -- of the heavenly
  • хвалѧштиихъ -- verb; present active participle; genitive plural masculine of <хвалити, -л҄ѭ, -лиши> praise -- praising
  • бога -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <богъ> god -- God
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • глаголѭшть -- verb; present active participle; genitive plural masculine of <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- saying

сла въ въішніих богѹ и на зєми миръ въ чловѣцѣхъ благоволєниє |

  • сла -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <слава> fame, glory -- glory # #abbreviation for слава or scribal error based on following въ
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • въішніих -- adjective used as substantive; locative plural neuter of <въішн҄ьи, -н҄єє, -н҄јаја> on high, highest -- the highest
  • богѹ -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <богъ> god -- to God
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • на -- preposition; <на> in, on; at, against; for -- on
  • зєми -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <зємл҄ја> earth, land -- earth # #lack of -л- following softened labials a typical West Slavic feature
  • миръ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <миръ> world; peace -- peace
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- toward
  • чловѣцѣхъ -- noun, masculine; locative plural of <чловѣкъ> man, human -- men
  • благоволєниє -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <благовол҄єньє> good-will; good -- good will

и бъістъ ѣко отідѫ оть ніхъ анћєлі на нєбо и чловѣци пастъирі рѣшѧ дрѹгь кь дрѹгѹ прѣидѣмъ ѹбо до віѳлєома и відімъ глаголь сь бъівьшіи єгожє господь съказа нам |

  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • бъістъ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- it came to pass
  • ѣко -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- as
  • отідѫ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <отити, -идѫ, -идєши> go out, depart -- were gone away
  • оть -- preposition; <отъ> by, from, of -- from
  • ніхъ -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <> he -- them
  • анћєлі -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <аггєлъ> angel -- the angels
  • на -- preposition; <на> in, on; at, against; for -- into
  • нєбо -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <нєбо> heaven, sky -- heaven
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • чловѣци -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <чловѣкъ> man, human -- ...
  • пастъирі -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <пастъир҄ь> shepherd -- the shepherds
  • рѣшѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- said
  • дрѹгь -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <дрѹгъ> one, another -- one
  • кь -- preposition; <къ> to, for -- to
  • дрѹгѹ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <дрѹгъ> one, another -- another
  • прѣидѣмъ -- verb; 1st person plural imperative of <прѣити, -идѫ, -идєши> go, go forth -- let us now go
  • ѹбо -- conjunction; <ѹбо> but, even, now, therefore -- even
  • до -- preposition; <до> to, up to; (with numerals) about -- unto
  • віѳлєома -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Виѳлєємъ> Bethlehem -- Bethlehem
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • відімъ -- verb; 1st person plural imperative of <видѣти, виждѫ, видиши> see -- see
  • глаголь -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <глаголъ> word, speech -- thing
  • сь -- demonstrative adjective; accusative singular masculine of <сь> this -- this
  • бъівьшіи -- verb; past active participle; accusative singular masculine of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- which is come to pass
  • єгожє -- relative pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <ижє> who, which -- which
  • господь -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <господь> lord, master -- the Lord
  • съказа -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <съказати, -заѭ, -заѥши> announce, explain, make known -- hath made known
  • нам -- pronoun; dative plural of <азъ> I -- unto us

и прѣидѫ под҄вігьшє сѧ и обрѣтѫ маріѭ и иосифа и младьнєць лєжѧшть вь ѣслєхъ |

  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • прѣидѫ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <прѣити, -идѫ, -идєши> go, go forth -- they came
  • под҄вігьшє сѧ -- verb; past active participle; nominative plural masculine reflexive of <подвигнѫти, -нѫ, -нєши> move, arouse -- with haste
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • обрѣтѫ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <обрѣшти, -рѧштѫ, -рѧштєши> find, discover -- found
  • маріѭ -- proper noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Марьја> Maria, Mary -- Mary
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • иосифа -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Иосифъ> Joseph -- Joseph
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • младьнєць -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <младьньць> child -- the babe
  • лєжѧшть -- verb; present active participle; accusative singular masculine of <лєжати, -жѫ, -жиши> lie, recline -- lying
  • вь -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • ѣслєхъ -- noun, feminine; locative plural of <јасли> (plural form for singular meaning) manger -- a manger

видѣвъшє жє ськазашѧ о глаголѣ глаголанѣмь о отрочѧті сємъ | и въсі слъішавъшє дівішѧ сѧ о глаголанъіихъ отъ пастъирь кь німъ |

  • видѣвъшє -- verb; past active participle; nominative plural masculine of <видѣти, виждѫ, видиши> see -- when they had seen (it)
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- and
  • ськазашѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <съказати, -заѭ, -заѥши> announce, explain, make known -- they made known abroad
  • о -- preposition; <о> around, concerning; against -- ...
  • глаголѣ -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <глаголъ> word, speech -- the saying
  • глаголанѣмь -- verb; past passive participle; locative singular masculine of <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- which was told (them)
  • о -- preposition; <о> around, concerning; against -- concerning
  • отрочѧті -- noun, neuter; locative singular of <отрочѧ> child -- child
  • сємъ -- demonstrative adjective; locative singular neuter of <сь> this -- this
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • въсі -- adjective used as substantive; nominative plural masculine of <вьсь> all, every; whole -- all they
  • слъішавъшє -- verb; past active participle; nominative plural masculine of <слъішати, -шѫ, -шиши> hear -- that heard (it)
  • дівішѧ сѧ -- reflexive verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <дівіти сѧ, -в'л҄ѭ, -виши> wonder, marvel -- wondered
  • о -- preposition; <о> around, concerning; against -- at
  • глаголанъіихъ -- verb; past passive participle; locative plural masculine of <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- those things which were told
  • отъ -- preposition; <отъ> by, from, of -- by
  • пастъирь -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <пастъир҄ь> shepherd -- the shepherds
  • кь -- preposition; <къ> to, for -- ...
  • німъ -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <> he -- them

маріѣ жє вьсѧ съблюдаашє глаголъі сіи въ срьдьци своємъ | и възвратішѧ сѧ пастъірі славѧштє и хвалѧштє бога о в҄сѣхъ ѣжє слъішашѧ и відѣшѧ ѣкожє глаголано бъисть кь нимъ |

  • маріѣ -- proper noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Марьја> Maria, Mary -- Mary
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- but
  • вьсѧ -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural masculine of <вьсь> all, every; whole -- all
  • съблюдаашє -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <съблюдати, -аѭ, -аѥши> protect, keep -- kept... (and pondered them)
  • глаголъі -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <глаголъ> word, speech -- things
  • сіи -- demonstrative adjective; accusative plural masculine of <сь> this -- these
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • срьдьци -- noun, neuter; locative singular of <срьдьць> heart -- heart
  • своємъ -- possessive adjective; locative singular neuter of <свои, своє, своја> own, one's own -- her
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • възвратішѧ сѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <възвратити, -штѫ, -тиши> give back; (refl.) come back -- returned
  • пастъірі -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <пастъир҄ь> shepherd -- the shepherds
  • славѧштє -- verb; present active participle; nominative plural masculine of <славити, -вл҄ѭ, -виши> glorify -- glorifying
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • хвалѧштє -- verb; present active participle; nominative plural masculine of <хвалити, -л҄ѭ, -лиши> praise -- praising
  • бога -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <богъ> god -- God
  • о -- preposition; <о> around, concerning; against -- for
  • в҄сѣхъ -- adjective used as substantive; genitive plural neuter of <вьсь> all, every; whole -- all the things
  • ѣжє -- relative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <ижє> who, which -- that
  • слъішашѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <слъішати, -шѫ, -шиши> hear -- they had heard
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • відѣшѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <видѣти, виждѫ, видиши> see -- seen
  • ѣкожє -- conjunction; <јакожє> as, like, than, so as to -- as
  • глаголано -- verb; past passive participle; nominative singular neuter of <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- told
  • бъисть -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- it was
  • кь -- preposition; <къ> to, for -- unto
  • нимъ -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <> he -- them

Lesson Text

мѣсѧца дєкѧбр҄ја иг въ навєчєриѥ рождьства хрьстова єванћєлиѥ отъ лѹкъі глава в въ оно врѣмѧ изідє заповѣдь отъ кєсарѣ авгоста напісаті в҄сѫ вьсєлєнѫѭ | сє напісаніє пръвоє бъістъ владѫщѹ сѹрієѭ и кѵрінієѭ | и идѣахѫ вьсі напісатъ сѧ кьждо въ свои градъ | вьзідє жє иосіфь отъ галілєѧ и града назарєтьска вь июдєѭ вь градъ давъідовъ іжє наріцаєтъ сѧ віѳлєємь занє бѣашє отъ домѹ и отьчьствіѣ давъідова | напісатъ сѧ съ марієѭ обрѫчєнѫѭ ємѹ жєноѭ сѫштєѭ нєпраздъноѭ | бъістъ жє єгда бъістє тѹ исплънишѧ сѧ дєниє да родітъ | и роді съінъ свои пръвѣнєць и обитъі и и положі и въ ѣслєхъ занє нє бѣ има мѣста въ обитѣли | и пастъирі бѣахѫ въ тоиждє ст҄ранѣ бъдѧщє и стрѣгѫщє стражѫ нощьнѫѭ о стадѣ своємъ | и сє анћєлъ господьнь ста вь нихъ и слава господьнѣ осіѣ ѧ и ѹбоѣшѧ сѧ ст҄рахомъ вєлиємъ | и рєчє имъ анћєлъ нє боитє сѧ сє бо благовѣщаѭ вамъ радость вєліѭ ѣжє бѫдєт бьсѣмь людємъ | ѣко роді сѧ вамъ съпасъ іжє єстъ христъ господь въ градѣ давъідовѣ | и сє вамъ з҄намєниє обрѧстєтє младьнєць повітъ и лєжѧшть вь ѣслєхъ | и вънєзаапѫ бъістъ съ ангѣломъ м҄ножьство вои нєбєснъіих хвалѧштиихъ бога и глаголѭшть | сла въ въішніих богѹ и на зєми миръ въ чловѣцѣхъ благоволєниє | и бъістъ ѣко отідѫ оть ніхъ анћєлі на нєбо и чловѣци пастъирі рѣшѧ дрѹгь кь дрѹгѹ прѣидѣмъ ѹбо до віѳлєома и відімъ глаголь сь бъівьшіи єгожє господь съказа нам | и прѣидѫ под҄вігьшє сѧ и обрѣтѫ маріѭ и иосифа и младьнєць лєжѧшть вь ѣслєхъ | видѣвъшє жє ськазашѧ о глаголѣ глаголанѣмь о отрочѧті сємъ | и въсі слъішавъшє дівішѧ сѧ о глаголанъіихъ отъ пастъирь кь німъ | маріѣ жє вьсѧ съблюдаашє глаголъі сіи въ срьдьци своємъ | и възвратішѧ сѧ пастъірі славѧштє и хвалѧштє бога о в҄сѣхъ ѣжє слъішашѧ и відѣшѧ ѣкожє глаголано бъисть кь нимъ |

Translation

24th of the month December, on the eve of the birth of Christ. Gospel according to Luke, 2nd chapter:
(1) And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed. (2) (And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria.) (3) And all went up to be taxed, every one in his own city. (4) And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judaea, unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem; (because he was of the house and lineage of David:) (5) To be taxed with Mary his espoused wife, being great with child. (6) And so it was, that, while they were there, the days were accomplished that she should be delivered. (7) And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger; because there was no room for them in the inn. (8) And there were in the same country shepherds abiding in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night. (9) And, lo, the angel of the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone round about them: and they were sore afraid. (10) And the angel said unto them, Fear not: for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people. (11) For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Savior, which is Christ the Lord. (12) And this shall be a sign unto you: Ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger. (13) And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God, and saying, (14) Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men. (15) And it came to pass, as the angels were gone away from them into heaven, the shepherds said one to another, Let us now go even unto Bethlehem, and see this thing which is come to pass, which the Lord hath made known unto us. (16) And they came with haste, and found Mary, and Joseph, and the babe lying in a manger. (17) And when they had seen it, they made known abroad the saying which was told them concerning this child. (18) And all they that heard it wondered at those things which were told them by the shepherds. (19) But Mary kept all these things, and pondered them in her heart. (20) And the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all the things that they had heard and seen, as it was told unto them.

Grammar

31. Past Participles
31.1. Past Participle Active

There are two types of past active participle in OCS. One of these, the resultative or l-participle, has been discussed in Section 18. This section discusses what most grammars term the past active participle.

The past active participle is formed by attaching the suffix -ŭš- or -vŭš- to the stem of the verb. To this suffix are added the endings of the soft twofold nominal (cf. Section 12) or compound (cf. Section 17) adjectives, with special forms of the nominative and accusative. The ending -ŭš- is suffixed to verbal stems ending in -i or a consonant -- in this situation, -j and -ov- do not count as consonants. -- verbs which drop the -- also take the suffix -ŭš-. All other stems, i.e. -ov, -j, -, -ě, -a, take the suffix -vŭš-.

Before -ŭš-, -i becomes -j, with accompanying palatalization of the preceding consonant and fronting of the following -ŭ- to -ĭ-. просити, прошѫ, просиши 'ask' furnishes an example: the nominative singular feminine form is pros-i+ŭš+i > prosj-ĭši > prošĭši 'having asked'. Before -vŭš-, final -j is deleted and -ov- becomes -u. дѣлати, дѣлаѭ, дѣлаѥши 'do' has the stem dělaj-, so that the nominative singular feminine is dělaj+vŭš+i > děla-vŭši > dělavŭši 'having done'. Similarly, отъплѹти, -пловѫ, -пловєши 'sail away' has otŭplov+vŭš+i > otŭplu-vŭši > otŭpluvŭši 'having sailed away'.

Verbs whose stem ends in -i occasionally have alternate forms with the suffix -vŭš-. For example, молити, мол҄ѭ, мол҄ѥши 'beg' shows the forms мол҄ьши and моливъши. The nominative singular masculine and neuter ending is zero, so that OCS deletion of final consonants gives -ŭ, -ĭ (in front environments), or -.

In terms of the conjugational classifications of these lessons, the suffixes -ŭš- and -vŭš- are added to the infinitive stem of the verb. The suffix -ŭš- is appended to hard stems ending in a consonant; -vŭš- is added to hard stems ending in a vowel. Verbs of conjugation II drop the -- / -ne- suffix before forming the past active participle. Verbs of conjugation IV take the suffix -ĭš-; in later texts they appear with -ivŭš-.

The verb нєсти, нєсѫ, нєсєши 'carry' illustrates the declension of the past active participle. The short forms are as follows.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
N V Sg.   нєсъ   нєсъ   нєсъши
A   нєсъшь   нєсъшє   нєсъшѫ
G   нєсъша   нєсъша   нєсъшѧ
L   нєсъши   нєсъши   нєсъши
D   нєсъшѹ   нєсъшѹ   нєсъши
I   нєсъшємь   нєсъшємь   нєсъшєѭ
             
N A V Du.   нєсъша   нєсъши   нєсъши
G L   нєсъшѹ   нєсъшѹ   нєсъшѹ
D I   нєсъшєма   нєсъшєма   нєсъшама
             
N V Pl.   нєсъшє   нєсъша   нєсъшѧ
A   нєсъшѧ   нєсъша   нєсъшѧ
G   нєсъшь   нєсъшь   нєсъшь
L   нєсъшихъ   нєсъшихъ   нєсъшихъ
D   нєсъшємъ   нєсъшємъ   нєсъшамъ
I   нєсъши   нєсъши   нєсъшами

The long forms are given below.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
N V Sg.   нєсъшъіи   нєсъшєѥ   нєсъшија
A   нєсъшьи   нєсъшєѥ   нєсъшѫѭ
G   нєсъшаѥго   нєсъшаѥго   нєсъшѧѩ
L   нєсъшиимъ   нєсъшиимь   нєсъшии
D   нєсъшѹѥмѹ   нєсъшѹѥмѹ   нєсъшии
I   нєсъшиимь   нєсъшиимь   нєсъшєѭ
             
N A V Du.   нєсъшаја   нєсъшии   нєсъшии
G L   нєсъшѹю   нєсъшѹю   нєсъшѹю
D I   нєсъшиима   нєсъшиима   нєсъшиима
             
N V Pl.   нєсъшєи   нєсъшаја   нєсъшѧѩ
A   нєсъшѧѩ   нєсъшаја   нєсъшѧѩ
G   нєсъшиихъ   нєсъшиихъ   нєсъшиихъ
L   нєсъшиихъ   нєсъшиихъ   нєсъшиихъ
D   нєсъшиимъ   нєсъшиимъ   нєсъшиимъ
I   нєсъшиими   нєсъшиими   нєсъшиими

There are assimilated forms, e.g. feminine I sg. нєсѫѭ and masculine G sg. нєсааго, and contracted forms, e.g. masculine G sg. нєсаго. The masculine and neuter N sg. form for participles in -ь is -ьи, where the tense jer sometimes gives -ии. In the oblique cases, all the same endings are attached to the suffix -ьш-.

31.2. Past Participle Passive

The past passive participle is formed by means of the suffixes - (cf. English (finely) wrought), -, or -enŭ (cf. English eaten). The suffixes are added to the infinitve stem and declined as twofold short or long adjectives.

The -тъ suffix is used only in a restricted class of verbs. Verbs with present stem ending in -ĭ + nasal employ this suffix. It is added to the infinitive stem, which ends in -ę. Thus ѧти, имѫ, имєши 'take' (present stem ĭm-) forms ѧтъ 'taken'; пѧти, пьнѫ, пьнєши 'stretch' forms пѧтъ 'stretched'.

Other verbs with different stems form the past passive participle by means of -тъ: извѣдѣти, -вѣмь, -вѣси 'know' forms извѣстъ 'known'; отъврѣсти, -връзѫ, -връзєши 'open' forms отъврьстъ 'opened'.

The - suffix is used for verbs whose present stems end in -a, -aj, -ě, -ěj. These lose the final -j in the infinitive stem, to which the suffix is added. For example, сѣјати, сѣѭ, сѣѥши 'sow' yields сѣјанъ 'sown'; разѹмѣти, -мѣѭ, -мѣѥши 'understand' forms разѹмѣнъ 'understood'.

All other stems form the past passive participle by means of the -enŭ suffix. This includes verbs whose stems end in consonants, in particular -нѫ- verbs which drop this suffix in the past tense: двигнѫти, двигнѫ, двигнєши 'move' yields движєнъ 'moved'. Verbs which retain the -нѫ- suffix in the past tense form the participle in -nov-enŭ, e.g. отъринѫти, -ринѫ, -ринєши yields отъриновєнъ. This intervening -v- is also found in the participles of roots ending in a back vowel followed by -j, e.g. кръвєнъ 'covered' from кръіти, кръіѭ, кръіѥши 'cover'. In this situation, -yj- is the tense reflex of -ŭj-. In some instances stem-final -i yields -j, which produces palatalization: просити, прошѫ, просиши 'beg' gives прошєнъ.

Some verbs form participles by means of both the nasal suffix and the mute suffix. For example, бити, бьѭ, бьѥши 'beat' has participles битъ and бьѥнъ 'beaten'. сѣти, сѣѭ, сѣѥши 'sow' shows prefixed participles осѣтъ and осѣнъ 'sown'. Some verbs with root-final -l show formations with both - and -enŭ, e.g. клати, кол҄ѭ, кол҄ѥши 'stab' forms both кланъ and колєнъ.

32. Present Participle Passive

The present passive participle is formed from the present tense stem by the addition of the endings -imŭ, -emŭ, or -omŭ. These are declined as twofold short or long adjectives. Verbs whose present tense stems end in -и take the ending -имъ. Other soft stems take the ending -ємъ. The remaining consonant stems and -нѫ- verbs take the ending -омъ. The following are examples according to declension.

Conjugation   Verb   Participle   Translation
I   нєсти, нєсѫ, нєсєши   нєсомъ   'being carried'
II   двигнѫти, -нѫ, -нєши   двигомъ   'being moved'
III   знати, знаѭ, знаѥши   знаѥмъ   'being known'
IV   молити, мол҄ѭ, мол҄ѥши   молимъ   'being asked'
V   дати, дамь, даси   дадомъ   'being given'

The verb видѣти, виждѫ, видиши 'see', being originally athematic, forms the participle видомъ alongside the expected видимъ. Similarly, алкати (лакати), алчѫ (лачѫ), алчєши (лачєши) 'hunger' has the participle лакомъ.

The present passive participle may be used with forms of the verb 'be' to create a periphrastic passive voice, e.g. нєсомъ ѥсмь 'I am being carried', нєсоми бъіхомъ 'we were being carried'.

33. Second Conjugation

The verbs of the second declension display the affix -ne- between root and ending. The affix -- appears in the infinitive. Preceding the affix may be either a stem-final consonant or stem-final vowel. Some roots drop the affix in certain verbal forms. For example, двигнѫти, двигнѫ, двигнєши 'move' forms the aorist двигъ directly from the root, while минѫти, минѫ, минєши 'pass by' retains the affix -нѫ- in the aorist минѫхъ.

The conjugation is illustrated by the verbs двигнѫти, -нѫ, -нєши 'move'; стати, станѫ, станєши 'stand'; ринѫти, ринѫ, ринєши push'; минѫти, -нѫ, -нєши 'pass by'. Many forms are unattested. The verb дръзнѫти, дръзнѫ, дръзнєши 'dare' supplies some forms where they are lacking in the other paradigm verbs.

Present   двиг-нє-   ста-нє-   ри-нє-   ми-нє-
                 
1st Sg.   двигнѫ   станѫ   ринѫ   минѫ
2nd   двигнєши   станєши   ринєши   минєши
3rd   двигнєтъ   станєтъ   ринєтъ   минєтъ
                 
1st Du.   двигнєвѣ   станєвѣ   ринєвѣ   минєвѣ
2nd   двигнєта   станєта   ринєта   минєта
3rd   двигнєтє   станєтє   ринєтє   минєтє
                 
1st Pl.   двигнємъ   станємъ   ринємъ   минємъ
2nd   двигнєтє   станєтє   ринєтє   минєтє
3rd   двигнѫтъ   станѫтъ   ринѫтъ   минѫтъ
                 
Imperative                
1st Sg.   -   -   -   -
2nd   двигни   стани   рини   мини
3rd   двигни   стани   рини   мини
                 
1st Du.   двигнѣвѣ   станѣвѣ   ринѣвѣ   минѣвѣ
2nd   двигнѣта   станѣта   ринѣта   минѣта
3rd   -   -   -   -
                 
1st Pl.   двигнѣмъ   станѣмъ   ринѣмъ   минѣмъ
2nd   двигнѣтє   станѣтє   ринѣтє   минѣтє
3rd   -   -   -   -
                 
Pres. Act. Part.                
Masc/Neut. N   двигнъі   станъі   ринъі   минъі
Fem. N   двигнѫшти   станѫшти   ринѫшти   минѫшти
                 
Pres. Pass. Part.                
Masc. N   двигномъ   -   риномъ   миномъ
                 
Imperfect                
1st Sg.   двигнѣахъ   о-станѣахъ   ринѣахъ   минѣахъ
2nd   двигнѣашє   о-станѣашє   ринѣашє   минѣашє
3rd   двигнѣашє   о-станѣашє   ринѣашє   минѣашє
                 
1st Du.   двигнѣаховѣ   о-станѣаховѣ   ринѣаховѣ   минѣаховѣ
2nd   двигнѣашєта   о-станѣашєта   ринѣашєта   минѣашєта
3rd   двигнѣашєтє   о-станѣашєтє   ринѣашєтє   минѣашєтє
                 
1st Pl.   двигнѣахомъ   о-станѣахомъ   ринѣахомъ   минѣахомъ
2nd   двигнѣашєтє   о-станѣашєтє   ринѣашєтє   минѣашєтє
3rd   двигнѣахѫ   о-станѣахѫ   ринѣахѫ   минѣахѫ
                 
Asigmatic Aorist                
1st Sg.   двигъ   *станъ   -   -
2nd   движє   ста   -   -
3rd   движє   ста   -   -
                 
1st Du.   двиговѣ   *становѣ   -   -
2nd   движєта   *станєта   -   -
3rd   движєтє   *станєтє   -   -
                 
1st Pl.   двигомъ   *станомъ   -   -
2nd   движєтє   *станєтє   -   -
3rd   двигѫ   *станѫ   -   -
                 
New Aorist                
1st Sg.   двигохъ   дръзнѫхъ   ринѫхъ   минѫхъ
2nd   движє   дръзнѫ   ринѫ   минѫ
3rd   движє   дръзнѫ   ринѫ   минѫ
                 
1st Du.   двигоховѣ   дръзнѫховѣ   ринѫховѣ   минѫховѣ
2nd   двигоста   дръзнѫста   ринѫста   минѫста
3rd   двигостє   дръзнѫстє   ринѫстє   минѫстє
                 
1st Pl.   двигохомъ   дръзнѫхомъ   ринѫхомъ   минѫхомъ
2nd   двигостє   дръзнѫстє   ринѫстє   минѫстє
3rd   двигошѧ   дръзнѫшѧ   ринѫшѧ   минѫшѧ
                 
Past Act. Part.                
Masc/Neut. N   двигъ   дръзнѫвъ   ринѫвъ   минѫвъ
Fem. N   двигъши   дръзнѫвъши   ринѫвъши   минѫвъши
                 
Resultative Part.                
Masc. N   двиглъ   сталъ   ринѫлъ   минѫлъ
                 
Past Pass. Part.                
Masc. N   движєнъ   дръзновєнъ   риновєнъ   миновєнъ
                 
Infinitive   двигнѫти   стати   ринѫти   минѫти
                 
Supine   двигнѫтъ   статъ   ринѫтъ   минѫтъ
                 
Verbal Noun   движєньѥ   въ-станьѥ   риновєньѥ   миновєньѥ

The third person plural, sigmatic aorist form -станѫшѧ occurs for the verb стати 'stand'. The -- affix, originally dropped in the aorist and past participle forms, seems to have been reintroduced for some verbs by analogy with the present system.

34. Genitive Case

The genitive case has several uses. It may be the complement of both verbs and substantives.

The genitive is often used as the complement of certain verbs in a manner akin to a direct object. For example, видѣти 'see' may take an object in either the accusative or genitive, while зърѣти 'see' typically takes the genitive. алкати 'hunger (for)', жъдати 'await', въспросити 'beg', and напльнити 'fill (with)' are examples of other verbs which regularly take the genitive. Some verbs normally taking an accusative object may take a genitive denoting a part of a whole. An example is въкѹсити 'taste': јако жє въкѹси архитриклинъ <і>вина бъівъшаєго отъ водъі 'and when the ruler tasted (some of) the wine made from water'. The genitive is used also by some verbs representing separation from or lack of something, e.g. избавити 'rid (of)', свободити 'free (from)', плакати 'mourn (over)'.

The use of the genitive with a negated copula or negated transitive verb has been discussed in Section 15.

The genitive is the usual complement of the supine: придє ... видѣтъ гроба 'she came for the seeing of the tomb', 'she came to see the tomb'.

The genitive may also be the complement of a substantive, with a wide variety of meanings. These all serve to somehow delimit the range of the substantive, whether by mere possession, by quantity, or by quality. Take the follwoing examples: дѹхъ <і>отьца вашаєго 'spirit of your father'; чловѣкъ єдинъ <і>добра рода 'a certain man of a good family'; дъшти <і>дъвою на дєсѧтє <і>лѣтѹ 'daughter of twelve years', 'twelve-year-old daughter'; сєдмь <і>кошьниць 'seven (of) baskets'. The following are examples where a substantive and genitive construction is used to denote part of a whole: къто <і>ихъ 'who of them', 'who among them'; колико <і>хлѣбъ 'how much of bread', 'how many (loaves) of bread'; мало <і>ихъ єстъ 'there are few of them'.

Some adjectives take a genitive complement: съсѫдъ ... пльнъ <і>оцьта 'a vessel full of vinegar'. The comparative adjectives and adverbs use the genitive to denote the reference of comparison: єстє лѹцьши <і>пътиць 'you are better than birds'; тєчє скорѣє <і>пєтра 'he ran faster than Peter'.

35. Passive Voice, , and Reflexive Verbs
35.1. Passive Voice

The passive voice is represented morphologically only in the present passive and past passive participles. Their formation is discussed in Sections 31 and 32 above. These participles may be used with forms of бъіти 'be' to form periphrastic passive constructions. For example нєсомъ ѥсмь 'I am being carried' represents a present passive construction, while прѣданъ бѫдєтъ 'He will be betrayed' represents a future passive.

35.2. and Reflexive Verbs

in its basic role represents the accusative form of the reflexive pronoun, e.g. јавл҄ѭ <і>сѧ ємѹ самъ 'I will manifest myself to him'. In the presence of negation, this reflexive may be substituted by the genitive form сєбє. Likewise, сѧ used as a personal or animate object may be replaced by the genitive сєбє, cf. Section 15. An example of this is въі єстє оправьдаѭштєи <і>сєбє 'you are the ones justifying yourselves'.

A related but more common usage of сѧ is with verbs to denote not a definite object but rather a shift from transitivity to intransitivity. сѧ in this role occupies the place of an accusative without expressing an explicit object, and in this function is not substituted by сєбє. It typically either follows the verb or the first accented word of its clause. For example, аштє <і>сѧ би нє родилъ 'if he had not been born'; ѹнѣє єстъ нє жєнити <і>сѧ 'it is better not to marry'. Some verbs acquire a different shade of meaning with сѧ, e.g. клѧти 'curse', but клѧти сѧ 'swear, take an oath'. Other verbs never occur without сѧ, like бојати сѧ 'fear'.

Inasmuch as сѧ makes transitive verbs intransitive, it often serves to mark passive meaning. This interpretation is borne out by variant translations in the different manuscripts, one having a reflexive form, another a morphological passive: Zographensis has съінъ чловѣчьскъи <і>прѣдастъ сѧ, while Marianus has ...прѣданъ бѫдєтъ 'the Son of Man will be betrayed'.