The University of Texas at Austin; College of Liberal Arts
Hans C. Boas, Director :: PCL 5.556, 1 University Station S5490 :: Austin, TX 78712 :: 512-471-4566
LRC Links: Home | About | Books Online | EIEOL | IE Doc. Center | IE Lexicon | IE Maps | IE Texts | Pub. Indices | SiteMap

Old Church Slavonic Online

Lesson 7

Todd B. Krause and Jonathan Slocum

The basic corpus of OCS, centered around the 10th-11th centuries, is very limited in scope. The primary Glagolitic manuscripts are:

(i) The Kiev Missal, from the mid 10th cent. This consists of seven folia containing prayers for Mass according to the Roman rite. The language displays West Slavic characteristics: CS tj, dj > c, z rather than št, žd; CS stj > šč rather than št; the instr. sg. masc. o-stem ending is -ŭmĭ rather than -omĭ. The vocabulary shows numerous elements from the West: prěfacija < Lat. praefatio; oplatŭ < Lat. oblata; poganĭskŭ < Lat. paganus.

(ii) The Codex Zographensis, from the 11th cent. This has 303 folia, most of which furnish an incomplete version of the four Gospels; the rest are in Cyrillic and provide a list of Saints' days with the accompanying Gospel reading for that day. The language is characterized by assimilation of jers: ŭ > ĭ before a front vowel, ĭ > ŭ before a back vowel.

(iii) The Codex Marianus, from the late 10th, early 11th cent. This consists of 174 folia containing an incomplete version of the four Gospels. This is assigned to the Serbo-Croat area on the basis of the following linguistic characteristics: ǫ > u; y > i; gen. sg. sego > sega; - > u-.

(iv) The Glagolita Clozianus. This contains 14 folia recording a collection of Saints' Lives and homilies to be read during festivals of the ecclesiastical year. This is characterized by the linguistic shifts ǫ > u and y > i.

(v) The Codex Assemanianus. This contains 158 folia collecting gospel passages read in the liturgy, followed by a calendar of Saints' days. The large proportion of Macedonian saints in the calendar leads one to assume a Macedonian provenance.

(vi) The Psalterium Sinaiticum, from the 11th cent. This has 177 folia with translations of the Greek Psalms 1-137.

(vii) The Euchologium Sinaiticum, from the 11th cent. This comprehends 109 folia containing a collection of prayers for different occasions.

The major Cyrillic documents are the following:

(viii) Savvina Kniga, from the 11th cent. This consists of 166 folia, containing an incomplete evangelistary and list of Saints' days. The name derives from mention within the document that it was written by popŭ Savva. Thought to be of Bulgarian provenance based on the fact that ŭ is not strengthened to o.

(ix) The Codex Suprasliensis, from the 11th cent. This consists of 285 folia giving a menology for the month of March, that is, a collection of readings ecclesiastical festivals of March. There are twenty-four saints' lives and legends, twenty-three homilies, and one prayer. The back jer ŭ is not strengthened to o, nor ĭ to e; the text is assumed to come from the Bulgarian region.

(x) The Inscription of Tsar Samuel, dated 993. This is a marble inscription commissioned by the Tsar over Macedonia and Western Bulgaria from 976 to 1014. It commemorates his deceased parents and brother.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The following passage is the beginning of the Nativity, Luke 2:1-20. The first line is the introduction to the passage at hand, and not part of the Gospel. Noteworthy is the frequent use of ě where a or ja is to be expected, e.g. kesarě for kesar'ja. In the second verse, one also finds scribal confusion, where küriiiejǫ is written for the more proper dative küriiju agreeing with the participle vladǫštu. That this could be mere conflation of ǫ and u is mitigated by the fact that ǫ is correctly used elsewhere. This rather seems a case of attraction to the preceding suriejǫ, brought on by lack of familiarity with foreign names. Note also the use of adjectival forms of names, e.g. davydovŭ, to denote possession or relation, rather than a simple genitive form.

měsęca dekębr'ja ig vŭ navečerije roždĭstva xrĭstova evang'elije otŭ luky glava v

  • měsęca -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <měsęcĭ> moon, month -- of the month
  • dekębr'ja -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <dek'ębr'ĭ> December -- December
  • ig -- number adjective; nominative singular neuter of <dŭvadesętĭnyi i četvrŭtyi, četvrŭtĭjeje, četvrŭtĭjaja> twenty-fourth -- 24th
  • -- preposition; <> in, into -- on
  • navečerije -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <navečerĭje> eve, evening before -- the eve
  • roždĭstva -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <roždĭstvo> birth -- of the birth
  • xrĭstova -- adjective; genitive singular neuter of <xrĭstovŭ> of Christ, Christ's -- of Christ
  • evang'elije -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <evang'elĭje> gospel, evangel -- gospel
  • otŭ -- preposition; <otŭ> by, from, of -- according to
  • luky -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Luka> Luke -- Luke
  • glava -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <glava> head; chapter -- chapter
  • v -- number adjective; nominative singular feminine of <vŭtoryi, -roje, -raja> second -- 2nd

vŭ ono vrěmę izide zapovědĭ otŭ kesarě avgosta napisati v'sǫ vĭselenǫjǫ |

  • -- preposition; <> in, into -- in
  • ono -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <onŭ> that -- those
  • vrěmę -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <vrěmę> time -- days
  • izide -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <iziti, -idǫ, -ideši> go out -- there went out
  • zapovědĭ -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <zapovědĭ> command, commandment -- a decree
  • otŭ -- preposition; <otŭ> by, from, of -- from
  • kesarě -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Kesar'ĭ> Caesar -- Caesar
  • avgosta -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Avgostŭ> Augustus -- Augustus
  • napisati -- verb; infinitive of <napisati, -šǫ, -šeši> write (down), inscribe -- should be taxed
  • v'sǫ -- pronoun adjective; accusative singular feminine of <vĭsĭ> all, every; whole -- all
  • vĭselenǫjǫ -- adjective used as substantive; accusative singular feminine of <vŭselenŭ> inhabited -- the world

se napisanie prŭvoe bystŭ vladǫštu suriejǫ i küriniejǫ |

  • se -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <> this -- this
  • napisanie -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <napisanĭje> writing (down), inscription -- taxing
  • prŭvoe -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of <prĭvŭ> first, primary -- first
  • bystŭ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <byti, bǫdǫ, bǫdeši> be, become -- was made
  • vladǫštu -- verb; present active participle; dative singular masculine of <vlasti, vladǫ, -deši> rule (+ instrumental ) -- when... was governor of
  • suriejǫ -- proper noun, feminine; instrumental singular of <Surija> Syria -- Syria
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- ...
  • küriniejǫ -- proper noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <Kürinii> Cyrenius, Quirinius -- Cyrenius

i iděaxǫ vĭsi napisatŭ sę kĭždo vŭ svoi gradŭ |

  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • iděaxǫ -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <iti, idǫ, ideši> go -- went up
  • vĭsi -- demonstrative adjective used as substantive; nominative plural masculine of <vĭsĭ> all, every; whole -- all
  • napisatŭ sę -- reflexive verb; supine of <napisati, -šǫ, -šeši> write (down), inscribe -- to be taxed
  • kĭždo -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <kŭždo> every, everyone -- every one
  • -- preposition; <> in, into -- in
  • svoi -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <svoi, svoe, svoja> own, one's own -- his own
  • gradŭ -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <gradŭ> city -- city

vĭzide že iosifĭ otŭ galileę i grada nazaretĭska vĭ ijudejǫ vĭ gradŭ davydovŭ iže naricaetŭ sę viθleemĭ zane běaše otŭ domu i otĭčĭstviě davydova |

  • vĭzide -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <vŭziti, -idǫ, -ideši> go up -- went up
  • že -- conjunction; <že> and, but -- and also
  • iosifĭ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Iosifŭ> Joseph -- Joseph
  • otŭ -- preposition; <otŭ> by, from, of -- from
  • galileę -- proper noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Galileja> Galilee -- Galilee
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • grada -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <gradŭ> city -- the city
  • nazaretĭska -- adjective; genitive singular masculine of <Nazaretĭskŭ> Nazarene, of Nazareth -- of Nazareth
  • -- preposition; <> in, into -- into
  • ijudejǫ -- proper noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Ijuděa> Judea -- Judea
  • -- preposition; <> in, into -- unto
  • gradŭ -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <gradŭ> city -- the city
  • davydovŭ -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <davydovŭ> of David, David's -- of David
  • iže -- relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <iže> who, which -- which
  • naricaetŭ sę -- reflexive verb; 3rd person singular present of <naricati, -cajǫ, -caješi> call, name -- is called
  • viθleemĭ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Viθleemŭ> Bethlehem -- Bethlehem
  • zane -- conjunction; <zan'e> because -- because
  • běaše -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <byti, bǫdǫ, bǫdeši> be, become -- he was
  • otŭ -- preposition; <otŭ> by, from, of -- of
  • domu -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <domŭ> house -- the house
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • otĭčĭstviě -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <otĭčĭstvĭe> own country, lineage, kindred -- lineage
  • davydova -- adjective; genitive singular neuter of <davydovŭ> of David, David's -- of David

napisatŭ sę sŭ mariejǫ obrǫčenǫjǫ emu ženojǫ sǫštejǫ neprazdŭnojǫ |

  • napisatŭ sę -- reflexive verb; supine of <napisati, -šǫ, -šeši> write (down), inscribe -- to be taxed
  • -- preposition; <> with -- with
  • mariejǫ -- proper noun, feminine; instrumental singular of <Marĭja> Maria, Mary -- Mary
  • obrǫčenǫjǫ -- verb; past passive participle; instrumental singular feminine of <obrǫčiti, -čǫ, -čiši> affiance, betrothe -- espoused
  • emu -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*i> he -- his
  • ženojǫ -- noun, feminine; instrumental singular of <žena> woman, wife -- wife
  • sǫštejǫ -- verb; present active participle; instrumental singular feminine of <jes-, jesmĭ, jesi> be -- being
  • neprazdŭnojǫ -- adjective; instrumental singular feminine of <neprazdĭnŭ> pregnant -- great with child

bystŭ že egda byste tu isplŭnišę sę denie da roditŭ | i rodi synŭ svoi prŭvěnecĭ i obity i i položi i vŭ ěslexŭ zane ne bě ima města vŭ obitěli |

  • bystŭ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <byti, bǫdǫ, bǫdeši> be, become -- (so) it was (that)
  • že -- conjunction; <že> and, but -- and
  • egda -- relative adverb; <egda> when -- while
  • byste -- verb; 3rd person dual aorist of <byti, bǫdǫ, bǫdeši> be, become -- they were
  • tu -- adverb; <tu> there; then -- there
  • isplŭnišę sę -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist reflexive of <isplĭniti, -n'jǫ, -niši> fill up, fulfill -- were accomplished
  • denie -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <dĭnĭ> day -- the days
  • da -- conjunction; <da> in order to, that; may, let; and, then -- that
  • roditŭ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <roditi, -ždǫ, -diši> bear, produce -- she should be delivered
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • rodi -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <roditi, -ždǫ, -diši> bear, produce -- she brought forth
  • synŭ -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <synŭ> son -- son
  • svoi -- possessive adjective; accusative singular masculine of <svoi, svoe, svoja> own, one's own -- her
  • prŭvěnecĭ -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <prĭvěnĭcĭ> firstborn child -- firstborn
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • obity -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <obiti, -ĭjǫ, -ĭješi> wrap, bind in -- wrapped... in swaddling clothes # #usual spelling obitŭ, where final -ŭ is tense before the following i
  • i -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <*i> he -- him
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • položi -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <položiti, -žǫ, -žiši> lay down, set down -- laid
  • i -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <*i> he -- him
  • -- preposition; <> in, into -- in
  • ěslexŭ -- noun, feminine; locative plural of <jasli> (plural form for singular meaning) manger -- a manger
  • zane -- conjunction; <zan'e> because -- because
  • ne -- particle; <ne> not -- no
  • -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <byti, bǫdǫ, bǫdeši> be, become -- there was
  • ima -- pronoun; dative dual masculine of <*i> he -- for them
  • města -- noun, neuter; genitive singular of <město> place -- room # #genitive with negated copula
  • -- preposition; <> in, into -- in
  • obitěli -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <obitělĭ> inn, lodging, monastery -- the inn

i pastŭiri běaxǫ vŭ toižde st'raně bŭdęšte i strěgǫšte stražǫ noštĭnǫjǫ o stadě svoemŭ |

  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • pastŭiri -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <pastŭir'ĭ> shepherd -- shepherds
  • běaxǫ -- verb; 3rd person plural imperfect of <byti, bǫdǫ, bǫdeši> be, become -- there were
  • -- preposition; <> in, into -- in
  • toižde -- adverb; <tuižde> there; there where -- the same
  • st'raně -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <strana> country; area, region; (pl) heathen -- country
  • bŭdęšte -- verb; present active participle; nominative plural masculine of <bŭdęti, bŭždǫ, bŭždiši> be awake, stay awake -- abiding (in the field)
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- ...
  • strěgǫšte -- verb; present active participle; nominative plural masculine of <strěšti, strěgǫ, strěgeši> watch, guard, protect -- keeping
  • stražǫ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <straža> guard -- watch
  • noštĭnǫjǫ -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <noštĭnŭ> nocturnal -- by night
  • o -- preposition; <o> around, concerning; against -- over
  • stadě -- noun, neuter; locative singular of <stado> herd -- flock
  • svoemŭ -- possessive adjective; locative singular neuter of <svoi, svoe, svoja> own, one's own -- their

i se ang'elŭ gospodĭnĭ sta vĭ nixŭ i slava gospodĭně osiě ę i uboěšę sę st'raxomŭ veliemŭ |

  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • se -- interjection; <se> lo, behold -- lo
  • ang'elŭ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <aggelŭ> angel -- the angel
  • gospodĭnĭ -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <gospodĭn'ĭ> lord's -- of the Lord
  • sta -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <stati, stanǫ, staneši> stand -- came
  • -- preposition; <> in, into -- upon
  • nixŭ -- pronoun; locative plural masculine of <*i> he -- them
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • slava -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <slava> fame, glory -- the glory
  • gospodĭně -- adjective; nominative singular feminine of <gospodĭn'ĭ> lord's -- of the Lord
  • osiě -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <osĭjati, -jajǫ, -jaješi> illumine, shine about, overshadow -- shone round about
  • ę -- pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <*i> he -- them
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • uboěšę sę -- reflexive verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <ubojati sę, -bojǫ, -boiši> fear, become afraid -- they were... afraid
  • st'raxomŭ -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <straxŭ> terror -- ...
  • veliemŭ -- adjective; instrumental singular masculine of <velii> big, great -- sore

i reče imŭ ang'elŭ ne boite sę se bo blagověštajǫ vamŭ radostĭ velijǫ ěže bǫdet bĭsěmĭ ljudemŭ |

  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • reče -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <rešti, rekǫ, rečeši> say, tell -- said
  • imŭ -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <*i> he -- unto them
  • ang'elŭ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <aggelŭ> angel -- the angel
  • ne -- particle; <ne> not -- not
  • boite sę -- reflexive verb; 2nd person plural imperfect of <bojati sę, bojǫ, boiši> fear -- fear
  • se -- interjection; <se> lo, behold -- behold
  • bo -- conjunction; <bo> for -- for
  • blagověštajǫ -- verb; 1st person singular present of <blagověštati, -tajǫ, -taješi> proclaim (the Good News) -- I bring you good tidings of
  • vamŭ -- pronoun; dative plural of <ty> you, thou -- you
  • radostĭ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <radostĭ> joy -- joy
  • velijǫ -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <velii> big, great -- great
  • ěže -- relative pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <iže> who, which -- which
  • bǫdet -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <byti, bǫdǫ, bǫdeši> be, become -- shall be
  • bĭsěmĭ -- adjective; dative plural masculine of <vĭsĭ> all, every; whole -- to all # #b for more proper v
  • ljudemŭ -- noun, masculine; dative plural of <ljudŭ> people -- people

ěko rodi sę vamŭ sŭpasŭ iže estŭ xristŭ gospodĭ vŭ gradě davydově | i se vamŭ z'namenie obręstete mladĭnecĭ povitŭ i ležęštĭ vĭ ěslexŭ |

  • ěko -- conjunction; <jako> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- for
  • rodi sę -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist reflexive of <roditi, -ždǫ, -diši> bear, produce -- is born (this day)
  • vamŭ -- pronoun; dative plural of <ty> you, thou -- unto you
  • sŭpasŭ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <sŭpasŭ> savior -- a Savior
  • iže -- relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <iže> who, which -- which
  • estŭ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <jes-, jesmĭ, jesi> be -- is
  • xristŭ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Xristŭ> Christ -- Christ
  • gospodĭ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <gospodĭ> lord, master -- the Lord
  • -- preposition; <> in, into -- in
  • gradě -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <gradŭ> city -- the city
  • davydově -- adjective; locative singular masculine of <davydovŭ> of David, David's -- of David
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • se -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <> this -- this (shall be)
  • vamŭ -- pronoun; dative plural of <ty> you, thou -- unto you
  • z'namenie -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <znamenĭje> sign -- a sign
  • obręstete -- verb; 2nd person plural present of <obrěšti, -ręštǫ, -ręšteši> find, discover -- ye shall find
  • mladĭnecĭ -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <mladĭnĭcĭ> child -- the babe
  • povitŭ -- verb; past passive participle; accusative singular masculine of <poviti, -vĭjǫ, -vĭješi> wind, wrap -- wrapped in swaddling clothes
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- ...
  • ležęštĭ -- verb; present active participle; accusative singular masculine of <ležati, -žǫ, -žiši> lie, recline -- lying
  • -- preposition; <> in, into -- in
  • ěslexŭ -- noun, feminine; locative plural of <jasli> (plural form for singular meaning) manger -- a manger

i vŭnezaapǫ bystŭ sŭ angělomŭ m'nožĭstvo voi nebesnyix xvalęštiixŭ boga i glagoljǫštĭ |

  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • vŭnezaapǫ -- adverb; <vŭnezaapǫ> suddenly -- suddenly
  • bystŭ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <byti, bǫdǫ, bǫdeši> be, become -- there was
  • -- preposition; <> with -- with
  • angělomŭ -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <aggelŭ> angel -- the angel
  • m'nožĭstvo -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <mŭnožĭstvo> multitude -- a multitude
  • voi -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <voi> (plural form) troops, army -- host
  • nebesnyix -- adjective; genitive plural masculine of <nebesĭnŭ> heavenly, of heaven -- of the heavenly
  • xvalęštiixŭ -- verb; present active participle; genitive plural masculine of <xvaliti, -l'jǫ, -liši> praise -- praising
  • boga -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <bogŭ> god -- God
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • glagoljǫštĭ -- verb; present active participle; genitive plural masculine of <glagolati, -l'jǫ, -l'ješi> say, speak -- saying

sla vŭ vyšniix bogu i na zemi mirŭ vŭ člověcěxŭ blagovolenie |

  • sla -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <slava> fame, glory -- glory # #abbreviation for slava or scribal error based on following
  • -- preposition; <> in, into -- in
  • vyšniix -- adjective used as substantive; locative plural neuter of <vyšn'ĭi, -n'ee, -n'jaja> on high, highest -- the highest
  • bogu -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <bogŭ> god -- to God
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • na -- preposition; <na> in, on; at, against; for -- on
  • zemi -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <zeml'ja> earth, land -- earth # #lack of -l- following softened labials a typical West Slavic feature
  • mirŭ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <mirŭ> world; peace -- peace
  • -- preposition; <> in, into -- toward
  • člověcěxŭ -- noun, masculine; locative plural of <člověkŭ> man, human -- men
  • blagovolenie -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <blagovol'enĭe> good-will; good -- good will

i bystŭ ěko otidǫ otĭ nixŭ ang'eli na nebo i člověci pastŭiri rěšę drugĭ kĭ drugu prěiděmŭ ubo do viθleoma i vidimŭ glagolĭ sĭ byvĭšii egože gospodĭ sŭkaza nam |

  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • bystŭ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <byti, bǫdǫ, bǫdeši> be, become -- it came to pass
  • ěko -- conjunction; <jako> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- as
  • otidǫ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <otiti, -idǫ, -ideši> go out, depart -- were gone away
  • otĭ -- preposition; <otŭ> by, from, of -- from
  • nixŭ -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <*i> he -- them
  • ang'eli -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <aggelŭ> angel -- the angels
  • na -- preposition; <na> in, on; at, against; for -- into
  • nebo -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <nebo> heaven, sky -- heaven
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • člověci -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <člověkŭ> man, human -- ...
  • pastŭiri -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <pastŭir'ĭ> shepherd -- the shepherds
  • rěšę -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <rešti, rekǫ, rečeši> say, tell -- said
  • drugĭ -- pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <drugŭ> one, another -- one
  • -- preposition; <> to, for -- to
  • drugu -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <drugŭ> one, another -- another
  • prěiděmŭ -- verb; 1st person plural imperative of <prěiti, -idǫ, -ideši> go, go forth -- let us now go
  • ubo -- conjunction; <ubo> but, even, now, therefore -- even
  • do -- preposition; <do> to, up to; (with numerals) about -- unto
  • viθleoma -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Viθleemŭ> Bethlehem -- Bethlehem
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • vidimŭ -- verb; 1st person plural imperative of <viděti, viždǫ, vidiši> see -- see
  • glagolĭ -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <glagolŭ> word, speech -- thing
  • -- demonstrative adjective; accusative singular masculine of <> this -- this
  • byvĭšii -- verb; past active participle; accusative singular masculine of <byti, bǫdǫ, bǫdeši> be, become -- which is come to pass
  • egože -- relative pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <iže> who, which -- which
  • gospodĭ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <gospodĭ> lord, master -- the Lord
  • sŭkaza -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <sŭkazati, -zajǫ, -zaješi> announce, explain, make known -- hath made known
  • nam -- pronoun; dative plural of <azŭ> I -- unto us

i prěidǫ pod'vigĭše sę i obrětǫ marijǫ i iosifa i mladĭnecĭ ležęštĭ vĭ ěslexŭ |

  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • prěidǫ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <prěiti, -idǫ, -ideši> go, go forth -- they came
  • pod'vigĭše sę -- verb; past active participle; nominative plural masculine reflexive of <podvignǫti, -nǫ, -neši> move, arouse -- with haste
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • obrětǫ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <obrěšti, -ręštǫ, -ręšteši> find, discover -- found
  • marijǫ -- proper noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Marĭja> Maria, Mary -- Mary
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • iosifa -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Iosifŭ> Joseph -- Joseph
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • mladĭnecĭ -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <mladĭnĭcĭ> child -- the babe
  • ležęštĭ -- verb; present active participle; accusative singular masculine of <ležati, -žǫ, -žiši> lie, recline -- lying
  • -- preposition; <> in, into -- in
  • ěslexŭ -- noun, feminine; locative plural of <jasli> (plural form for singular meaning) manger -- a manger

viděvŭše že sĭkazašę o glagolě glagolaněmĭ o otročęti semŭ | i vŭsi slyšavŭše divišę sę o glagolanyixŭ otŭ pastŭirĭ kĭ nimŭ |

  • viděvŭše -- verb; past active participle; nominative plural masculine of <viděti, viždǫ, vidiši> see -- when they had seen (it)
  • že -- conjunction; <že> and, but -- and
  • sĭkazašę -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <sŭkazati, -zajǫ, -zaješi> announce, explain, make known -- they made known abroad
  • o -- preposition; <o> around, concerning; against -- ...
  • glagolě -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <glagolŭ> word, speech -- the saying
  • glagolaněmĭ -- verb; past passive participle; locative singular masculine of <glagolati, -l'jǫ, -l'ješi> say, speak -- which was told (them)
  • o -- preposition; <o> around, concerning; against -- concerning
  • otročęti -- noun, neuter; locative singular of <otročę> child -- child
  • semŭ -- demonstrative adjective; locative singular neuter of <> this -- this
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • vŭsi -- adjective used as substantive; nominative plural masculine of <vĭsĭ> all, every; whole -- all they
  • slyšavŭše -- verb; past active participle; nominative plural masculine of <slyšati, -šǫ, -šiši> hear -- that heard (it)
  • divišę sę -- reflexive verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <diviti sę, -v'l'jǫ, -viši> wonder, marvel -- wondered
  • o -- preposition; <o> around, concerning; against -- at
  • glagolanyixŭ -- verb; past passive participle; locative plural masculine of <glagolati, -l'jǫ, -l'ješi> say, speak -- those things which were told
  • otŭ -- preposition; <otŭ> by, from, of -- by
  • pastŭirĭ -- noun, masculine; genitive plural of <pastŭir'ĭ> shepherd -- the shepherds
  • -- preposition; <> to, for -- ...
  • nimŭ -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <*i> he -- them

mariě že vĭsę sŭbljudaaše glagoly sii vŭ srĭdĭci svoemŭ | i vŭzvratišę sę pastyri slavęšte i xvalęšte boga o v'sěxŭ ěže slyšašę i viděšę ěkože glagolano bŭistĭ kĭ nimŭ |

  • mariě -- proper noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Marĭja> Maria, Mary -- Mary
  • že -- conjunction; <že> and, but -- but
  • vĭsę -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural masculine of <vĭsĭ> all, every; whole -- all
  • sŭbljudaaše -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <sŭbljudati, -ajǫ, -aješi> protect, keep -- kept... (and pondered them)
  • glagoly -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <glagolŭ> word, speech -- things
  • sii -- demonstrative adjective; accusative plural masculine of <> this -- these
  • -- preposition; <> in, into -- in
  • srĭdĭci -- noun, neuter; locative singular of <srĭdĭcĭ> heart -- heart
  • svoemŭ -- possessive adjective; locative singular neuter of <svoi, svoe, svoja> own, one's own -- her
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • vŭzvratišę sę -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <vŭzvratiti, -štǫ, -tiši> give back; (refl.) come back -- returned
  • pastyri -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <pastŭir'ĭ> shepherd -- the shepherds
  • slavęšte -- verb; present active participle; nominative plural masculine of <slaviti, -vl'jǫ, -viši> glorify -- glorifying
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • xvalęšte -- verb; present active participle; nominative plural masculine of <xvaliti, -l'jǫ, -liši> praise -- praising
  • boga -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <bogŭ> god -- God
  • o -- preposition; <o> around, concerning; against -- for
  • v'sěxŭ -- adjective used as substantive; genitive plural neuter of <vĭsĭ> all, every; whole -- all the things
  • ěže -- relative pronoun; accusative plural neuter of <iže> who, which -- that
  • slyšašę -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <slyšati, -šǫ, -šiši> hear -- they had heard
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • viděšę -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <viděti, viždǫ, vidiši> see -- seen
  • ěkože -- conjunction; <jakože> as, like, than, so as to -- as
  • glagolano -- verb; past passive participle; nominative singular neuter of <glagolati, -l'jǫ, -l'ješi> say, speak -- told
  • bŭistĭ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <byti, bǫdǫ, bǫdeši> be, become -- it was
  • -- preposition; <> to, for -- unto
  • nimŭ -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <*i> he -- them

Lesson Text

měsęca dekębr'ja ig vŭ navečerije roždĭstva xrĭstova evang'elije otŭ luky glava v vŭ ono vrěmę izide zapovědĭ otŭ kesarě avgosta napisati v'sǫ vĭselenǫjǫ | se napisanie prŭvoe bystŭ vladǫštu suriejǫ i küriniejǫ | i iděaxǫ vĭsi napisatŭ sę kĭždo vŭ svoi gradŭ | vĭzide že iosifĭ otŭ galileę i grada nazaretĭska vĭ ijudejǫ vĭ gradŭ davydovŭ iže naricaetŭ sę viθleemĭ zane běaše otŭ domu i otĭčĭstviě davydova | napisatŭ sę sŭ mariejǫ obrǫčenǫjǫ emu ženojǫ sǫštejǫ neprazdŭnojǫ | bystŭ že egda byste tu isplŭnišę sę denie da roditŭ | i rodi synŭ svoi prŭvěnecĭ i obity i i položi i vŭ ěslexŭ zane ne bě ima města vŭ obitěli | i pastŭiri běaxǫ vŭ toižde st'raně bŭdęšte i strěgǫšte stražǫ noštĭnǫjǫ o stadě svoemŭ | i se ang'elŭ gospodĭnĭ sta vĭ nixŭ i slava gospodĭně osiě ę i uboěšę sę st'raxomŭ veliemŭ | i reče imŭ ang'elŭ ne boite sę se bo blagověštajǫ vamŭ radostĭ velijǫ ěže bǫdet bĭsěmĭ ljudemŭ | ěko rodi sę vamŭ sŭpasŭ iže estŭ xristŭ gospodĭ vŭ gradě davydově | i se vamŭ z'namenie obręstete mladĭnecĭ povitŭ i ležęštĭ vĭ ěslexŭ | i vŭnezaapǫ bystŭ sŭ angělomŭ m'nožĭstvo voi nebesnyix xvalęštiixŭ boga i glagoljǫštĭ | sla vŭ vyšniix bogu i na zemi mirŭ vŭ člověcěxŭ blagovolenie | i bystŭ ěko otidǫ otĭ nixŭ ang'eli na nebo i člověci pastŭiri rěšę drugĭ kĭ drugu prěiděmŭ ubo do viθleoma i vidimŭ glagolĭ sĭ byvĭšii egože gospodĭ sŭkaza nam | i prěidǫ pod'vigĭše sę i obrětǫ marijǫ i iosifa i mladĭnecĭ ležęštĭ vĭ ěslexŭ | viděvŭše že sĭkazašę o glagolě glagolaněmĭ o otročęti semŭ | i vŭsi slyšavŭše divišę sę o glagolanyixŭ otŭ pastŭirĭ kĭ nimŭ | mariě že vĭsę sŭbljudaaše glagoly sii vŭ srĭdĭci svoemŭ | i vŭzvratišę sę pastyri slavęšte i xvalęšte boga o v'sěxŭ ěže slyšašę i viděšę ěkože glagolano bŭistĭ kĭ nimŭ |

Translation

24th of the month December, on the eve of the birth of Christ. Gospel according to Luke, 2nd chapter:
(1) And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed. (2) (And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria.) (3) And all went up to be taxed, every one in his own city. (4) And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judaea, unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem; (because he was of the house and lineage of David:) (5) To be taxed with Mary his espoused wife, being great with child. (6) And so it was, that, while they were there, the days were accomplished that she should be delivered. (7) And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger; because there was no room for them in the inn. (8) And there were in the same country shepherds abiding in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night. (9) And, lo, the angel of the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone round about them: and they were sore afraid. (10) And the angel said unto them, Fear not: for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people. (11) For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Savior, which is Christ the Lord. (12) And this shall be a sign unto you: Ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger. (13) And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God, and saying, (14) Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men. (15) And it came to pass, as the angels were gone away from them into heaven, the shepherds said one to another, Let us now go even unto Bethlehem, and see this thing which is come to pass, which the Lord hath made known unto us. (16) And they came with haste, and found Mary, and Joseph, and the babe lying in a manger. (17) And when they had seen it, they made known abroad the saying which was told them concerning this child. (18) And all they that heard it wondered at those things which were told them by the shepherds. (19) But Mary kept all these things, and pondered them in her heart. (20) And the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all the things that they had heard and seen, as it was told unto them.

Grammar

31. Past Participles
31.1. Past Participle Active

There are two types of past active participle in OCS. One of these, the resultative or l-participle, has been discussed in Section 18. This section discusses what most grammars term the past active participle.

The past active participle is formed by attaching the suffix -ŭš- or -vŭš- to the stem of the verb. To this suffix are added the endings of the soft twofold nominal (cf. Section 12) or compound (cf. Section 17) adjectives, with special forms of the nominative and accusative. The ending -ŭš- is suffixed to verbal stems ending in -i or a consonant -- in this situation, -j and -ov- do not count as consonants. -- verbs which drop the -- also take the suffix -ŭš-. All other stems, i.e. -ov, -j, -, -ě, -a, take the suffix -vŭš-.

Before -ŭš-, -i becomes -j, with accompanying palatalization of the preceding consonant and fronting of the following -ŭ- to -ĭ-. prositi, prošǫ, prosiši 'ask' furnishes an example: the nominative singular feminine form is pros-i+ŭš+i > prosj-ĭši > prošĭši 'having asked'. Before -vŭš-, final -j is deleted and -ov- becomes -u. dělati, dělajǫ, dělaješi 'do' has the stem dělaj-, so that the nominative singular feminine is dělaj+vŭš+i > děla-vŭši > dělavŭši 'having done'. Similarly, otŭpluti, -plovǫ, -ploveši 'sail away' has otŭplov+vŭš+i > otŭplu-vŭši > otŭpluvŭši 'having sailed away'.

Verbs whose stem ends in -i occasionally have alternate forms with the suffix -vŭš-. For example, moliti, mol'jǫ, mol'ješi 'beg' shows the forms mol'ĭši and molivŭši. The nominative singular masculine and neuter ending is zero, so that OCS deletion of final consonants gives -ŭ, -ĭ (in front environments), or -.

In terms of the conjugational classifications of these lessons, the suffixes -ŭš- and -vŭš- are added to the infinitive stem of the verb. The suffix -ŭš- is appended to hard stems ending in a consonant; -vŭš- is added to hard stems ending in a vowel. Verbs of conjugation II drop the -- / -ne- suffix before forming the past active participle. Verbs of conjugation IV take the suffix -ĭš-; in later texts they appear with -ivŭš-.

The verb nesti, nesǫ, neseši 'carry' illustrates the declension of the past active participle. The short forms are as follows.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
N V Sg.   nesŭ   nesŭ   nesŭši
A   nesŭšĭ   nesŭše   nesŭšǫ
G   nesŭša   nesŭša   nesŭšę
L   nesŭši   nesŭši   nesŭši
D   nesŭšu   nesŭšu   nesŭši
I   nesŭšemĭ   nesŭšemĭ   nesŭšejǫ
             
N A V Du.   nesŭša   nesŭši   nesŭši
G L   nesŭšu   nesŭšu   nesŭšu
D I   nesŭšema   nesŭšema   nesŭšama
             
N V Pl.   nesŭše   nesŭša   nesŭšę
A   nesŭšę   nesŭša   nesŭšę
G   nesŭšĭ   nesŭšĭ   nesŭšĭ
L   nesŭšixŭ   nesŭšixŭ   nesŭšixŭ
D   nesŭšemŭ   nesŭšemŭ   nesŭšamŭ
I   nesŭši   nesŭši   nesŭšami

The long forms are given below.

    Masculine   Neuter   Feminine
N V Sg.   nesŭšyi   nesŭšeje   nesŭšija
A   nesŭšĭi   nesŭšeje   nesŭšǫjǫ
G   nesŭšajego   nesŭšajego   nesŭšęję
L   nesŭšiimŭ   nesŭšiimĭ   nesŭšii
D   nesŭšujemu   nesŭšujemu   nesŭšii
I   nesŭšiimĭ   nesŭšiimĭ   nesŭšejǫ
             
N A V Du.   nesŭšaja   nesŭšii   nesŭšii
G L   nesŭšuju   nesŭšuju   nesŭšuju
D I   nesŭšiima   nesŭšiima   nesŭšiima
             
N V Pl.   nesŭšei   nesŭšaja   nesŭšęję
A   nesŭšęję   nesŭšaja   nesŭšęję
G   nesŭšiixŭ   nesŭšiixŭ   nesŭšiixŭ
L   nesŭšiixŭ   nesŭšiixŭ   nesŭšiixŭ
D   nesŭšiimŭ   nesŭšiimŭ   nesŭšiimŭ
I   nesŭšiimi   nesŭšiimi   nesŭšiimi

There are assimilated forms, e.g. feminine I sg. nesǫjǫ and masculine G sg. nesaago, and contracted forms, e.g. masculine G sg. nesago. The masculine and neuter N sg. form for participles in -ĭ is -ĭi, where the tense jer sometimes gives -ii. In the oblique cases, all the same endings are attached to the suffix -ĭš-.

31.2. Past Participle Passive

The past passive participle is formed by means of the suffixes - (cf. English (finely) wrought), -, or -enŭ (cf. English eaten). The suffixes are added to the infinitve stem and declined as twofold short or long adjectives.

The - suffix is used only in a restricted class of verbs. Verbs with present stem ending in -ĭ + nasal employ this suffix. It is added to the infinitive stem, which ends in -ę. Thus ęti, imǫ, imeši 'take' (present stem ĭm-) forms ętŭ 'taken'; pęti, pĭnǫ, pĭneši 'stretch' forms pętŭ 'stretched'.

Other verbs with different stems form the past passive participle by means of -: izvěděti, -věmĭ, -věsi 'know' forms izvěstŭ 'known'; otŭvrěsti, -vrŭzǫ, -vrŭzeši 'open' forms otŭvrĭstŭ 'opened'.

The - suffix is used for verbs whose present stems end in -a, -aj, -ě, -ěj. These lose the final -j in the infinitive stem, to which the suffix is added. For example, sějati, sějǫ, sěješi 'sow' yields sějanŭ 'sown'; razuměti, -mějǫ, -měješi 'understand' forms razuměnŭ 'understood'.

All other stems form the past passive participle by means of the -enŭ suffix. This includes verbs whose stems end in consonants, in particular -- verbs which drop this suffix in the past tense: dvignǫti, dvignǫ, dvigneši 'move' yields dviženŭ 'moved'. Verbs which retain the -- suffix in the past tense form the participle in -nov-enŭ, e.g. otŭrinǫti, -rinǫ, -rineši yields otŭrinovenŭ. This intervening -v- is also found in the participles of roots ending in a back vowel followed by -j, e.g. krŭvenŭ 'covered' from kryti, kryjǫ, kryješi 'cover'. In this situation, -yj- is the tense reflex of -ŭj-. In some instances stem-final -i yields -j, which produces palatalization: prositi, prošǫ, prosiši 'beg' gives prošenŭ.

Some verbs form participles by means of both the nasal suffix and the mute suffix. For example, biti, bĭjǫ, bĭješi 'beat' has participles bitŭ and bĭjenŭ 'beaten'. sěti, sějǫ, sěješi 'sow' shows prefixed participles osětŭ and osěnŭ 'sown'. Some verbs with root-final -l show formations with both - and -enŭ, e.g. klati, kol'jǫ, kol'ješi 'stab' forms both klanŭ and kolenŭ.

32. Present Participle Passive

The present passive participle is formed from the present tense stem by the addition of the endings -imŭ, -emŭ, or -omŭ. These are declined as twofold short or long adjectives. Verbs whose present tense stems end in -i take the ending -imŭ. Other soft stems take the ending -emŭ. The remaining consonant stems and -- verbs take the ending -omŭ. The following are examples according to declension.

Conjugation   Verb   Participle   Translation
I   nesti, nesǫ, neseši   nesomŭ   'being carried'
II   dvignǫti, -, -neši   dvigomŭ   'being moved'
III   znati, znajǫ, znaješi   znajemŭ   'being known'
IV   moliti, mol'jǫ, mol'ješi   molimŭ   'being asked'
V   dati, damĭ, dasi   dadomŭ   'being given'

The verb viděti, viždǫ, vidiši 'see', being originally athematic, forms the participle vidomŭ alongside the expected vidimŭ. Similarly, alkati (lakati), alčǫ (lačǫ), alčeši (lačeši) 'hunger' has the participle lakomŭ.

The present passive participle may be used with forms of the verb 'be' to create a periphrastic passive voice, e.g. nesomŭ jesmĭ 'I am being carried', nesomi byxomŭ 'we were being carried'.

33. Second Conjugation

The verbs of the second declension display the affix -ne- between root and ending. The affix -- appears in the infinitive. Preceding the affix may be either a stem-final consonant or stem-final vowel. Some roots drop the affix in certain verbal forms. For example, dvignǫti, dvignǫ, dvigneši 'move' forms the aorist dvigŭ directly from the root, while minǫti, minǫ, mineši 'pass by' retains the affix -- in the aorist minǫxŭ.

The conjugation is illustrated by the verbs dvignǫti, -, -neši 'move'; stati, stanǫ, staneši 'stand'; rinǫti, rinǫ, rineši push'; minǫti, -, -neši 'pass by'. Many forms are unattested. The verb drŭznǫti, drŭznǫ, drŭzneši 'dare' supplies some forms where they are lacking in the other paradigm verbs.

Present   dvig-ne-   sta-ne-   ri-ne-   mi-ne-
                 
1st Sg.   dvignǫ   stanǫ   rinǫ   minǫ
2nd   dvigneši   staneši   rineši   mineši
3rd   dvignetŭ   stanetŭ   rinetŭ   minetŭ
                 
1st Du.   dvignevě   stanevě   rinevě   minevě
2nd   dvigneta   staneta   rineta   mineta
3rd   dvignete   stanete   rinete   minete
                 
1st Pl.   dvignemŭ   stanemŭ   rinemŭ   minemŭ
2nd   dvignete   stanete   rinete   minete
3rd   dvignǫtŭ   stanǫtŭ   rinǫtŭ   minǫtŭ
                 
Imperative                
1st Sg.   -   -   -   -
2nd   dvigni   stani   rini   mini
3rd   dvigni   stani   rini   mini
                 
1st Du.   dvigněvě   staněvě   riněvě   miněvě
2nd   dvigněta   staněta   riněta   miněta
3rd   -   -   -   -
                 
1st Pl.   dvigněmŭ   staněmŭ   riněmŭ   miněmŭ
2nd   dvigněte   staněte   riněte   miněte
3rd   -   -   -   -
                 
Pres. Act. Part.                
Masc/Neut. N   dvigny   stany   riny   miny
Fem. N   dvignǫšti   stanǫšti   rinǫšti   minǫšti
                 
Pres. Pass. Part.                
Masc. N   dvignomŭ   -   rinomŭ   minomŭ
                 
Imperfect                
1st Sg.   dvigněaxŭ   o-staněaxŭ   riněaxŭ   miněaxŭ
2nd   dvigněaše   o-staněaše   riněaše   miněaše
3rd   dvigněaše   o-staněaše   riněaše   miněaše
                 
1st Du.   dvigněaxově   o-staněaxově   riněaxově   miněaxově
2nd   dvigněašeta   o-staněašeta   riněašeta   miněašeta
3rd   dvigněašete   o-staněašete   riněašete   miněašete
                 
1st Pl.   dvigněaxomŭ   o-staněaxomŭ   riněaxomŭ   miněaxomŭ
2nd   dvigněašete   o-staněašete   riněašete   miněašete
3rd   dvigněaxǫ   o-staněaxǫ   riněaxǫ   miněaxǫ
                 
Asigmatic Aorist                
1st Sg.   dvigŭ   *stanŭ   -   -
2nd   dviže   sta   -   -
3rd   dviže   sta   -   -
                 
1st Du.   dvigově   *stanově   -   -
2nd   dvižeta   *staneta   -   -
3rd   dvižete   *stanete   -   -
                 
1st Pl.   dvigomŭ   *stanomŭ   -   -
2nd   dvižete   *stanete   -   -
3rd   dvigǫ   *stanǫ   -   -
                 
New Aorist                
1st Sg.   dvigoxŭ   drŭznǫxŭ   rinǫxŭ   minǫxŭ
2nd   dviže   drŭznǫ   rinǫ   minǫ
3rd   dviže   drŭznǫ   rinǫ   minǫ
                 
1st Du.   dvigoxově   drŭznǫxově   rinǫxově   minǫxově
2nd   dvigosta   drŭznǫsta   rinǫsta   minǫsta
3rd   dvigoste   drŭznǫste   rinǫste   minǫste
                 
1st Pl.   dvigoxomŭ   drŭznǫxomŭ   rinǫxomŭ   minǫxomŭ
2nd   dvigoste   drŭznǫste   rinǫste   minǫste
3rd   dvigošę   drŭznǫšę   rinǫšę   minǫšę
                 
Past Act. Part.                
Masc/Neut. N   dvigŭ   drŭznǫvŭ   rinǫvŭ   minǫvŭ
Fem. N   dvigŭši   drŭznǫvŭši   rinǫvŭši   minǫvŭši
                 
Resultative Part.                
Masc. N   dviglŭ   stalŭ   rinǫlŭ   minǫlŭ
                 
Past Pass. Part.                
Masc. N   dviženŭ   drŭznovenŭ   rinovenŭ   minovenŭ
                 
Infinitive   dvignǫti   stati   rinǫti   minǫti
                 
Supine   dvignǫtŭ   statŭ   rinǫtŭ   minǫtŭ
                 
Verbal Noun   dviženĭje   -stanĭje   rinovenĭje   minovenĭje

The third person plural, sigmatic aorist form -stanǫšę occurs for the verb stati 'stand'. The -- affix, originally dropped in the aorist and past participle forms, seems to have been reintroduced for some verbs by analogy with the present system.

34. Genitive Case

The genitive case has several uses. It may be the complement of both verbs and substantives.

The genitive is often used as the complement of certain verbs in a manner akin to a direct object. For example, viděti 'see' may take an object in either the accusative or genitive, while zŭrěti 'see' typically takes the genitive. alkati 'hunger (for)', žŭdati 'await', vŭsprositi 'beg', and naplĭniti 'fill (with)' are examples of other verbs which regularly take the genitive. Some verbs normally taking an accusative object may take a genitive denoting a part of a whole. An example is vŭkusiti 'taste': jako že vŭkusi arxitriklinŭ vina byvŭšaego otŭ vody 'and when the ruler tasted (some of) the wine made from water'. The genitive is used also by some verbs representing separation from or lack of something, e.g. izbaviti 'rid (of)', svoboditi 'free (from)', plakati 'mourn (over)'.

The use of the genitive with a negated copula or negated transitive verb has been discussed in Section 15.

The genitive is the usual complement of the supine: pride ... vidětŭ groba 'she came for the seeing of the tomb', 'she came to see the tomb'.

The genitive may also be the complement of a substantive, with a wide variety of meanings. These all serve to somehow delimit the range of the substantive, whether by mere possession, by quantity, or by quality. Take the follwoing examples: duxŭ otĭca vašaego 'spirit of your father'; člověkŭ edinŭ dobra roda 'a certain man of a good family'; dŭšti dŭvoju na desęte lětu 'daughter of twelve years', 'twelve-year-old daughter'; sedmĭ košĭnicĭ 'seven (of) baskets'. The following are examples where a substantive and genitive construction is used to denote part of a whole: kŭto ixŭ 'who of them', 'who among them'; koliko xlěbŭ 'how much of bread', 'how many (loaves) of bread'; malo ixŭ estŭ 'there are few of them'.

Some adjectives take a genitive complement: sŭsǫdŭ ... plĭnŭ ocĭta 'a vessel full of vinegar'. The comparative adjectives and adverbs use the genitive to denote the reference of comparison: este lucĭši pŭticĭ 'you are better than birds'; teče skorěe petra 'he ran faster than Peter'.

35. Passive Voice, , and Reflexive Verbs
35.1. Passive Voice

The passive voice is represented morphologically only in the present passive and past passive participles. Their formation is discussed in Sections 31 and 32 above. These participles may be used with forms of byti 'be' to form periphrastic passive constructions. For example nesomŭ jesmĭ 'I am being carried' represents a present passive construction, while prědanŭ bǫdetŭ 'He will be betrayed' represents a future passive.

35.2. and Reflexive Verbs

in its basic role represents the accusative form of the reflexive pronoun, e.g. javl'jǫ emu samŭ 'I will manifest myself to him'. In the presence of negation, this reflexive may be substituted by the genitive form sebe. Likewise, used as a personal or animate object may be replaced by the genitive sebe, cf. Section 15. An example of this is vy este opravĭdajǫštei sebe 'you are the ones justifying yourselves'.

A related but more common usage of is with verbs to denote not a definite object but rather a shift from transitivity to intransitivity. in this role occupies the place of an accusative without expressing an explicit object, and in this function is not substituted by sebe. It typically either follows the verb or the first accented word of its clause. For example, ašte bi ne rodilŭ 'if he had not been born'; uněe estŭ ne ženiti 'it is better not to marry'. Some verbs acquire a different shade of meaning with , e.g. klęti 'curse', but klęti sę 'swear, take an oath'. Other verbs never occur without , like bojati sę 'fear'.

Inasmuch as makes transitive verbs intransitive, it often serves to mark passive meaning. This interpretation is borne out by variant translations in the different manuscripts, one having a reflexive form, another a morphological passive: Zographensis has synŭ člověčĭskŭi prědastŭ sę, while Marianus has ...prědanŭ bǫdetŭ 'the Son of Man will be betrayed'.