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Old Church Slavonic Online

Lesson 9

Todd B. Krause and Jonathan Slocum

One popular type of eccesiastical literature was the Saint's Life. This was a story focusing on the life of a particular saint, giving biographical information useful for presenting an example of the righteous manner of living. Such Lives are often found in what is termed a menology, a collection of Saints' Lives and homilies appropriate for celebration of Church festivals.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Among the earliest of the Saints' Lives is that of Good King Wencelaus. This text is of paramount importance for two major reasons. Firstly, at a cultural level this text shows the emergence of a true Slavonic spiritual identity. No longer is the ecclesiastical corpus relegated to stories from neighboring cultures. With the story of Wencelaus, who is both king and saint, the Slavonic culture asserts its legitimacy in contradistinction to the territorial influence of both the Holy Roman Empire and Byzantium. Second, on a linguistic level the native Slavic subject matter ensures that there is no Greek or Latin original to be sought. The linguist may therefore use this as a starting point to assess native OCS syntax. Syntactical studies are on shaky ground when taking Gospel translations as source material; these have a tendency to follow Greek syntax exceptionally closely. However, the story of Good King Wencelaus provides a sample of natively-generated narrative, and is therefore a useful benchmark by which to test conceptions of OCS syntax.

Below is an extract from the beginning of the Life of Good King Wenceslaus.

se nynje' su'bystu' se^ prorotchi'skoje slovo, jezhe glagola samu' gospodi' nashi' Isusu' Khri'stu' |

  • se -- interjection; <se> lo, behold -- behold
  • nynje' -- adverb; <nynje'> now -- now
  • su'bystu' se^ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist reflexive of <su'byti, -bo^do^, -bo^deshi> come about, happen -- was fulfilled
  • prorotchi'skoje -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of <prorotchi'sku'> prophetic -- prophetic
  • slovo -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <slovo> word -- word
  • jezhe -- relative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <izhe> who, which -- which
  • glagola -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <glagolati, -l'jo^, -l'jeshi> say, speak -- spoke
  • samu' -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <samu'> self, oneself -- himself
  • gospodi' -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <gospodi'> lord, master -- Lord
  • nashi' -- possessive adjective; nominative singular masculine of <nashi'> our, of us -- our
  • Isusu' -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Iisusu'> Jesus -- Jesus
  • Khri'stu' -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Khri'stu'> Christ -- Christ

Bo^detu' bo, retche, vu' poslje'di'n'je^je^ di'ni, je^zhe mi'nimu' nynje' so^shte^, vu'stanetu' bratru' na bratra svojego i synu' na oti'tsi' svoi, vradzi tchlovje'ku domashi jego |

  • bo^detu' -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <byti, bo^do^, bo^deshi> be, become -- it will happen
  • bo -- conjunction; <bo> for -- for
  • retche -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <reshti, reko^, retcheshi> say, tell -- he said
  • vu' -- preposition; <vu'> in, into -- in
  • poslje'di'n'je^je^ -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <poslje'di'ni'> last, following, latter -- the final
  • di'ni -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <di'ni'> day -- days
  • je^zhe -- relative pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <izhe> who, which -- which
  • mi'nimu' -- verb; 1st person plural present of <mi'nje'ti, mi'njo^, mi'nishi> believe, think -- we believe
  • nynje' -- adverb; <nynje'> now -- now
  • so^shte^ -- verb; present active participle; accusative plural masculine of <jes-, jesmi', jesi> be -- to be
  • vu'stanetu' -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <vu'stati, -stano^, -staneshi> stand up, break out -- shall rise
  • bratru' -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <bratru', bratu'> brother -- brother
  • na -- preposition; <na> in, on; at, against; for -- against
  • bratra -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <bratru', bratu'> brother -- brother
  • svojego -- reflexive adjective; genitive singular masculine of <svoi, svoe, svoja> own, one's own -- his own
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • synu' -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <synu'> son -- son
  • na -- preposition; <na> in, on; at, against; for -- against
  • oti'tsi' -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <oti'tsi'> father -- father
  • svoi -- reflexive adjective; accusative singular masculine of <svoi, svoe, svoja> own, one's own -- his
  • vradzi -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <vragu'> enemy -- foes
  • tchlovje'ku -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <tchlovje'ku'> man, human -- a man's
  • domashi -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <domashi'ni'> belonging to the household, domestic -- (shall be) they of... own household # #cf. Matt. 10:36
  • jego -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <*i> he -- his

Tchlovje'tsi bo sebje' bo^do^tu' nemili, i vu'zdastu' imu' Bogu' po dje'lomu' ikhu' |

  • tchlovje'tsi -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <tchlovje'ku'> man, human -- men
  • bo -- conjunction; <bo> for -- for
  • sebje' -- reflexive pronoun; dative singular of <sebe> self -- to one another
  • bo^do^tu' -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <byti, bo^do^, bo^deshi> be, become -- will be
  • nemili -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <nemilu'> unpitying -- unpitying
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • vu'zdastu' -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <vu'zdati, -dami', -dasi> give back, give out, dispense -- will dispense
  • imu' -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <*i> he -- ...
  • Bogu' -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <bogu'> god -- God
  • po -- preposition; <po> after; according to -- according to
  • dje'lomu' -- noun, neuter; dative plural of <dje'lo> work, doing, deed -- deeds
  • ikhu' -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <*i> he -- their

Bystu' zhe ku'ne^dzi' eteru' vu' Tchesje'khu' imeni'mi' Bratislavu', zhena zhe jego naritsajema Dragomira |

  • bystu' -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <byti, bo^do^, bo^deshi> be, become -- there was
  • zhe -- conjunction; <zhe> and, but -- but
  • ku'ne^dzi' -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ku'ne^dzi'> prince -- prince
  • eteru' -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <eteru'> one, a certain -- a certain
  • vu' -- preposition; <vu'> in, into -- in
  • Tchesje'khu' -- proper noun, masculine; locative plural of <Tchesi> (plural) Czech Lands, Bohemia -- the Czech Lands
  • imeni'mi' -- noun, neuter; instrumental singular of <ime^> name -- by name
  • Bratislavu' -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bratislavu'> Bratislav -- Bratislav
  • zhena -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <zhena> woman, wife -- wife
  • zhe -- conjunction; <zhe> and, but -- and
  • jego -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <*i> he -- his
  • naritsajema -- verb; present passive participle; nominative singular feminine of <naritsati, -tsajo^, -tsajeshi> call, name -- (was) called
  • Dragomira -- proper noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Dragomira> Dragomira -- Dragomira

I rozhdi'sha synu' svoi pri'vje'ni'tsi' i kri'stiste i i narje'ste ime^ jemu Ve^shteslavu' |

  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • rozhdi'sha -- verb; past active participle; nominative dual masculine of <roditi, -zhdo^, -dishi> bear, produce -- having produced
  • synu' -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <synu'> son -- son
  • svoi -- possessive adjective; accusative singular masculine of <svoi, svoe, svoja> own, one's own -- their
  • pri'vje'ni'tsi' -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <pri'vje'ni'tsi'> first-born -- first-born
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- ...
  • kri'stiste -- verb; 3rd person dual aorist of <kri'stiti, -shto^, -stishi> christen, baptize -- they christened
  • i -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <*i> he -- him
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • narje'ste -- verb; 3rd person dual aorist of <nareshti, -reko^, -retcheshi> call, name -- gave
  • ime^ -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <ime^> name -- the name
  • jemu -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*i> he -- him
  • Ve^shteslavu' -- proper noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Ve^shteslavu'> Venceslav, Wenceslaus -- Venceslav

Vu'zdrastu'shu zhe jemu jako postrishti i, prizu'va Bratislavu', oti'tsi' jego, na postrizheni'je biskupa etera, imeni'mi' Notara, i si' kliriky jego |

  • vu'zdrastu'shu -- verb; past active participle; dative singular masculine of <vu'zdrastiti, -shto^, -stishi> grow, increase -- as... grew (so big)
  • zhe -- conjunction; <zhe> and, but -- and
  • jemu -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*i> he -- he
  • jako -- conjunction; <jako> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- as
  • postrishti -- verb; infinitive of <postrishti, -strigo^, -strizheshi> tonsure -- to tonsure
  • i -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <*i> he -- him
  • prizu'va -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <prizu'vati, -zovo^, -zoveshi> call, summon -- invited
  • Bratislavu' -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bratislavu'> Bratislav -- Bratislav
  • oti'tsi' -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <oti'tsi'> father -- father
  • jego -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <*i> he -- his
  • na -- preposition; <na> in, on; at, against; for -- to
  • postrizheni'je -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <postrizheni'je> tonsure, a tonsuring, cutting -- tonsure
  • biskupa -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <biskupu'> bishop -- bishop
  • etera -- adjective; genitive singular masculine of <eteru'> one, a certain -- a certain
  • imeni'mi' -- noun, neuter; instrumental singular of <ime^> name -- by name
  • Notara -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Notari'> Notarius, Notar -- Notar
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • si' -- preposition; <su'> with -- with (him)
  • kliriky -- noun, masculine; instrumental plural of <kliriku'> cleric, priest -- clerics # #this is the actual object of the preposition su'
  • jego -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <*i> he -- his

Vu'spje'vu'shemu' zhe imu' mi'sho^ jemu vu' tsri'ku'vi sve^tyje^ Mari'je^, vu'zi'mu' biskupu' otroka, postavi i na krilje' stepeni'nje'jemi' prje'du' oltar'emi' i blagoslovi i reky |

  • vu'spje'vu'shemu' -- verb; past active participle; dative plural masculine of <vu'spje'vati, -vajo^, -vaje'shi> celebrate, praise -- when... celebrated
  • zhe -- conjunction; <zhe> and, but -- and
  • imu' -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <*i> he -- they
  • mi'sho^ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <mi'sha> (holy) mass -- the mass
  • jemu -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <*i> he -- for him
  • vu' -- preposition; <vu'> in, into -- in
  • tsri'ku'vi -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <tsri'ky> church, temple -- the Church
  • sve^tyje^ -- adjective; genitive singular feminine of <sve^tu'> holy, blessed -- of the Holy
  • Mari'je^ -- proper noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Mari'ja> Maria, Mary -- Maria
  • vu'zi'mu' -- verb; past active participle; nominative singular masculine of <vu'zi'mati, -eml'jo^, -eml'jeshi> take, take up -- took up
  • biskupu' -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <biskupu'> bishop -- the bishop
  • otroka -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <otroku'> boy, servant -- the boy
  • postavi -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <postaviti, -vl'jo^, -vishi> establish, place, set -- placed
  • i -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <*i> he -- him
  • na -- preposition; <na> in, on; at, against; for -- on
  • krilje' -- noun, neuter; locative singular of <krilo> wing; pinnacle -- the top
  • stepeni'nje'jemi' -- adjective; locative singular neuter of <stepeni'nu'> of a step, grade, level -- step
  • prje'du' -- preposition; <prje'du'> before, in front of -- before
  • oltar'emi' -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <olu'tari'> altar -- the altar
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • blagoslovi -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <blagosloviti, -vljo^, -vishi> bless -- blessed
  • i -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <*i> he -- him
  • reky -- verb; present active participle; nominative singular masculine of <reshti, reko^, retcheshi> say, tell -- saying

Gospodi Bozhe, Isu Khri'ste, blagoslovi otroka sego, jakozhe blagoslovilu' jesi vi'se^ pravi'di'niky tvoje^ |

  • gospodi -- noun, masculine; vocative singular of <gospodi'> lord, master -- Lord
  • Bozhe -- noun, masculine; vocative singular of <bogu'> god -- God
  • Isu -- proper noun, masculine; vocative singular of <Iisusu'> Jesus -- Jesus
  • Khri'ste -- proper noun, masculine; vocative singular of <Khri'stu'> Christ -- Christ
  • blagoslovi -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative of <blagosloviti, -vljo^, -vishi> bless -- bless
  • otroka -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <otroku'> boy, servant -- boy
  • sego -- demonstrative adjective; genitive singular masculine of <si'> this -- this
  • jakozhe -- conjunction; <jakozhe> as, like, than, so as to -- as
  • blagoslovilu' -- verb; past active participle; nominative singular masculine of <blagosloviti, -vljo^, -vishi> bless -- blessed
  • jesi -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <jes-, jesmi', jesi> be -- you have
  • vi'se^ -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <vi'si'> all, every; whole -- all
  • pravi'di'niky -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <pravi'di'niku'> just person -- who are just
  • tvoje^ -- possessive adjective; accusative plural masculine of <tvoi> your, thy -- yours

Sitse zhe su' blagoslovl'eni'jemi' postrizhenu' bystu' |

  • sitse -- adverb; <sitse> thus, so -- so
  • zhe -- conjunction; <zhe> and, but -- and
  • su' -- preposition; <su'> with -- with
  • blagoslovl'eni'jemi' -- noun, neuter; instrumental singular of <blagoslovl'eni'je> blessing -- a blessing
  • postrizhenu' -- verb; past passive participle; nominative singular masculine of <postrishti, -strigo^, -strizheshi> tonsure -- tonsured
  • bystu' -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <byti, bo^do^, bo^deshi> be, become -- he was

Tje'mi'zhe mi'nimu', jako blagoslovl'eni'jemi' biskupa togo pravi'di'najego i molitvami jego natche^tu' otroku' rasti, blagodje'ti'jo^ bozhi'jejo^ khranimu' |

  • tje'mi'zhe -- conjunction; <tje'mi'zhe> thereby, therefore, through this -- and by this
  • mi'nimu' -- verb; 1st person plural present of <mi'nje'ti, mi'njo^, mi'nishi> believe, think -- we believe
  • jako -- conjunction; <jako> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- that
  • blagoslovl'eni'jemi' -- noun, neuter; instrumental singular of <blagoslovl'eni'je> blessing -- with the blessing
  • biskupa -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <biskupu'> bishop -- bishop
  • togo -- demonstrative adjective; genitive singular masculine of <tu'> that, that one -- of that
  • pravi'di'najego -- adjective; genitive singular masculine of <pravi'di'nu'> just, righteous -- just
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • molitvami -- noun, feminine; instrumental plural of <molitva> prayer -- by... prayers
  • jego -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <*i> he -- his
  • natche^tu' -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <natche^ti, -tchi'no^, -tchieshi> begin -- began
  • otroku' -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <otroku'> boy, servant -- the boy
  • rasti -- verb; infinitive of <rasti, rasto^, rasteshi> grow -- to grow
  • blagodje'ti'jo^ -- noun, feminine; instrumental singular of <blagodje'ti'> gift, grace, joy -- grace
  • bozhi'jejo^ -- adjective; instrumental singular feminine of <bozhi'i> divine, of god, god's -- by God's
  • khranimu' -- verb; present passive participle; nominative singular masculine of <khraniti, -no^, -nishi> protect, guard -- protected

Navytche zhe ku'nigy slovje'ni'skyje^ i latini'skyje^ dobrje' |

  • navytche -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <navykno^ti, -no^, -neshi> learn -- he learned
  • zhe -- conjunction; <zhe> and, but -- ...
  • ku'nigy -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <ku'niga> letter, writing -- letters
  • slovje'ni'skyje^ -- adjective; accusative plural feminine of <slovje'ni'sku'> Slavonic, Slavic -- the Slavonic
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • latini'skyje^ -- adjective; accusative plural feminine of <latini'sku'> Latin, of Latin -- Latin
  • dobrje' -- adverb; <dobrje'> good, well -- well

Umi'ru'shu zhe oti'tsu jego, Bratislavu, postavishe^ Tchesi ku'ne^za Ve^shteslava na stolje' dje'di'n'i |

  • umi'ru'shu -- verb; past active participle; dative singular masculine of <umrje'ti, -ro^, -reshi> die -- when... died
  • zhe -- conjunction; <zhe> and, but -- and
  • oti'tsu -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <oti'tsi'> father -- father
  • jego -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <*i> he -- his
  • Bratislavu -- proper noun, masculine; dative singular of <Bratislavu'> Bratislav -- Bratislav
  • postavishe^ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <postaviti, -vl'jo^, -vishi> establish, place, set -- established
  • Tchesi -- adjective used as substantive; nominative plural masculine of <Tchekhu'> Czech, Bohemian -- the Czechs
  • ku'ne^za -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ku'ne^zi'> prince -- (as) prince
  • Ve^shteslava -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Ve^shteslavu'> Venceslav, Wenceslaus -- Venceslav
  • na -- preposition; <na> in, on; at, against; for -- upon
  • stolje' -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <stolu'> seat, throne -- throne
  • dje'di'n'i -- adjective; locative singular masculine of <dje'di'ni'> of grandfather, grandfather's -- (his) grandfather's

Boleslavu' zhe, bratru' jego, rastje'ashe podu' n'imi'; bje'ashete zhe oba jeshte mala |

  • Boleslavu' -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Boleslavu'> Boleslav -- Boleslav
  • zhe -- conjunction; <zhe> and, but -- and
  • bratru' -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <bratru', bratu'> brother -- brother
  • jego -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <*i> he -- his
  • rastje'ashe -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <rasti, rasto^, rasteshi> grow -- grew
  • podu' -- preposition; <podu'> under, underneath -- alongside
  • n'imi' -- pronoun; instrumental singular masculine of <*i> he -- him
  • bje'ashete -- verb; 3rd person dual imperfect of <byti, bo^do^, bo^deshi> be, become -- were
  • zhe -- conjunction; <zhe> and, but -- ...
  • oba -- adjective; nominative dual masculine of <oba, obje', obje'> both -- both
  • jeshte -- adverb; <jeshte> yet, still -- still
  • mala -- adjective; nominative dual masculine of <malu'> small, young -- young

Nu' mati jeju Dragomira utvri'di zeml'jo^, i ljudi stroi, don'i'dezhe vu'zdraste Ve^shteslavu', i vu'zdrastu', natche^ samu' stroiti ljudi svoje^ |

  • nu' -- conjunction; <nu'> but -- but
  • mati -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <mati> mother -- mother
  • jeju -- pronoun; genitive dual masculine of <*i> he -- their
  • Dragomira -- proper noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Dragomira> Dragomira -- Dragomira
  • utvri'di -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <utvri'diti, -zhdo^, -dishi> stabilize, fortify, regulate -- ruled
  • zeml'jo^ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <zeml'ja> earth, land -- the land
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • ljudi -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <ljudu'> people -- the people
  • stroi -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <stroiti, -ojo^, -oishi> prepare, arrange -- administered to
  • don'i'dezhe -- adverb; <don'i'dezhe> while, as long as -- while
  • vu'zdraste -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <vu'zdrasti, -sto^, -steshi> be nourished, grow -- was growing up
  • Ve^shteslavu' -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ve^shteslavu'> Venceslav, Wenceslaus -- Venceslav
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- and
  • vu'zdrastu' -- verb; past passive participle; nominative singular masculine of <vu'zdrasti, -sto^, -steshi> be nourished, grow -- when he was grown
  • natche^ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <natche^ti, -tchi'no^, -tchi'neshi> begin -- he began
  • samu' -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <samu'> self, oneself -- himself
  • stroiti -- verb; infinitive of <stroiti, -ojo^, -oishi> prepare, arrange -- to administer to
  • ljudi -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <ljudu'> people -- people
  • svoje^ -- reflexive adjective; accusative plural masculine of <svoi, svoe, svoja> own, one's own -- his

Blagodje'ti'jo^ zhe bozhi'jejo^ vu' istino^ Ve^shteslavu' ku'ne^zi' ne tu'ku'mo ku'nigy navytche dobrje', nu' i vje'rojo^ su'vri'shenu' bje' |

  • blagodje'ti'jo^ -- noun, feminine; instrumental singular of <blagodje'ti'> gift, grace, joy -- by the grace
  • zhe -- conjunction; <zhe> and, but -- but
  • bozhi'jejo^ -- possessive adjective; instrumental singular feminine of <bozhi'i> divine, of god, god's -- of God
  • vu' -- preposition; <vu'> in, into -- ...
  • istino^ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <istina> truth, reality -- truly
  • Ve^shteslavu' -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ve^shteslavu'> Venceslav, Wenceslaus -- Venceslav
  • ku'ne^zi' -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ku'ne^zi'> prince -- prince
  • ne -- particle; <ne> not -- not
  • tu'ku'mo -- adverb; <tu'ku'mo> only, alone -- only
  • ku'nigy -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <ku'niga> letter, writing -- letters
  • navytche -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <navykno^ti, -no^, -neshi> learn -- learned
  • dobrje' -- adverb; <dobrje'> good, well -- well
  • nu' -- conjunction; <nu'> but -- but
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- also
  • vje'rojo^ -- noun, feminine; instrumental singular of <vje'ra> faith, belief -- by faith
  • su'vri'shenu' -- verb; past passive participle; nominative singular masculine of <su'vri'shiti, -sho^, -shishi> prepare, perfect, complete -- filled
  • bje' -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <byti, bo^do^, bo^deshi> be, become -- was

Vi'sje'mu' zhe nishtiimu' dobra tvorjaashe, nagyje^ odje'vaashe, latcho^shte^je^ pitje'ashe, strani'nyje^ prijeml'jaashe po evang'eli'sku glasu |

  • vi'sje'mu' -- adjective; dative plural masculine of <vi'si'> all, every; whole -- among all
  • zhe -- conjunction; <zhe> and, but -- ...
  • nishtiimu' -- adjective used as substantive; dative plural masculine of <nishti', nishte, nishta> poor, beggarly -- (the) poor
  • dobra -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural neuter of <dobru'> good -- good (deeds)
  • tvorjaashe -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <tvoriti, -rjo^, -rishi> do, make -- he would perform
  • nagyje^ -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural masculine of <nagu'> naked -- the naked
  • odje'vaashe -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <odje'vati, -vajo^, -vajeshi> clothe -- (would) clothe
  • latcho^shte^je^ -- adjective used as substantive, present active participle; accusative plural masculine of <lakati, -tcho^, -tcheshi> hunger, be hungry -- the hungry
  • pitje'ashe -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <pitje'ti, -je'jo^, -je'jeshi> nourish -- (would) nourish
  • strani'nyje^ -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural masculine of <strani'nu'> strange, foreign -- strangers
  • prijeml'jaashe -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <priimati, -jeml'jo^, -jeml'jeshi> take in -- (would) take in
  • po -- preposition; <po> after; according to -- according to
  • evang'eli'sku -- adjective; dative singular masculine of <evang'eli'sku'> of the evangel, evangelic -- of the evangel
  • glasu -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <glasu'> voice, sound, word -- the word

Vi'dovitsi' zhe obidje'ti ne dadje'ashe, ljudi vi'se^, ubogyje^ i bogatyje^, milovaashe, Bogu rabotajo^shtiimu' sluzhaashe, tsri'ku'vi mu'nogyje^ zlatomi' krashaashe |

  • vi'dovitsi' -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <vi'dovitsi'> widow -- a widow
  • zhe -- conjunction; <zhe> and, but -- ...
  • obidje'ti -- verb; infinitive of <obidje'ti, -zhdo^, -dishi> do harm to, disrespect, be contemptuous of -- to be disgraced
  • ne -- particle; <ne> not -- not
  • dadje'ashe -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <dati, dami', dasi> give -- he would... permit
  • ljudi -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <ljudu'> people -- people
  • vi'se^ -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <vi'si'> all, every; whole -- all
  • ubogyje^ -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <ubogu'> not rich, poor -- poor
  • i -- conjunction; <i> and -- or
  • bogatyje^ -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <bogatu'> rich -- rich
  • milovaashe -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <milovati, -ujo^, -ujeshi> show mercy to -- showed mercy to
  • Bogu -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <bogu'> god -- God
  • rabotajo^shtiimu' -- verb; present active participle; dative plural masculine of <rabotati, -ajo^, -ajeshi> serve, do service to -- those who served
  • sluzhaashe -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <sluzhiti, -zho^, -zhishi> minister (to), serve -- he served
  • tsri'ku'vi -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <tsri'ky> church, temple -- churches
  • mu'nogyje^ -- adjective; accusative plural feminine of <mu'nogu'> much, many -- many
  • zlatomi' -- noun, neuter; instrumental singular of <zlato> gold -- with gold
  • krashaashe -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <krasiti, -sho^, -sishi> decorate, adorn -- he adorned

Lesson Text

se nynje' su'bystu' se^ prorotchi'skoje slovo, jezhe glagola samu' gospodi' nashi' Isusu' Khri'stu' | Bo^detu' bo, retche, vu' poslje'di'n'je^je^ di'ni, je^zhe mi'nimu' nynje' so^shte^, vu'stanetu' bratru' na bratra svojego i synu' na oti'tsi' svoi, vradzi tchlovje'ku domashi jego | Tchlovje'tsi bo sebje' bo^do^tu' nemili, i vu'zdastu' imu' Bogu' po dje'lomu' ikhu' | Bystu' zhe ku'ne^dzi' eteru' vu' Tchesje'khu' imeni'mi' Bratislavu', zhena zhe jego naritsajema Dragomira | I rozhdi'sha synu' svoi pri'vje'ni'tsi' i kri'stiste i i narje'ste ime^ jemu Ve^shteslavu' | Vu'zdrastu'shu zhe jemu jako postrishti i, prizu'va Bratislavu', oti'tsi' jego, na postrizheni'je biskupa etera, imeni'mi' Notara, i si' kliriky jego | Vu'spje'vu'shemu' zhe imu' mi'sho^ jemu vu' tsri'ku'vi sve^tyje^ Mari'je^, vu'zi'mu' biskupu' otroka, postavi i na krilje' stepeni'nje'jemi' prje'du' oltar'emi' i blagoslovi i reky | Gospodi Bozhe, Isu Khri'ste, blagoslovi otroka sego, jakozhe blagoslovilu' jesi vi'se^ pravi'di'niky tvoje^ | Sitse zhe su' blagoslovl'eni'jemi' postrizhenu' bystu' | Tje'mi'zhe mi'nimu', jako blagoslovl'eni'jemi' biskupa togo pravi'di'najego i molitvami jego natche^tu' otroku' rasti, blagodje'ti'jo^ bozhi'jejo^ khranimu' | Navytche zhe ku'nigy slovje'ni'skyje^ i latini'skyje^ dobrje' | Umi'ru'shu zhe oti'tsu jego, Bratislavu, postavishe^ Tchesi ku'ne^za Ve^shteslava na stolje' dje'di'n'i | Boleslavu' zhe, bratru' jego, rastje'ashe podu' n'imi'; bje'ashete zhe oba jeshte mala | Nu' mati jeju Dragomira utvri'di zeml'jo^, i ljudi stroi, don'i'dezhe vu'zdraste Ve^shteslavu', i vu'zdrastu', natche^ samu' stroiti ljudi svoje^ | Blagodje'ti'jo^ zhe bozhi'jejo^ vu' istino^ Ve^shteslavu' ku'ne^zi' ne tu'ku'mo ku'nigy navytche dobrje', nu' i vje'rojo^ su'vri'shenu' bje' | Vi'sje'mu' zhe nishtiimu' dobra tvorjaashe, nagyje^ odje'vaashe, latcho^shte^je^ pitje'ashe, strani'nyje^ prijeml'jaashe po evang'eli'sku glasu | Vi'dovitsi' zhe obidje'ti ne dadje'ashe, ljudi vi'se^, ubogyje^ i bogatyje^, milovaashe, Bogu rabotajo^shtiimu' sluzhaashe, tsri'ku'vi mu'nogyje^ zlatomi' krashaashe |

Translation

(1) Behold, now the prophetic word, which our Lord Jesus Christ spoke himself, was fulfilled: (2) 'For it will happen', he said, 'in the final days, which we believe to be now, brother shall rise against his own brother and son against his father, and a man's foes shall be they of his own household.' (3) For men will be unpitying to one another, and God will dispense according to their deeds. (4) But there was a certain prince in the Czech Lands, Bratislav by name, and his wife was called Dragomira. (5) And having produced their first-born son, they christened him and gave him the name Venceslav. (6) And as he grew so big as to tonsure him, his father Bratislav invited to this tonsure a certain bishop, Notar by name, and his clerics with him. (7) And when they celebrated the mass for him in the Church of the Holy Maria, the bishop took up the boy, placed him on the top step before the altar, and blessed him, saying: (8) 'Lord God, Jesus Christ, bless this boy, as you have blessed all yours who are just.' (9) And so with a blessing he was tonsured. (10) And by this we believe that, with the blessing of that just bishop and by his prayers, the boy began to grow, protected by God's grace. (11) He learned well the Slavonic and Latin letters. (12) And when his father Bratislav died, the Czechs established Venceslav as prince upon his grandfather's throne. (13) And Boleslav, his brother, grew alongside him; both were still young. (14) But their mother Dragomira ruled the land, and adminstered to the people, while Venceslav was growing up; and when he was grown, he began himself to administer to his people. (15) But by the grace of God, prince Venceslav truly learned well not only letters, but was also filled by faith. (16) He would perform good deeds among all the poor, clothe the naked, nourish the hungry, take in strangers according to the word of the evangel. (17) He would not permit a widow to be disgraced -- he showed mercy to all people, rich or poor; he served those who served God, and adorned many churches with gold.

Grammar

41. The Fourth Conjugation

The fourth conjugation contains those verbs whose present stem is augmented by the suffix -i. The infinitive stem ends in either -i or -je', sometimes -a. In certain forms, the stem suffix -i changed to -j before a vowel. In the first person singular of the present tense, the ending -o^ is always preceded by j, resulting in palatalization of any stem-final consonant. The third person plural ending is -e^tu' rather than -o^tu'. All other present tense forms show the suffix -i- between root and ending. Other than the first person singular, the present stem shows no palatalization of root-final consonants, except for the usual velar palatalization before the front vowels -i and -e^.

In addition to the first person singular of the present tense, other forms showing -j palatalization are the imperfect, the past active participle, and the past passive participle. The following are examples of the possible changes.

Infinitive   1st Sg. Pres.   2nd Sg. Pres.   1st Sg. Imperf.   Past Act. Pt.   Past Pass. Pt.
voziti   vozho^   vozishi   vozhaakhu'   vozhi'   vozhenu'
voditi   vozhdo^   vodishi   vozhdaakhu'   vozhdi'   vozhdenu'
mo^titi   mo^shto^   mo^tishi   mo^shtaakhu'   mo^shti'   mo^shtenu'
pustiti   pushto^   pustishi   pushtaakhu'   pushti'   pushtenu'
ljubiti   ljubl'jo^   ljubishi   ljubl'jaakhu'   ljubl'i'   ljubl'jenu'
                     

Examples of fourth conjugation verbs are moliti, -l'jo^, -lishi 'ask'; l'jubiti, -bl'jo^, -bishi 'love'; vidje'ti, -zhdo^, -dishi 'see'; kritchati, -tcho^, -tchishi 'call'.

Present   mol-   l'jub-   vid-   kritch-
                 
1st Sg.   mol'jo^   l'jubl'jo^   vizhdo^   kritcho^
2   molishi   l'jubishi   vidishi   kritchishi
3   molitu'   l'jubitu'   viditu'   kritchitu'
                 
1st Du.   molivje'   l'jubivje'   vidivje'   kritchivje'
2   molita   l'jubita   vidita   kritchita
3   molite   l'jubite   vidite   kritchite
                 
1st Pl.   molimu'   l'jubimu'   vidimu'   kritchimu'
2   molite   l'jubite   vidite   kritchite
3   mole^tu'   l'jube^tu'   vide^tu'   kritche^tu'
                 
Imperative                
1st Sg.   -   -   -   -
2   moli   l'jubi   vizhdi'   kritchi
3   moli   l'jubi   vizhdi'   kritchi
                 
1st Du.   molivje'   l'jubivje'   vidivje'   kritchivje'
2   molita   l'jubita   vidita   kritchita
3   molite   l'jubite   vidite   kritchite
                 
1st Pl.   molimu'   l'jubimu'   vidimu'   kritchimu'
2   molite   l'jubite   vidite   kritchite
3   -   -   -   -
                 
Pres. Act. Part.                
Masc./Neut. N   mole^   l'jube^   vide^   kritche^
Fem. N   mole^shti   l'jube^shti   vide^shti   kritche^shti
                 
Pres. Pass. Part.                
Masc. N   molimu'   l'jubimu'   vidimu'   kritchimu'
            vidomu'    
                 
Imperfect                
1st Sg.   mol'jaakhu'   l'jubl'jaakhu'   vizhdaakhu'   kritchaakhu'
2   mol'jaashe   l'jubl'jaashe   vizhdaashe   kritchaashe
3   mol'jaashe   l'jubl'jaashe   vizhdaashe   kritchaashe
                 
1st Du.   mol'jaakhovje'   l'jubl'jaakhovje'   vizhdaakhovje'   kritchaakhovje'
2   mol'jaasheta   l'jubl'jaasheta   vizhdaasheta   kritchaasheta
3   mol'jaashete   l'jubl'jaashete   vizhdaashete   kritchaashete
                 
1st Pl.   mol'jaakhomu'   l'jubl'jaakhomu'   vizhdaakhomu'   kritchaakhomu'
2   mol'jaashete   l'jubl'jaashete   vizhdaashete   kritchaashete
3   mol'jaakho^   l'jubl'jaakho^   vizhdaakho^   kritchaakho^
                 
Sigmatic Aorist                
1st Sg.   molikhu'   l'jubikhu'   vidje'khu'   kritchakhu'
2   moli   l'jubi   vidje'   kritcha
3   moli   l'jubi   vidje'   kritcha
                 
1st Du.   molikhovje'   l'jubikhovje'   vidje'khovje'   kritchakhovje'
2   molista   l'jubista   vidje'sta   kritchasta
3   moliste   l'jubiste   vidje'ste   kritchaste
                 
1st Pl.   molikhomu'   l'jubikhomu'   vidje'khomu'   kritchakhomu'
2   moliste   l'jubiste   vidje'ste   kritchaste
3   molishe^   l'jubishe^   vidje'she^   kritchashe^
                 
Past Act. Part.                
Masc./Neut. N   mol'i'   l'jubl'i'   vidje'vu'   kritchavu'
        ljubivu'        
Fem. N   mol'i'shi   l'jubl'i'shi   vidje'vu'shi   kritchavu'shi
        ljubivu'shi        
Resultative Part.                
Masc. N   molilu'   l'jubilu'   vidje'lu'   kritchalu'
                 
Past Pass. Part.                
Masc. N   mol'enu'   l'jubl'enu'   vidje'nu'   -
                 
Infinitive   moliti   l'jubiti   vidje'ti   kritchati
                 
Supine   molitu'   ljubitu'   vidje'tu'   kritchatu'
                 
Verbal Noun   moleni'je   ljubl'jeni'je   vidje'ni'je   kritchani'je
                 

Note the imperative forms vizhdi' of the verb vidje'ti, as well as the two forms vidimu' and vidomu' of the present passive participle.

42. The Conjugation of khotje'ti

The verb khotje'ti 'to wish' belongs to the fourth conjugation only in the third person plural of the present and in the present active participle. The present is formed with a stem in -je-, the imperfect and aorist from the stem khot-.

Present   Singular   Dual   Plural
1   khoshto^   khoshtevje'   khoshtemu'
2   khoshteshi   khoshteta   khoshtete
    khoshte        
3   khoshtetu'   khoshtete   khote^tu'
             
Imperative   khoshti        
             
Pres. Act. Part.            
Masc./Neut. N   khote^        
Fem. N   khote^shti        
             
Imperfect   khotje'akhu'        
             
Aorist   khotje'khu'        
             
Past Act. Part.            
Masc./Neut. N   khotje'vu'        
Fem. N   khotje'vu'shi        
             
Resultative Part.            
Masc. N   khotje'lu'        
             
Verbal Noun   khotje'ni'je        
             
43. The Instrumental Case

The instrumental case denotes agent or accompaniment, both figuratively and concretely. It agrees nicely with the English word 'with' in all its various senses: 'with a hammer', 'with my friends', 'with sympathy', etc. The following are some examples: bje' zhe marije' pomazavu'shije' gospoda myromi' 'Mary was the one having anointed the Lord with myrrh'; glasomi' veliemi' vu'zu'va 'He cried out in a loud voice'; ido^... korabl'jemi' 'they went... by boat'; iskushajemu' sotonojo^ 'being tempted by Satan'; javi se^ inje'mi' obrazomi' 'he appeared in another form'. The instrumental sometimes has the sense 'with respect to': blazhenii nishtii dukhomi' 'blessed are the poor in spirit'.

Some verbs regularly take the instrumental. For example, some verbs of ruling have an instrumental complement: ti obladajo^tu' zeml'jejo^ 'they rule the earth'. Similarly the verb peshti se^ 'to worry about' takes the instrumental: ne pi'tsje'te se^ dushejo^ vashejo^ 'take no thought for your soul'.

The instrumental is sometimes used instead of the nominative for the predicate with verbs of being and becoming. One finds dje'vojo^ bo bje' eia 'for Eve was a virgin'; ne bo^di niku'tozhe ijudojo^ 'let no one be a Judas'.

44. Numerals

1. edinu' masc., edino neut., edina fem.; G. edinogo masc./neut., edinoje^ fem. This is a pronominal adjective agreeing with a singular headword in case and gender.

2. du'va masc., du'vje' neut., du'vje' fem. du. 'two', G. L. du. du'vojo^; oba masc., obje' neut., obje' fem. 'both, the two'. These are both pronominal adjectives agreeing with a dual headword in case and gender.

3. tri'je masc., tri neut., tri fem. pl., A. tri, G. trii, L. tri'khu', D. tri'mu', I. tri'mi. This is an adjective agreeing with a plural headword in case and gender.

4. tchetyre masc., tchetyri neut., tchetyri fem. pl., A. tchetyri, G. tchetyri', L. tchetyri'khu', D. tchetyremu', I. tchetyri'mi. This is an adjective agreeing with a plural headword in case and gender.

5-10. The numerals from five to ten are nouns which govern a genitive plural denoting the thing enumerated. These numerals decline as singular feminine i-stem nouns:

  • 5. pe^ti', G. pe^ti
  • 6. shesti', G. shesti
  • 7. sedmi', G. sedmi
  • 8. osmi', G. osmi
  • 9. deve^ti', G. deve^ti
  • 10. dese^ti', G. dese^ti. This also declines as a consonant-stem noun, in particular having a locative form L. sg. dese^te.

11-19. The teens are expressed as the corresponding units (whether adjectival or nominal), conjoined with the phrase na dese^te, which remains invariable. For example G. du'vojo^ na dese^te rabu 'of the twelve servants'; pe^ti' na dese^te rabu' 'fifteen servants'.

  • 11. edinu' na dese^te masc., edino na dese^te neut., edina na dese^te fem.
  • 12. du'va na dese^te masc., du'vje' na dese^te neut., du'vje' na dese^te fem. du.
  • 13. tri'je na dese^te masc., tri na dese^te neut., tri na dese^te fem. pl.
  • 14. tchetyre na dese^te masc., tchetyri na dese^te neut., tchetyri na dese^te fem. pl.
  • 15. pe^ti' na dese^te
  • 16. shesti' na dese^te
  • 17. sedmi' na dese^te
  • 18. osmi' na dese^te
  • 19. deve^ti' na dese^te

20, 30, ..., 90. The tens are expressed by phrases of the form 'four tens', 'five (of) tens', etc., where the unit is followed by the corresponding form of dese^ti'. The phrase as a whole then governs a noun in the genitive plural.

  • 20. du'va dese^ti, G. du'voju dese^tu
  • 30. trije dese^te or tri dese^ti, G. trii dese^tu'
  • 40. tchetyre dese^te or tchetyri dese^ti, G. tchetyri' dese^tu'
  • 50. pe^ti' dese^tu', G. pe^ti dese^tu', where dese^tu' remains in the G. pl.
  • 60. shesti' dese^tu', G. shesti dese^tu'
  • 70. sedmi' dese^tu', G. sedmi dese^tu'
  • 80. osmi' dese^tu', G. osmi dese^tu'
  • 90. deve^ti' dese^tu', G. deve^ti dese^tu'

100. su'to. This is a noun and declines as a neuter hard o-stem. The thing enumerated is in the genitive plural.

200, 300, ..., 900. The hundreds follow the same constructions as the tens. For example, du'vje' su'tje' 'two hundred(s)', pe^ti' su'tu' 'five (of) hundred(s)'.

1000. tyso^shti or tyse^shti. This is a noun whose oblique forms follow the feminine ja-stem declension. The thing enumerated is placed in the genitive plural.

2000, 3000, ..., 9000. The thousands follow the same constructions as the tens and hundreds. For example, du'vje' tyso^shti 'two hundred(s)', tri tyso^shte^ 'three hundred(s)', pe^ti' tyso^shti' 'five (of) hundred(s)', etc. They govern substantives in the genitive plural.

10,000. dese^ti' tyse^shti', with tyse^shti' a genitive plural, or tu'ma 'darkness, myriad', which is declined as a feminine a-stem.

The conjunction i is used to string together digits, e.g. su'to i pe^ti' dese^tu' i tri 'one hundred fifty-three'.

45. Verb Use
45.1. The Present Tense

The present tense does not specify time. Imperfective presents denote action contemporaneous with the utterance, or contemporaneous with a past or future action when context dictates. They also indicate statements of general validity, or of repeated action. Perfective presents, by their nature, cannot indicate ongoing actions. They refer to the completion of an action, either in the near past or near future, as context dictates. These too may indicate statements of general validity; in contrast to imperfective presents, the perfective forms refer to the general action in its state of completion. For example, sli'ni'tsu vu'skhode^shtu su'kryjetu' se^ stje'n'i' 'when the sun rises, the shadow hides itself'. Imperfective and perfective presents are contrasted in the following general statement: ashte kto khoditu' vu' di'ne ne potu'knetu' se^ ... ashte kto khoditu' noshtip\ potu'knetu' se^ 'if someone walks (imperfective) during the day he does not stumble (perfective)... if someone walks at night he stumbles'.

45.2. The Future Tense

Future time is most often expressed by the present tense, usually with perfective verbs. The future of 'to be' is given by the forms of bo^do^, bo^deshi, etc. The verbs khotje'ti 'want' and natche^ti, vu'tche^ti 'begin' may be used in the present with an infinitive to denote future time. More prevalent are present forms of imje'ti, imami', imashi 'have to' used with the infinitive. The collocation may have the literal meaning 'have to', indicating obligation; but more often the verb is used in the sense 'is to', 'is destined to'. For example, azu' brashi'no imami' je'sti egozhe vy ne vje'ste 'I have meant to eat that ye know not of'; je'ko ne imatu' li priti vu' prazdi'niku' '... that he will not come to the feast, will he?' Past tense forms of khotje'ti and imje'ti denote an event in the future relative to some point in the past.