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Old Church Slavonic Online

Lesson 9

Todd B. Krause and Jonathan Slocum

One popular type of eccesiastical literature was the Saint's Life. This was a story focusing on the life of a particular saint, giving biographical information useful for presenting an example of the righteous manner of living. Such Lives are often found in what is termed a menology, a collection of Saints' Lives and homilies appropriate for celebration of Church festivals.

Reading and Textual Analysis

Among the earliest of the Saints' Lives is that of Good King Wencelaus. This text is of paramount importance for two major reasons. Firstly, at a cultural level this text shows the emergence of a true Slavonic spiritual identity. No longer is the ecclesiastical corpus relegated to stories from neighboring cultures. With the story of Wencelaus, who is both king and saint, the Slavonic culture asserts its legitimacy in contradistinction to the territorial influence of both the Holy Roman Empire and Byzantium. Second, on a linguistic level the native Slavic subject matter ensures that there is no Greek or Latin original to be sought. The linguist may therefore use this as a starting point to assess native OCS syntax. Syntactical studies are on shaky ground when taking Gospel translations as source material; these have a tendency to follow Greek syntax exceptionally closely. However, the story of Good King Wencelaus provides a sample of natively-generated narrative, and is therefore a useful benchmark by which to test conceptions of OCS syntax.

Below is an extract from the beginning of the Life of Good King Wenceslaus.

сє нъінѣ събъістъ сѧ пророчьскоѥ слово, ѥжє глагола самъ господь нашь Исѹсъ Хрьстъ |

  • сє -- interjection; <сє> lo, behold -- behold
  • нъінѣ -- adverb; <нъінѣ> now -- now
  • събъістъ сѧ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist reflexive of <събъіти, -бѫдѫ, -бѫдєши> come about, happen -- was fulfilled
  • пророчьскоѥ -- adjective; nominative singular neuter of <пророчьскъ> prophetic -- prophetic
  • слово -- noun, neuter; nominative singular of <слово> word -- word
  • ѥжє -- relative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <ижє> who, which -- which
  • глагола -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <глаголати, -л҄ѭ, -л҄ѥши> say, speak -- spoke
  • самъ -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <самъ> self, oneself -- himself
  • господь -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <господь> lord, master -- Lord
  • нашь -- possessive adjective; nominative singular masculine of <нашь> our, of us -- our
  • Исѹсъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Иисѹсъ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • Хрьстъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Хрьстъ> Christ -- Christ

Бѫдєтъ бо, рєчє, въ послѣдьн҄ѩѩ дьни, ѩжє мьнимъ нъінѣ сѫщѧ, въстанєтъ братръ на братра своѥго и съінъ на отьць свои, враѕи чловѣкѹ домаши ѥго |

  • бѫдєтъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- it will happen
  • бо -- conjunction; <бо> for -- for
  • рєчє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- he said
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • послѣдьн҄ѩѩ -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <послѣдьнь> last, following, latter -- the final
  • дьни -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <дьнь> day -- days
  • ѩжє -- relative pronoun; accusative plural masculine of <ижє> who, which -- which
  • мьнимъ -- verb; 1st person plural present of <мьнѣти, мьнѭ, мьниши> believe, think -- we believe
  • нъінѣ -- adverb; <нъінѣ> now -- now
  • сѫщѧ -- verb; present active participle; accusative plural masculine of <ѥс-, ѥсмь, ѥси> be -- to be
  • въстанєтъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <въстати, -станѫ, -станєши> stand up, break out -- shall rise
  • братръ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <братръ, братъ> brother -- brother
  • на -- preposition; <на> in, on; at, against; for -- against
  • братра -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <братръ, братъ> brother -- brother
  • своѥго -- reflexive adjective; genitive singular masculine of <свои, своє, своја> own, one's own -- his own
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • съінъ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <съінъ> son -- son
  • на -- preposition; <на> in, on; at, against; for -- against
  • отьць -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <отьць> father -- father
  • свои -- reflexive adjective; accusative singular masculine of <свои, своє, своја> own, one's own -- his
  • враѕи -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <врагъ> enemy -- foes
  • чловѣкѹ -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <чловѣкъ> man, human -- a man's
  • домаши -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <домашьнь> belonging to the household, domestic -- (shall be) they of... own household # #cf. Matt. 10:36
  • ѥго -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <> he -- his

Чловѣци бо сєбѣ бѫдѫтъ нємили, и въздастъ имъ Богъ по дѣломъ ихъ |

  • чловѣци -- noun, masculine; nominative plural of <чловѣкъ> man, human -- men
  • бо -- conjunction; <бо> for -- for
  • сєбѣ -- reflexive pronoun; dative singular of <сєбє> self -- to one another
  • бѫдѫтъ -- verb; 3rd person plural present of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- will be
  • нємили -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <нємилъ> unpitying -- unpitying
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • въздастъ -- verb; 3rd person singular present of <въздати, -дамь, -даси> give back, give out, dispense -- will dispense
  • имъ -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <> he -- ...
  • Богъ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <богъ> god -- God
  • по -- preposition; <по> after; according to -- according to
  • дѣломъ -- noun, neuter; dative plural of <дѣло> work, doing, deed -- deeds
  • ихъ -- pronoun; genitive plural masculine of <> he -- their

Бъістъ жє кънѧѕь єтєръ въ Чєсѣхъ имєньмь Братиславъ, жєна жє ѥго нарицаѥма Драгомира |

  • бъістъ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- there was
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- but
  • кънѧѕь -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <кънѧѕь> prince -- prince
  • єтєръ -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <єтєръ> one, a certain -- a certain
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • Чєсѣхъ -- proper noun, masculine; locative plural of <Чєси> (plural) Czech Lands, Bohemia -- the Czech Lands
  • имєньмь -- noun, neuter; instrumental singular of <имѧ> name -- by name
  • Братиславъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Братиславъ> Bratislav -- Bratislav
  • жєна -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <жєна> woman, wife -- wife
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- and
  • ѥго -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <> he -- his
  • нарицаѥма -- verb; present passive participle; nominative singular feminine of <нарицати, -цаѭ, -цаѥши> call, name -- (was) called
  • Драгомира -- proper noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Драгомира> Dragomira -- Dragomira

И рождьша съінъ свои прьвѣньць и крьстистє и и нарѣстє имѧ ѥмѹ Вѧщєславъ |

  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • рождьша -- verb; past active participle; nominative dual masculine of <родити, -ждѫ, -диши> bear, produce -- having produced
  • съінъ -- noun, masculine; accusative singular of <съінъ> son -- son
  • свои -- possessive adjective; accusative singular masculine of <свои, своє, своја> own, one's own -- their
  • прьвѣньць -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <прьвѣньць> first-born -- first-born
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- ...
  • крьстистє -- verb; 3rd person dual aorist of <крьстити, -штѫ, -стиши> christen, baptize -- they christened
  • и -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <> he -- him
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • нарѣстє -- verb; 3rd person dual aorist of <нарєшти, -рєкѫ, -рєчєши> call, name -- gave
  • имѧ -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <имѧ> name -- the name
  • ѥмѹ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <> he -- him
  • Вѧщєславъ -- proper noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Вѧщєславъ> Venceslav, Wenceslaus -- Venceslav

Въздрастъшѹ жє ѥмѹ јако пострищи и, призъва Братиславъ, отьць ѥго, на пострижєньѥ бискѹпа єтєра, имєньмь Нотара, и сь клирикъі ѥго |

  • въздрастъшѹ -- verb; past active participle; dative singular masculine of <въздрастити, -штѫ, -стиши> grow, increase -- as... grew (so big)
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- and
  • ѥмѹ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <> he -- he
  • јако -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- as
  • пострищи -- verb; infinitive of <постришти, -стригѫ, -стрижєши> tonsure -- to tonsure
  • и -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <> he -- him
  • призъва -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <призъвати, -зовѫ, -зовєши> call, summon -- invited
  • Братиславъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Братиславъ> Bratislav -- Bratislav
  • отьць -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <отьць> father -- father
  • ѥго -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <> he -- his
  • на -- preposition; <на> in, on; at, against; for -- to
  • пострижєньѥ -- noun, neuter; accusative singular of <пострижєньѥ> tonsure, a tonsuring, cutting -- tonsure
  • бискѹпа -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <бискѹпъ> bishop -- bishop
  • єтєра -- adjective; genitive singular masculine of <єтєръ> one, a certain -- a certain
  • имєньмь -- noun, neuter; instrumental singular of <имѧ> name -- by name
  • Нотара -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Нотарь> Notarius, Notar -- Notar
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • сь -- preposition; <съ> with -- with (him)
  • клирикъі -- noun, masculine; instrumental plural of <клирикъ> cleric, priest -- clerics # #this is the actual object of the preposition съ
  • ѥго -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <> he -- his

Въспѣвъшємъ жє имъ мьшѫ ѥмѹ въ црькъви свѧтъіѩ Марьѩ, възьмъ бискѹпъ отрока, постави и на крилѣ стєпєньнѣѥмь прѣдъ олтар҄ємь и благослови и рєкъі |

  • въспѣвъшємъ -- verb; past active participle; dative plural masculine of <въспѣвати, -ваѭ, -ваѣши> celebrate, praise -- when... celebrated
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- and
  • имъ -- pronoun; dative plural masculine of <> he -- they
  • мьшѫ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <мьша> (holy) mass -- the mass
  • ѥмѹ -- pronoun; dative singular masculine of <> he -- for him
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- in
  • црькъви -- noun, feminine; locative singular of <црькъі> church, temple -- the Church
  • свѧтъіѩ -- adjective; genitive singular feminine of <свѧтъ> holy, blessed -- of the Holy
  • Марьѩ -- proper noun, feminine; genitive singular of <Марьја> Maria, Mary -- Maria
  • възьмъ -- verb; past active participle; nominative singular masculine of <възьмати, -ємл҄ѭ, -ємл҄ѥши> take, take up -- took up
  • бискѹпъ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <бискѹпъ> bishop -- the bishop
  • отрока -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <отрокъ> boy, servant -- the boy
  • постави -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <поставити, -вл҄ѭ, -виши> establish, place, set -- placed
  • и -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <> he -- him
  • на -- preposition; <на> in, on; at, against; for -- on
  • крилѣ -- noun, neuter; locative singular of <крило> wing; pinnacle -- the top
  • стєпєньнѣѥмь -- adjective; locative singular neuter of <стєпєньнъ> of a step, grade, level -- step
  • прѣдъ -- preposition; <прѣдъ> before, in front of -- before
  • олтар҄ємь -- noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <олътарь> altar -- the altar
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • благослови -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <благословити, -влѭ, -виши> bless -- blessed
  • и -- pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <> he -- him
  • рєкъі -- verb; present active participle; nominative singular masculine of <рєшти, рєкѫ, рєчєши> say, tell -- saying

Господи Божє, Исѹ Хрьстє, благослови отрока сєго, јакожє благословилъ ѥси вьсѧ правьдьникъі твоѩ |

  • господи -- noun, masculine; vocative singular of <господь> lord, master -- Lord
  • Божє -- noun, masculine; vocative singular of <богъ> god -- God
  • Исѹ -- proper noun, masculine; vocative singular of <Иисѹсъ> Jesus -- Jesus
  • Хрьстє -- proper noun, masculine; vocative singular of <Хрьстъ> Christ -- Christ
  • благослови -- verb; 2nd person singular imperative of <благословити, -влѭ, -виши> bless -- bless
  • отрока -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <отрокъ> boy, servant -- boy
  • сєго -- demonstrative adjective; genitive singular masculine of <сь> this -- this
  • јакожє -- conjunction; <јакожє> as, like, than, so as to -- as
  • благословилъ -- verb; past active participle; nominative singular masculine of <благословити, -влѭ, -виши> bless -- blessed
  • ѥси -- verb; 2nd person singular present of <ѥс-, ѥсмь, ѥси> be -- you have
  • вьсѧ -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <вьсь> all, every; whole -- all
  • правьдьникъі -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <правьдьникъ> just person -- who are just
  • твоѩ -- possessive adjective; accusative plural masculine of <твои> your, thy -- yours

Сицє жє съ благословл҄єньѥмь пострижєнъ бъістъ |

  • сицє -- adverb; <сицє> thus, so -- so
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- and
  • съ -- preposition; <съ> with -- with
  • благословл҄єньѥмь -- noun, neuter; instrumental singular of <благословл҄єньѥ> blessing -- a blessing
  • пострижєнъ -- verb; past passive participle; nominative singular masculine of <постришти, -стригѫ, -стрижєши> tonsure -- tonsured
  • бъістъ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- he was

Тѣмьжє мьнимъ, јако благословл҄єньѥмь бискѹпа того правьдьнаѥго и молитвами ѥго начѧтъ отрокъ расти, благодѣтьѭ божьѥѭ хранимъ |

  • тѣмьжє -- conjunction; <тѣмьжє> thereby, therefore, through this -- and by this
  • мьнимъ -- verb; 1st person plural present of <мьнѣти, мьнѭ, мьниши> believe, think -- we believe
  • јако -- conjunction; <јако> as, when; in order to; that; because; (introduces quotation) -- that
  • благословл҄єньѥмь -- noun, neuter; instrumental singular of <благословл҄єньѥ> blessing -- with the blessing
  • бискѹпа -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <бискѹпъ> bishop -- bishop
  • того -- demonstrative adjective; genitive singular masculine of <тъ> that, that one -- of that
  • правьдьнаѥго -- adjective; genitive singular masculine of <правьдьнъ> just, righteous -- just
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • молитвами -- noun, feminine; instrumental plural of <молитва> prayer -- by... prayers
  • ѥго -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <> he -- his
  • начѧтъ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <начѧти, -чьнѫ, -чиєши> begin -- began
  • отрокъ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <отрокъ> boy, servant -- the boy
  • расти -- verb; infinitive of <расти, растѫ, растєши> grow -- to grow
  • благодѣтьѭ -- noun, feminine; instrumental singular of <благодѣть> gift, grace, joy -- grace
  • божьѥѭ -- adjective; instrumental singular feminine of <божьи> divine, of god, god's -- by God's
  • хранимъ -- verb; present passive participle; nominative singular masculine of <хранити, -нѫ, -ниши> protect, guard -- protected

Навъічє жє кънигъі словѣньскъіѩ и латиньскъіѩ добрѣ |

  • навъічє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <навъікнѫти, -нѫ, -нєши> learn -- he learned
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- ...
  • кънигъі -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <кънига> letter, writing -- letters
  • словѣньскъіѩ -- adjective; accusative plural feminine of <словѣньскъ> Slavonic, Slavic -- the Slavonic
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • латиньскъіѩ -- adjective; accusative plural feminine of <латиньскъ> Latin, of Latin -- Latin
  • добрѣ -- adverb; <добрѣ> good, well -- well

Ѹмьръшѹ жє отьцѹ ѥго, Братиславѹ, поставишѧ Чєси кънѧза Вѧщєслава на столѣ дѣдьн҄и |

  • ѹмьръшѹ -- verb; past active participle; dative singular masculine of <ѹмрѣти, -рѫ, -рєши> die -- when... died
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- and
  • отьцѹ -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <отьць> father -- father
  • ѥго -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <> he -- his
  • Братиславѹ -- proper noun, masculine; dative singular of <Братиславъ> Bratislav -- Bratislav
  • поставишѧ -- verb; 3rd person plural aorist of <поставити, -вл҄ѭ, -виши> establish, place, set -- established
  • Чєси -- adjective used as substantive; nominative plural masculine of <Чєхъ> Czech, Bohemian -- the Czechs
  • кънѧза -- noun, masculine; genitive singular of <кънѧзь> prince -- (as) prince
  • Вѧщєслава -- proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Вѧщєславъ> Venceslav, Wenceslaus -- Venceslav
  • на -- preposition; <на> in, on; at, against; for -- upon
  • столѣ -- noun, masculine; locative singular of <столъ> seat, throne -- throne
  • дѣдьн҄и -- adjective; locative singular masculine of <дѣдьнь> of grandfather, grandfather's -- (his) grandfather's

Болєславъ жє, братръ ѥго, растѣашє подъ н҄имь; бѣашєтє жє оба ѥщє мала |

  • Болєславъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Болєславъ> Boleslav -- Boleslav
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- and
  • братръ -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <братръ, братъ> brother -- brother
  • ѥго -- pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <> he -- his
  • растѣашє -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <расти, растѫ, растєши> grow -- grew
  • подъ -- preposition; <подъ> under, underneath -- alongside
  • н҄имь -- pronoun; instrumental singular masculine of <> he -- him
  • бѣашєтє -- verb; 3rd person dual imperfect of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- were
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- ...
  • оба -- adjective; nominative dual masculine of <оба, обѣ, обѣ> both -- both
  • ѥщє -- adverb; <ѥщє> yet, still -- still
  • мала -- adjective; nominative dual masculine of <малъ> small, young -- young

Нъ мати ѥю Драгомира ѹтврьди зємл҄ѭ, и люди строи, дон҄ьдєжє въздрастє Вѧщєславъ, и въздрастъ, начѧ самъ строити люди своѩ |

  • нъ -- conjunction; <нъ> but -- but
  • мати -- noun, feminine; nominative singular of <мати> mother -- mother
  • ѥю -- pronoun; genitive dual masculine of <> he -- their
  • Драгомира -- proper noun, feminine; nominative singular of <Драгомира> Dragomira -- Dragomira
  • ѹтврьди -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <ѹтврьдити, -ждѫ, -диши> stabilize, fortify, regulate -- ruled
  • зємл҄ѭ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <зємл҄ја> earth, land -- the land
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • люди -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <людъ> people -- the people
  • строи -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <строити, -оѭ, -оиши> prepare, arrange -- administered to
  • дон҄ьдєжє -- adverb; <дон҄ьдєжє> while, as long as -- while
  • въздрастє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <въздрасти, -стѫ, -стєши> be nourished, grow -- was growing up
  • Вѧщєславъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Вѧщєславъ> Venceslav, Wenceslaus -- Venceslav
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- and
  • въздрастъ -- verb; past passive participle; nominative singular masculine of <въздрасти, -стѫ, -стєши> be nourished, grow -- when he was grown
  • начѧ -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <начѧти, -чьнѫ, -чьнєши> begin -- he began
  • самъ -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <самъ> self, oneself -- himself
  • строити -- verb; infinitive of <строити, -оѭ, -оиши> prepare, arrange -- to administer to
  • люди -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <людъ> people -- people
  • своѩ -- reflexive adjective; accusative plural masculine of <свои, своє, своја> own, one's own -- his

Благодѣтьѭ жє божьѥѭ въ истинѫ Вѧщєславъ кънѧзь нє тъкъмо кънигъі навъічє добрѣ, нъ и вѣроѭ съврьшєнъ бѣ |

  • благодѣтьѭ -- noun, feminine; instrumental singular of <благодѣть> gift, grace, joy -- by the grace
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- but
  • божьѥѭ -- possessive adjective; instrumental singular feminine of <божьи> divine, of god, god's -- of God
  • въ -- preposition; <въ> in, into -- ...
  • истинѫ -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <истина> truth, reality -- truly
  • Вѧщєславъ -- proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Вѧщєславъ> Venceslav, Wenceslaus -- Venceslav
  • кънѧзь -- noun, masculine; nominative singular of <кънѧзь> prince -- prince
  • нє -- particle; <нє> not -- not
  • тъкъмо -- adverb; <тъкъмо> only, alone -- only
  • кънигъі -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <кънига> letter, writing -- letters
  • навъічє -- verb; 3rd person singular aorist of <навъікнѫти, -нѫ, -нєши> learn -- learned
  • добрѣ -- adverb; <добрѣ> good, well -- well
  • нъ -- conjunction; <нъ> but -- but
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- also
  • вѣроѭ -- noun, feminine; instrumental singular of <вѣра> faith, belief -- by faith
  • съврьшєнъ -- verb; past passive participle; nominative singular masculine of <съврьшити, -шѫ, -шиши> prepare, perfect, complete -- filled
  • бѣ -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <бъіти, бѫдѫ, бѫдєши> be, become -- was

Вьсѣмъ жє нищиимъ добра творјаашє, нагъіѩ одѣваашє, лачѫщѧѩ питѣашє, страньнъіѩ приѥмл҄јаашє по єванћєльскѹ гласѹ |

  • вьсѣмъ -- adjective; dative plural masculine of <вьсь> all, every; whole -- among all
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- ...
  • нищиимъ -- adjective used as substantive; dative plural masculine of <ништь, ништє, ништа> poor, beggarly -- (the) poor
  • добра -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural neuter of <добръ> good -- good (deeds)
  • творјаашє -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <творити, -рѭ, -риши> do, make -- he would perform
  • нагъіѩ -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural masculine of <нагъ> naked -- the naked
  • одѣваашє -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <одѣвати, -ваѭ, -ваѥши> clothe -- (would) clothe
  • лачѫщѧѩ -- adjective used as substantive, present active participle; accusative plural masculine of <лакати, -чѫ, -чєши> hunger, be hungry -- the hungry
  • питѣашє -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <питѣти, -ѣѭ, -ѣѥши> nourish -- (would) nourish
  • страньнъіѩ -- adjective used as substantive; accusative plural masculine of <страньнъ> strange, foreign -- strangers
  • приѥмл҄јаашє -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <приимати, -ѥмл҄ѭ, -ѥмл҄ѥши> take in -- (would) take in
  • по -- preposition; <по> after; according to -- according to
  • єванћєльскѹ -- adjective; dative singular masculine of <єванћєльскъ> of the evangel, evangelic -- of the evangel
  • гласѹ -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <гласъ> voice, sound, word -- the word

Вьдовиць жє обидѣти нє дадѣашє, люди вьсѧ, ѹбогъіѩ и богатъіѩ, миловаашє, Богѹ работаѭщиимъ слѹжаашє, црькъви мъногъіѩ златомь крашаашє |

  • вьдовиць -- noun, feminine; accusative singular of <вьдовиць> widow -- a widow
  • жє -- conjunction; <жє> and, but -- ...
  • обидѣти -- verb; infinitive of <обидѣти, -ждѫ, -диши> do harm to, disrespect, be contemptuous of -- to be disgraced
  • нє -- particle; <нє> not -- not
  • дадѣашє -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <дати, дамь, даси> give -- he would... permit
  • люди -- noun, masculine; accusative plural of <людъ> people -- people
  • вьсѧ -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <вьсь> all, every; whole -- all
  • ѹбогъіѩ -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <ѹбогъ> not rich, poor -- poor
  • и -- conjunction; <и> and -- or
  • богатъіѩ -- adjective; accusative plural masculine of <богатъ> rich -- rich
  • миловаашє -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <миловати, -ѹѭ, -ѹѥши> show mercy to -- showed mercy to
  • Богѹ -- noun, masculine; dative singular of <богъ> god -- God
  • работаѭщиимъ -- verb; present active participle; dative plural masculine of <работати, -аѭ, -аѥши> serve, do service to -- those who served
  • слѹжаашє -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <слѹжити, -жѫ, -жиши> minister (to), serve -- he served
  • црькъви -- noun, feminine; accusative plural of <црькъі> church, temple -- churches
  • мъногъіѩ -- adjective; accusative plural feminine of <мъногъ> much, many -- many
  • златомь -- noun, neuter; instrumental singular of <злато> gold -- with gold
  • крашаашє -- verb; 3rd person singular imperfect of <красити, -шѫ, -сиши> decorate, adorn -- he adorned

Lesson Text

сє нъінѣ събъістъ сѧ пророчьскоѥ слово, ѥжє глагола самъ господь нашь Исѹсъ Хрьстъ | Бѫдєтъ бо, рєчє, въ послѣдьн҄ѩѩ дьни, ѩжє мьнимъ нъінѣ сѫщѧ, въстанєтъ братръ на братра своѥго и съінъ на отьць свои, враѕи чловѣкѹ домаши ѥго | Чловѣци бо сєбѣ бѫдѫтъ нємили, и въздастъ имъ Богъ по дѣломъ ихъ | Бъістъ жє кънѧѕь єтєръ въ Чєсѣхъ имєньмь Братиславъ, жєна жє ѥго нарицаѥма Драгомира | И рождьша съінъ свои прьвѣньць и крьстистє и и нарѣстє имѧ ѥмѹ Вѧщєславъ | Въздрастъшѹ жє ѥмѹ јако пострищи и, призъва Братиславъ, отьць ѥго, на пострижєньѥ бискѹпа єтєра, имєньмь Нотара, и сь клирикъі ѥго | Въспѣвъшємъ жє имъ мьшѫ ѥмѹ въ црькъви свѧтъіѩ Марьѩ, възьмъ бискѹпъ отрока, постави и на крилѣ стєпєньнѣѥмь прѣдъ олтар҄ємь и благослови и рєкъі | Господи Божє, Исѹ Хрьстє, благослови отрока сєго, јакожє благословилъ ѥси вьсѧ правьдьникъі твоѩ | Сицє жє съ благословл҄єньѥмь пострижєнъ бъістъ | Тѣмьжє мьнимъ, јако благословл҄єньѥмь бискѹпа того правьдьнаѥго и молитвами ѥго начѧтъ отрокъ расти, благодѣтьѭ божьѥѭ хранимъ | Навъічє жє кънигъі словѣньскъіѩ и латиньскъіѩ добрѣ | Ѹмьръшѹ жє отьцѹ ѥго, Братиславѹ, поставишѧ Чєси кънѧза Вѧщєслава на столѣ дѣдьн҄и | Болєславъ жє, братръ ѥго, растѣашє подъ н҄имь; бѣашєтє жє оба ѥщє мала | Нъ мати ѥю Драгомира ѹтврьди зємл҄ѭ, и люди строи, дон҄ьдєжє въздрастє Вѧщєславъ, и въздрастъ, начѧ самъ строити люди своѩ | Благодѣтьѭ жє божьѥѭ въ истинѫ Вѧщєславъ кънѧзь нє тъкъмо кънигъі навъічє добрѣ, нъ и вѣроѭ съврьшєнъ бѣ | Вьсѣмъ жє нищиимъ добра творјаашє, нагъіѩ одѣваашє, лачѫщѧѩ питѣашє, страньнъіѩ приѥмл҄јаашє по єванћєльскѹ гласѹ | Вьдовиць жє обидѣти нє дадѣашє, люди вьсѧ, ѹбогъіѩ и богатъіѩ, миловаашє, Богѹ работаѭщиимъ слѹжаашє, црькъви мъногъіѩ златомь крашаашє |

Translation

(1) Behold, now the prophetic word, which our Lord Jesus Christ spoke himself, was fulfilled: (2) 'For it will happen', he said, 'in the final days, which we believe to be now, brother shall rise against his own brother and son against his father, and a man's foes shall be they of his own household.' (3) For men will be unpitying to one another, and God will dispense according to their deeds. (4) But there was a certain prince in the Czech Lands, Bratislav by name, and his wife was called Dragomira. (5) And having produced their first-born son, they christened him and gave him the name Venceslav. (6) And as he grew so big as to tonsure him, his father Bratislav invited to this tonsure a certain bishop, Notar by name, and his clerics with him. (7) And when they celebrated the mass for him in the Church of the Holy Maria, the bishop took up the boy, placed him on the top step before the altar, and blessed him, saying: (8) 'Lord God, Jesus Christ, bless this boy, as you have blessed all yours who are just.' (9) And so with a blessing he was tonsured. (10) And by this we believe that, with the blessing of that just bishop and by his prayers, the boy began to grow, protected by God's grace. (11) He learned well the Slavonic and Latin letters. (12) And when his father Bratislav died, the Czechs established Venceslav as prince upon his grandfather's throne. (13) And Boleslav, his brother, grew alongside him; both were still young. (14) But their mother Dragomira ruled the land, and adminstered to the people, while Venceslav was growing up; and when he was grown, he began himself to administer to his people. (15) But by the grace of God, prince Venceslav truly learned well not only letters, but was also filled by faith. (16) He would perform good deeds among all the poor, clothe the naked, nourish the hungry, take in strangers according to the word of the evangel. (17) He would not permit a widow to be disgraced -- he showed mercy to all people, rich or poor; he served those who served God, and adorned many churches with gold.

Grammar

41. The Fourth Conjugation

The fourth conjugation contains those verbs whose present stem is augmented by the suffix -i. The infinitive stem ends in either -i or -ě, sometimes -a. In certain forms, the stem suffix -i changed to -j before a vowel. In the first person singular of the present tense, the ending -ǫ is always preceded by j, resulting in palatalization of any stem-final consonant. The third person plural ending is -ętŭ rather than -ǫtŭ. All other present tense forms show the suffix -i- between root and ending. Other than the first person singular, the present stem shows no palatalization of root-final consonants, except for the usual velar palatalization before the front vowels -i and -ę.

In addition to the first person singular of the present tense, other forms showing -j palatalization are the imperfect, the past active participle, and the past passive participle. The following are examples of the possible changes.

Infinitive   1st Sg. Pres.   2nd Sg. Pres.   1st Sg. Imperf.   Past Act. Pt.   Past Pass. Pt.
возити   вожѫ   возиши   вожаахъ   вожь   вожєнъ
водити   вождѫ   водиши   вождаахъ   вождь   вождєнъ
мѫтити   мѫштѫ   мѫтиши   мѫштаахъ   мѫшть   мѫштєнъ
пѹстити   пѹштѫ   пѹстиши   пѹштаахъ   пѹшть   пѹштєнъ
любити   любл҄ѭ   любиши   любл҄јаахъ   любл҄ь   любл҄ѥнъ
                     

Examples of fourth conjugation verbs are молити, -л҄ѭ, -лиши 'ask'; л҄юбити, -бл҄ѭ, -биши 'love'; видѣти, -ждѫ, -диши 'see'; кричати, -чѫ, -чиши 'call'.

Present   мол-   л҄юб-   вид-   крич-
                 
1st Sg.   мол҄ѭ   л҄юбл҄ѭ   виждѫ   кричѫ
2   молиши   л҄юбиши   видиши   кричиши
3   молитъ   л҄юбитъ   видитъ   кричитъ
                 
1st Du.   моливѣ   л҄юбивѣ   видивѣ   кричивѣ
2   молита   л҄юбита   видита   кричита
3   молитє   л҄юбитє   видитє   кричитє
                 
1st Pl.   молимъ   л҄юбимъ   видимъ   кричимъ
2   молитє   л҄юбитє   видитє   кричитє
3   молѧтъ   л҄юбѧтъ   видѧтъ   кричѧтъ
                 
Imperative                
1st Sg.   -   -   -   -
2   моли   л҄юби   виждь   кричи
3   моли   л҄юби   виждь   кричи
                 
1st Du.   моливѣ   л҄юбивѣ   видивѣ   кричивѣ
2   молита   л҄юбита   видита   кричита
3   молитє   л҄юбитє   видитє   кричитє
                 
1st Pl.   молимъ   л҄юбимъ   видимъ   кричимъ
2   молитє   л҄юбитє   видитє   кричитє
3   -   -   -   -
                 
Pres. Act. Part.                
Masc./Neut. N   молѧ   л҄юбѧ   видѧ   кричѧ
Fem. N   молѧшти   л҄юбѧшти   видѧшти   кричѧшти
                 
Pres. Pass. Part.                
Masc. N   молимъ   л҄юбимъ   видимъ   кричимъ
            видомъ    
                 
Imperfect                
1st Sg.   мол҄јаахъ   л҄юбл҄јаахъ   виждаахъ   кричаахъ
2   мол҄јаашє   л҄юбл҄јаашє   виждаашє   кричаашє
3   мол҄јаашє   л҄юбл҄јаашє   виждаашє   кричаашє
                 
1st Du.   мол҄јааховѣ   л҄юбл҄јааховѣ   виждааховѣ   кричааховѣ
2   мол҄јаашєта   л҄юбл҄јаашєта   виждаашєта   кричаашєта
3   мол҄јаашєтє   л҄юбл҄јаашєтє   виждаашєтє   кричаашєтє
                 
1st Pl.   мол҄јаахомъ   л҄юбл҄јаахомъ   виждаахомъ   кричаахомъ
2   мол҄јаашєтє   л҄юбл҄јаашєтє   виждаашєтє   кричаашєтє
3   мол҄јаахѫ   л҄юбл҄јаахѫ   виждаахѫ   кричаахѫ
                 
Sigmatic Aorist                
1st Sg.   молихъ   л҄юбихъ   видѣхъ   кричахъ
2   моли   л҄юби   видѣ   крича
3   моли   л҄юби   видѣ   крича
                 
1st Du.   молиховѣ   л҄юбиховѣ   видѣховѣ   кричаховѣ
2   молиста   л҄юбиста   видѣста   кричаста
3   молистє   л҄юбистє   видѣстє   кричастє
                 
1st Pl.   молихомъ   л҄юбихомъ   видѣхомъ   кричахомъ
2   молистє   л҄юбистє   видѣстє   кричастє
3   молишѧ   л҄юбишѧ   видѣшѧ   кричашѧ
                 
Past Act. Part.                
Masc./Neut. N   мол҄ь   л҄юбл҄ь   видѣвъ   кричавъ
        любивъ        
Fem. N   мол҄ьши   л҄юбл҄ьши   видѣвъши   кричавъши
        любивъши        
Resultative Part.                
Masc. N   молилъ   л҄юбилъ   видѣлъ   кричалъ
                 
Past Pass. Part.                
Masc. N   мол҄єнъ   л҄юбл҄єнъ   видѣнъ   -
                 
Infinitive   молити   л҄юбити   видѣти   кричати
                 
Supine   молитъ   любитъ   видѣтъ   кричатъ
                 
Verbal Noun   молєньѥ   любл҄ѥньѥ   видѣньѥ   кричаньѥ
                 

Note the imperative forms виждь of the verb видѣти, as well as the two forms видимъ and видомъ of the present passive participle.

42. The Conjugation of хотѣти

The verb хотѣти 'to wish' belongs to the fourth conjugation only in the third person plural of the present and in the present active participle. The present is formed with a stem in -ѥ-, the imperfect and aorist from the stem хот-.

Present   Singular   Dual   Plural
1   хоштѫ   хоштєвѣ   хоштємъ
2   хоштєши   хоштєта   хоштєтє
    хоштє        
3   хоштєтъ   хоштєтє   хотѧтъ
             
Imperative   хошти        
             
Pres. Act. Part.            
Masc./Neut. N   хотѧ        
Fem. N   хотѧшти        
             
Imperfect   хотѣахъ        
             
Aorist   хотѣхъ        
             
Past Act. Part.            
Masc./Neut. N   хотѣвъ        
Fem. N   хотѣвъши        
             
Resultative Part.            
Masc. N   хотѣлъ        
             
Verbal Noun   хотѣньѥ        
             
43. The Instrumental Case

The instrumental case denotes agent or accompaniment, both figuratively and concretely. It agrees nicely with the English word 'with' in all its various senses: 'with a hammer', 'with my friends', 'with sympathy', etc. The following are some examples: бѣ жє мариѣ помазавъшиѣ господа мъіромь 'Mary was the one having anointed the Lord with myrrh'; гласомь вєлиємь възъва 'He cried out in a loud voice'; идѫ... корабл҄ѥмь 'they went... by boat'; искѹшаѥмъ сотоноѭ 'being tempted by Satan'; јави сѧ инѣмь образомь 'he appeared in another form'. The instrumental sometimes has the sense 'with respect to': блажєнии ништии дѹхомь 'blessed are the poor in spirit'.

Some verbs regularly take the instrumental. For example, some verbs of ruling have an instrumental complement: ти обладаѭтъ зємл҄ѥѭ 'they rule the earth'. Similarly the verb пєшти сѧ 'to worry about' takes the instrumental: нє пьцѣтє сѧ дѹшєѭ вашєѭ 'take no thought for your soul'.

The instrumental is sometimes used instead of the nominative for the predicate with verbs of being and becoming. One finds дѣвоѭ бо бѣ єѵа 'for Eve was a virgin'; нє бѫди никътожє июдоѭ 'let no one be a Judas'.

44. Numerals

1. єдинъ masc., єдино neut., єдина fem.; G. єдиного masc./neut., єдиноѩ fem. This is a pronominal adjective agreeing with a singular headword in case and gender.

2. дъва masc., дъвѣ neut., дъвѣ fem. du. 'two', G. L. du. дъвоѭ; оба masc., обѣ neut., обѣ fem. 'both, the two'. These are both pronominal adjectives agreeing with a dual headword in case and gender.

3. трьѥ masc., три neut., три fem. pl., A. три, G. трии, L. трьхъ, D. трьмъ, I. трьми. This is an adjective agreeing with a plural headword in case and gender.

4. чєтъірє masc., чєтъіри neut., чєтъіри fem. pl., A. чєтъіри, G. чєтъірь, L. чєтъірьхъ, D. чєтъірємъ, I. чєтъірьми. This is an adjective agreeing with a plural headword in case and gender.

5-10. The numerals from five to ten are nouns which govern a genitive plural denoting the thing enumerated. These numerals decline as singular feminine i-stem nouns:

  • 5. пѧть, G. пѧти
  • 6. шєсть, G. шєсти
  • 7. сєдмь, G. сєдми
  • 8. осмь, G. осми
  • 9. дєвѧть, G. дєвѧти
  • 10. дєсѧть, G. дєсѧти. This also declines as a consonant-stem noun, in particular having a locative form L. sg. дєсѧтє.

11-19. The teens are expressed as the corresponding units (whether adjectival or nominal), conjoined with the phrase на дєсѧтє, which remains invariable. For example G. дъвоѭ на дєсѧтє рабѹ 'of the twelve servants'; пѧть на дєсѧтє рабъ 'fifteen servants'.

  • 11. єдинъ на дєсѧтє masc., єдино на дєсѧтє neut., єдина на дєсѧтє fem.
  • 12. дъва на дєсѧтє masc., дъвѣ на дєсѧтє neut., дъвѣ на дєсѧтє fem. du.
  • 13. трьѥ на дєсѧтє masc., три на дєсѧтє neut., три на дєсѧтє fem. pl.
  • 14. чєтъірє на дєсѧтє masc., чєтъіри на дєсѧтє neut., чєтъіри на дєсѧтє fem. pl.
  • 15. пѧть на дєсѧтє
  • 16. шєсть на дєсѧтє
  • 17. сєдмь на дєсѧтє
  • 18. осмь на дєсѧтє
  • 19. дєвѧть на дєсѧтє

20, 30, ..., 90. The tens are expressed by phrases of the form 'four tens', 'five (of) tens', etc., where the unit is followed by the corresponding form of дєсѧть. The phrase as a whole then governs a noun in the genitive plural.

  • 20. дъва дєсѧти, G. дъвою дєсѧтѹ
  • 30. тріѥ дєсѧтє or три дєсѧти, G. трии дєсѧтъ
  • 40. чєтъірє дєсѧтє or чєтъіри дєсѧти, G. чєтъірь дєсѧтъ
  • 50. пѧть дєсѧтъ, G. пѧти дєсѧтъ, where дєсѧтъ remains in the G. pl.
  • 60. шєсть дєсѧтъ, G. шєсти дєсѧтъ
  • 70. сєдмь дєсѧтъ, G. сєдми дєсѧтъ
  • 80. осмь дєсѧтъ, G. осми дєсѧтъ
  • 90. дєвѧть дєсѧтъ, G. дєвѧти дєсѧтъ

100. съто. This is a noun and declines as a neuter hard o-stem. The thing enumerated is in the genitive plural.

200, 300, ..., 900. The hundreds follow the same constructions as the tens. For example, дъвѣ сътѣ 'two hundred(s)', пѧть сътъ 'five (of) hundred(s)'.

1000. тъісѫшти or тъісѧшти. This is a noun whose oblique forms follow the feminine ja-stem declension. The thing enumerated is placed in the genitive plural.

2000, 3000, ..., 9000. The thousands follow the same constructions as the tens and hundreds. For example, дъвѣ тъісѫшти 'two hundred(s)', три тъісѫштѧ 'three hundred(s)', пѧть тъісѫшть 'five (of) hundred(s)', etc. They govern substantives in the genitive plural.

10,000. дєсѧть тъісѧшть, with тъісѧшть a genitive plural, or тъма 'darkness, myriad', which is declined as a feminine a-stem.

The conjunction и is used to string together digits, e.g. съто и пѧть дєсѧтъ и три 'one hundred fifty-three'.

45. Verb Use
45.1. The Present Tense

The present tense does not specify time. Imperfective presents denote action contemporaneous with the utterance, or contemporaneous with a past or future action when context dictates. They also indicate statements of general validity, or of repeated action. Perfective presents, by their nature, cannot indicate ongoing actions. They refer to the completion of an action, either in the near past or near future, as context dictates. These too may indicate statements of general validity; in contrast to imperfective presents, the perfective forms refer to the general action in its state of completion. For example, сльньцѹ въсходѧштѹ съкръіѥтъ сѧ стѣн҄ь 'when the sun rises, the shadow hides itself'. Imperfective and perfective presents are contrasted in the following general statement: аштє кто ходитъ въ дьнє нє потъкнєтъ сѧ ... аштє кто ходитъ ноштип\ потъкнєтъ сѧ 'if someone walks (imperfective) during the day he does not stumble (perfective)... if someone walks at night he stumbles'.

45.2. The Future Tense

Future time is most often expressed by the present tense, usually with perfective verbs. The future of 'to be' is given by the forms of бѫдѫ, бѫдєши, etc. The verbs хотѣти 'want' and начѧти, въчѧти 'begin' may be used in the present with an infinitive to denote future time. More prevalent are present forms of имѣти, имамь, имаши 'have to' used with the infinitive. The collocation may have the literal meaning 'have to', indicating obligation; but more often the verb is used in the sense 'is to', 'is destined to'. For example, азъ брашьно имамь ѣсти єгожє въі нє вѣстє 'I have meant to eat that ye know not of'; ѣко нє иматъ ли прити въ праздьникъ '... that he will not come to the feast, will he?' Past tense forms of хотѣти and имѣти denote an event in the future relative to some point in the past.