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Old Iranian Online

Old Persian: Base Form Dictionary

Jonathan Slocum and Scott L. Harvey

This Base Form Dictionary index lists, in an alphabetical order suitable to the language and the script employed for it, every unique base form underlying one or more surface (word) forms in lesson texts. For each base form a general meaning (if any) is shown, along with links to every usage, in every numbered lesson, of the associated surface forms. With this index, one may click on any link to perform a quick "usage look-up," and thereby study how surface forms in texts are constructed from base forms.

A new, experimental feature is being introduced to these EIEOL lessons, namely the addition of pointers to Proto-Indo-European roots identified by Julius Pokorny in his monumental work, Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (2 vols. Bern: Franke, 1959-1969; reprinted in 1989). Because Pokorny is becoming increasingly outdated, we may revise these links in the future; however, for the time being, this information might prove interesting to those who are curious about Indo-European etymology. Notice of potential error is always welcome.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (Unicode 2 and Unicode 3) in the left margin.
<a->   'this'   --
7.75, 7.134, 7.174, 7.289, 9.113
<aita->   'he, this'   --
9.350, 9.409, 9.420, 10.29, 10.85, 10.180
<aiva->   'one'   --   [Pokorny 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. i- :: (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)]   --
9.62, 9.72
<Auramazdâh->   'Ahura Mazda'   --
7.74, 7.117, 7.173, 7.219, 7.261, 7.292, 7.294, 7.320, 8.375, 8.384, 8.457, 8.461, 9.7, 9.163, 9.207, 9.363, 9.372, 9.393, 9.418, 9.428, 10.50, 10.61, 10.108, 10.145, 10.193, 10.202, 10.252, 10.261, 10.285, 10.295
<atar>   'within, among'   --
10.28, 10.84
<ada>   'then'   --
9.294, 9.316
<adam>   'I'   --   [Pokorny eg-, eg(h)om, ego :: ego, I (pronoun)]   --
7.49, 7.64, 7.93, 7.132, 7.171, 7.191, 7.280, 7.294, 7.353, 7.354, 7.382, 8.17, 8.34, 8.197, 8.291, 8.337, 8.340, 8.371, 8.374, 8.384, 8.401, 8.447, 8.458, 8.463, 9.82, 9.184, 9.186, 9.196, 9.208, 9.226, 9.231, 9.372, 9.385, 9.397, 9.410, 9.420, 10.17, 10.49, 10.71, 10.109, 10.144, 10.170, 10.182, 10.202
<aniya->   'other'   --   [Pokorny 2. an- :: there, other side]   --
7.305, 7.324, 8.136, 8.234, 10.157
<anushiya->   'follower, ally'   --
8.428
<apa>   'away'   --   [Pokorny apo-, po, ap-u, pu :: off, out of, away from]   --
7.204, 7.216, 7.250
<apara->   'later, after'   --   [Pokorny apo-, po, ap-u, pu :: off, out of, away from]   --
10.225
<aparam>   'after'   --   [Pokorny apo-, po, ap-u, pu :: off, out of, away from]   --
7.19, 7.88, 7.413
<apiy>   emphatic particle   --   [Pokorny epi, opi, pi :: at, near, epi-]   --
9.123, 9.328
<abiy>   'to, toward, against'   --   [Pokorny ebhi? : obhi : bhi :: from, around, (up) to, etc.]   --
8.219
<ay>   'go'   --
10.250, 10.283
<ar>   'move toward'   --
8.372
<Arakadri->   a mountain in Persia   --   [Pokorny ond-, nd- :: rock, stone]   --
8.166
<arika->   'treacherous, evil, hostile'   --
7.337, 8.110
<ariya->   'Aryan'   --   [Pokorny ario-? :: host, lord, master]   --
9.144, 9.145
<arta->   'Truth'   --   [Pokorny 1. ar-, thematic (a)re-, heavy-base aru-, re-, and i-base (a)ri-, rei- :: to fit, suit]   --
10.154, 10.270, 10.304
<artâvan->   'blessed, righteous'   --   [Pokorny 1. ar-, thematic (a)re-, heavy-base aru-, re-, and i-base (a)ri-, rei- :: to fit, suit]   --
10.239, 10.320
<arshtâ->   'righteousness, Truth'   --
7.357
<arshti->   'spear, weapon'   --
9.307
<ava>   'away, down'   --   [Pokorny 3. au-, aue, ue- :: down, away from]   --
8.74, 8.78, 8.92, 8.322, 8.336, 8.416, 8.445, 10.62
<ava->   'this, that'   --   [Pokorny 4. au-, u- : ue-, uo- :: other; that (one)]   --
7.36, 7.158, 7.319, 7.384, 7.389, 7.429, 8.47, 8.72, 8.220, 8.295, 8.327, 8.412, 9.20, 9.228, 9.253, 9.360, 10.110, 10.169, 10.248, 10.274
<avatha>   'thus, then'   --
7.47, 7.200, 8.188, 8.252, 8.400
<avadâ>   'then, there'   --
8.170, 8.444, 9.285, 10.143
<avahya->   'ask for help'   --
8.383
<avâ>   'thus, as'   --
7.159
<asman->   'sky'   --
9.21
<azdâ>   'known'   --   [Pokorny 1. med- :: to mete, allot; medicate, give advice]   --
8.88, 9.295, 9.317
<ah>   'be'   --
7.20, 7.35, 7.51, 7.157, 7.161, 7.308, 7.334, 7.338, 7.341, 7.351, 7.414, 7.418, 7.421, 8.46, 8.59, 8.152, 8.183, 8.199, 8.251, 8.277, 8.350, 8.399, 8.429, 9.205, 9.240, 9.252, 10.27, 10.87, 10.165, 10.228, 10.240, 10.317, 10.328
<i>   'go'   --
7.358
<idâ>   'here'   --
8.44
<ima->   'he, this'   --   [Pokorny 1. med- :: to mete, allot; medicate, give advice]   --
7.62, 7.89, 7.121, 7.206, 7.248, 7.278, 8.15, 9.9, 9.173, 9.407
<u>   'well, good'   --   [Pokorny su-, su- :: good, well]   --
7.37, 7.385, 7.390, 7.433
<utâ>   'and'   --   [Pokorny 4. au-, u- : ue-, uo- :: other; that (one)]   --
7.230, 7.234, 7.264, 7.304, 7.323, 8.124, 8.126, 8.128, 8.229, 8.231, 8.233, 8.417, 9.397, 9.406, 10.73, 10.83, 10.120, 10.156, 10.237, 10.294, 10.307, 10.318
<ud>   'up'   --   [Pokorny ud- :: out, away, up(wards)]   --
8.156, 8.185
<upariy>   'over, above, in accordance with'   --   [Pokorny upér, upéri :: over, above]   --
7.356, 7.358, 10.39
<upastâ->   'aid, support'   --
7.295, 7.321, 8.385, 9.373, 10.51, 10.203
<uvâmarshiyu->   'self-inflicted death'   --
8.264
<I>   'one'   --
8.149
<IX>   'nine'   --
8.248
<kaufa->   'mountain'   --   [Pokorny 2. keu-, keuu- :: to bend]   --
8.168
<kan>   'dig'   --
10.119
<kamna->   'few'   --
8.403
<Kambűjiya->   'Cambyses'   --
8.30, 8.48, 8.62, 8.64, 8.76, 8.94, 8.105, 8.203, 8.218, 8.263
<kar>   'do, make'   --
7.65, 7.77, 7.94, 7.133, 7.162, 7.176, 7.199, 7.281, 7.293, 7.371, 8.18, 8.308, 9.54, 9.195, 9.229, 9.352, 9.371, 9.383, 9.384, 10.167, 10.168, 10.179, 10.190, 10.194, 10.213, 10.214
<kashciy->   'any, anyone, anything'   --   [Pokorny kuo-, kue-, fem. kua, kuei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)]   --
8.293, 8.354, 8.357
<>   (denotes generalization)   --
7.16, 7.79, 7.403, 10.216
<kâma->   'wish, desire'   --   [Pokorny ka- :: to like, wish, desire]   --
9.239
<kâra->   'man, person; the people'   --   [Pokorny koro-s, korio-s :: war, army, warrior]   --
7.201, 7.217, 7.260, 8.79, 8.109, 8.187, 8.213, 8.309, 8.320, 8.335
<Kűru->   'Cyrus'   --
8.32, 8.201, 8.352
<X>   'ten'   --
8.396
<XIV>   'fourteen'   --
8.180
<xshac*a->   'kingship, sovereignty, kingdom'   --   [Pokorny kþe(i)-, kþu(i)- :: to gain, acquire, possess]   --
8.236, 8.253, 8.306, 8.446, 8.462
<Xshayârshan->   'Xerxes'   --   [Pokorny kþe(i)-, kþu(i)- :: to gain, acquire, possess]   --
10.6
<xshâyathiya->   'royal, king'   --   [Pokorny kþe(i)-, kþu(i)- :: to gain, acquire, possess]   --
7.7, 7.17, 7.61, 7.109, 7.145, 7.155, 7.186, 7.246, 7.277, 7.318, 7.401, 7.404, 8.14, 8.21, 8.45, 8.140, 8.275, 8.459, 9.53, 9.64, 9.84, 9.93, 9.94, 9.102, 9.112, 9.162, 9.187, 9.197, 9.264, 9.349, 10.14, 10.25
<xshnâ>   'learn, know'   --
8.326, 8.338, 9.286
<Gaumâta->   'Gaumata'   --
8.153, 8.296, 8.367, 8.413
<gam>   'go'   --
9.315
<Garmapada->   fourth month of the Persian calendar, June - July   --   [Pokorny guher- :: warm, hot]   --
8.246
<gasta->   'evil, harm'   --   [Pokorny guedh- :: to hit, push; harm, injure]   --
9.396
<gâthu->   'place, throne, battlefield'   --   [Pokorny gua-, guem- :: to come, go]   --
9.216, 9.276, 10.74
<gud>   'hide'   --
7.204, 7.216, 7.250
<grab>   'seize, grab'   --
8.245, 8.261
<ca>   'and, but'   --
10.154, 10.157, 10.270, 10.304
<cayakaram>   'how much, how many'   --
9.251
<cic*a->   'seed, lineage'   --
9.145
<jatar->   'smiter'   --
7.262
<jad>   'pray, ask'   --
9.419
<jan>   'smite, strike, slay'   --
8.74, 8.78, 8.92, 8.322, 8.336, 8.416, 8.445, 9.339, 10.72
<jiva->   'living'   --   [Pokorny 3. guei-, and gueiu- :: to live, survive]   --
10.236, 10.308
<jîvâ->   'life'   --   [Pokorny 3. guei-, and gueiu- :: to live, survive]   --
7.236
<taumâ->   'family'   --   [Pokorny teuk- :: germ, seed, sprout, offspring]   --
7.231, 7.265, 7.355, 8.35, 8.292
<taxsh>   'be active, build, carve, make'   --
7.374
<tars>   'fear, be afraid'   --
8.312
<tunuvat->   'possessing power'   --   [Pokorny teu-, tuu-, teuu-, tuo-, tu- :: to swell, intumesce]   --
7.369
<tuvam->   'you'   --   [Pokorny tu :: thou, you]   --
7.15, 7.78, 7.103, 7.188, 7.220, 7.230, 7.261, 7.264, 7.402, 9.294, 9.316, 10.215
<tya->   '(so/in order) that'   --   [Pokorny 1. to-, ta-, tio- :: that, him (neut. or non-nom. demonstrative stem)]   --
7.104, 8.90, 8.337, 9.243
<tya->   'he, this, that'   --   [Pokorny 1. to-, ta-, tio- :: that, him (neut. or non-nom. demonstrative stem)]   --
7.146, 8.304, 8.368, 8.414, 10.88
<tya->   'who, which; that'   --   [Pokorny 1. to-, ta-, tio- :: that, him (neut. or non-nom. demonstrative stem)]   --
7.63, 7.92, 7.190, 7.279, 7.307, 7.333, 8.16, 8.339, 8.418, 9.218, 9.262, 9.275, 9.351, 10.16, 10.38, 10.166, 10.181, 10.251, 10.284
<tya->   (corrupt form) 'that'   --   [Pokorny 1. to-, ta-, tio- :: that, him (neut. or non-nom. demonstrative stem)]   --
10.132
<thakatay->   'past'   --
8.182, 8.250, 8.398
<thard->   'autumn, year'   --
7.76, 7.135, 7.175, 7.290
<thah>   'speak, say, declare'   --
7.5, 7.59, 7.107, 7.143, 7.177, 7.218, 7.244, 7.259, 7.275, 7.309, 7.399, 8.5, 8.138, 8.273, 8.358, 9.153, 9.227, 9.340, 10.5
<daiva->   'daiva'   --
10.97, 10.111, 10.122, 10.134
<daushtar->   'friend'   --
7.228, 7.431
<dar>   'hold, support'   --
9.272
<dargam>   'long'   --   [Pokorny 5. del- :: long]   --
7.235
<dars>   'dare'   --
8.356
<darsham>   'greatly, mightily, steadfastly'   --
7.23, 8.311
<dahyu->   'country, land, region'   --
7.49, 8.121, 8.137, 8.235, 8.442, 9.103, 9.254, 9.408, 10.37, 10.63, 10.86
<>   'give, take'   --
8.307, 9.429
<>   'put, make, create'   --
9.18, 9.29, 9.32, 9.42
<dâta->   'law'   --   [Pokorny 1. dhe-, reduplicated dhe-dh(e)- :: older family member (nursery word)]   --
10.249, 10.282
<dâna->   'offering'   --
10.111
<Dârayavahu->   'Darius'   --
7.6, 7.60, 7.108, 7.144, 7.185, 7.245, 7.276, 7.310, 7.400, 8.13, 8.139, 8.274, 9.52, 9.83, 9.161, 9.263, 9.348
<di>   'see, look'   --
9.274
<di->   'this'   --
9.183
<didâ->   'fortress, wall'   --   [Pokorny dheigh- :: to build, knead clay]   --
8.432
<dipi->   'inscription'   --
7.90
<diy>   (used for emphasis)   --
7.433
<>   'take, seize'   --
8.448
<duruxta->   'false'   --
7.124
<duruva->   'durable, stable, firm, secure'   --   [Pokorny deru-, doru-, dr(e)u-, drou-, dreuu- : dru- :: firm, solid; tree, wood]   --
7.50
<dush>   'difficult, bad, evil'   --
10.167
<dűra>   'far'   --
9.123, 9.328
<dűraiy>   'afar, far away'   --   [Pokorny 3. deu-, deuu-, dua-, du- :: to pass, move forward]   --
9.306
<drauga->   'deceit, the Lie'   --   [Pokorny 2. dhreugh- :: to harm, deceive]   --
7.22, 7.105, 8.120
<draujana->   'deceitful, follower of the Lie'   --   [Pokorny 2. dhreugh- :: to harm, deceive]   --
7.34, 7.340, 7.417
<drug->   'lie, deceive'   --
8.196
<naiba->   'beautiful, pious'   --   [Pokorny 2. nei-, neiu-, ni- :: to be moved, excited; to shine]   --
10.178
<naiy>   'not'   --   [Pokorny 1. ne, ne, nei :: (negative particle: no, etc.)]   --
7.123, 7.160, 7.215, 7.258, 7.336, 7.339, 7.342, 7.352, 7.354, 7.366, 7.368, 8.87, 8.276, 8.286, 8.288, 8.290, 8.341, 8.355
<nâth>   'injure, rend'   --
7.388
<nâma>   'by name, named, called'   --
8.31, 8.58, 8.154, 8.167, 8.431, 8.434
<ni>   'down'   --
9.217, 10.40, 10.75, 10.260, 10.293
<Nisâya->   'Nisaya'   --
8.433
<nűram>   'now'   --   [Pokorny nu- :: now]   --
7.187
<paith>   'inscribe, engrave'   --
10.40
<Paishiyâuvâdâ->   'Paishiyauvada'   --
8.158
<pat>   'fly, fall'   --
8.156, 8.185
<patikara->   'picture, carved/incised likeness'   --
9.273
<patiy>   'against, during, with respect to'   --   [Pokorny po-ti :: against, opposite, toward]   --
7.31, 7.91, 8.383, 9.241, 9.339, 10.121
<paranam>   'before'   --   [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   --
8.324
<parâ>   'forth, forward, beyond'   --   [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   --
9.315
<pariy>   'toward, with respect to'   --   [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   --
8.366, 10.250, 10.283
<paru->   'much, many'   --   [Pokorny 1. pel-, pelu-, ple- :: to pour, fill; full, plenary; town?]   --
9.63, 9.73
<paruva->   'before, previous'   --
7.154
<paruvam>   'previously, before'   --
10.96, 10.133
<partara->   'battle'   --
9.338
<parsa->   'examine, read'   --
7.91
<pasâva>   'after(wards)'   --
8.19, 8.63, 8.93, 8.108, 8.119, 8.141, 8.212, 8.262, 8.373, 9.183, 10.49, 10.99
<>   'protect'   --
7.31, 9.394
<Pârsa->   'Persia'   --
8.125, 8.230, 8.287, 9.330
<pârsa->   'Persian'   --
9.134, 9.135, 9.297, 9.326
<pîtar->   'father'   --
8.61
<puc*a->   'son'   --
8.33, 8.202, 8.353, 9.132, 9.143
<fra>   'to, toward, forth'   --
8.464, 9.185
<fratama->   'first, foremost'   --   [Pokorny 2a. per- :: to pass over/beyond]   --
8.419
<frath>   'ask, inquire, investigate, indict'   --
7.37, 7.38, 7.390, 7.398, 7.433, 7.434
<framâtar->   'lord, master'   --   [Pokorny 3. me-, m-e-t- :: to measure]   --
9.74
<baga->   'god'   --
7.306, 7.332, 9.5
<bar>   'bear, carry'   --
7.303, 7.322, 7.386, 8.386, 8.464, 9.185, 9.284, 9.374, 10.59, 10.204
<bartam>   'well-born'   --
7.385
<Bardiya->   'Bardiya', known from Greek sources as Smerdis   --
8.57, 8.73, 8.77, 8.91, 8.198, 8.325, 8.342
<Bâgayâdi->   seventh month of the Persian calendar, September - October   --
8.387
<bu>   'be, become'   --
7.229, 7.233, 7.263, 7.274, 7.432, 8.29, 8.89, 8.111, 8.123, 8.216, 8.460, 9.296, 9.318, 10.26
<bűmi->   'earth'   --   [Pokorny bheu-, bheuu-, bhua-, bhue- : bhou- : bhu- :: to be, exist; grow, prosper]   --
9.17, 9.114, 9.174
<brazmaniya->   'reverent'   --
10.155, 10.271, 10.305
<brâtar->   'brother'   --   [Pokorny bhrater- :: brother, family member]   --
8.49, 8.204
<magu->   'Magian'   --   [Pokorny magh- : magh- :: to help, be able; might, power]   --
8.151, 8.305, 8.369, 8.415
<man>   'think'   --
7.48, 7.106, 9.242, 10.226
<mar>   'die'   --
8.265, 10.238, 10.319
<martiya->   'mortal, man, human being'   --   [Pokorny 4. mer-, meru- :: to die]   --
7.32, 7.372, 7.415, 8.150, 8.278, 8.404, 8.420, 9.31, 9.43, 9.305, 9.327, 10.272
<>   (expresses prohibition)   --   [Pokorny 1. me- :: (prohibitive particle: lest, that not)]   --
7.104, 7.203, 7.273, 7.430, 8.337, 10.130
<mâtar->   'mother'   --
8.60
<Mâda->   'Media'   --
8.127, 8.232, 8.289, 8.443
<mâha->   'month'   --
8.172, 8.247, 8.395
<Mudrâya->   'Egypt'   --
8.95, 8.106
<yaud>   'rise up, bubble over'   --
9.175, 10.48
<yathâ>   'as, when, because'   --
7.120, 7.170, 7.335, 8.20, 8.75, 8.104, 9.164, 9.230, 10.15
<yad>   'revere, worship'   --
10.98, 10.131, 10.142, 10.146, 10.262, 10.296
<yadâ>   'where'   --
10.88, 10.132
<yadiy>   'if, when'   --   [Pokorny de-, do- :: I-deictic; here]   --
7.39, 7.205, 7.247, 8.184, 9.241, 10.226
<yâtâ>   'until, while, as long as'   --
7.156, 8.370, 9.382, 10.212
<raucah->   'day'   --   [Pokorny leuk- :: to light, shine; see]   --
8.181, 8.249, 8.397
<ranga->   'speed, haste'   --
7.118
<râdiy>   'on account of'   --   [Pokorny 1. ar-, thematic (a)re-, heavy-base aru-, re-, and i-base (a)ri-, rei- :: to fit, suit]   --
7.202, 7.319, 8.327
<vaina->   'see'   --
9.172
<var>   active 'cover', middle 'choose, convince'   --   [Pokorny 2. uel-, ulei-, ule(i)- :: to will, want, wish, choose]   --
7.95, 7.189
<vart>   'turn'   --
7.119
<vasiy>   'greatly, utterly'   --
7.232, 8.122, 8.321
<vashna->   'will, favor'   --   [Pokorny uek- :: to want, wish]   --
7.73, 7.172, 7.291, 8.449, 9.206, 9.362, 10.60, 10.100, 10.192
<vazraka->   'great'   --   [Pokorny ueg- :: fresh, strong]   --
9.6, 9.85, 9.122
<>   'or'   --   [Pokorny 4. au-, u- : ue-, uo- :: other; that (one)]   --
7.419
<vi>   'wide, apart'   --
7.388, 10.119
<vith->   'house(hold), clan, royal court'   --
7.383, 9.405
<Viyaxna->   twelfth month of the Persian calendar, February - March   --
8.171
<visa->   'all, every'   --   [Pokorny 1. ui- :: apart, separate from, in two; both]   --
9.361, 10.191
<vispa->   'all, every'   --   [Pokorny 1. ui- :: apart, separate from, in two; both]   --
9.104
<Vishtâspa->   'Hystaspes'   --
9.124
<sa->   'he, this'   --
8.418
<Sikayauvati->   'Sikayauvati'   --
8.430
<sha->   'he, this'   --
8.170, 8.309, 8.444, 8.446, 9.218
<shi->   'she, this'   --
9.208, 10.73
<shiyati->   'welfare, peace, happiness'   --   [Pokorny kueiu-, kuiie- :: to rest comfortably; quiet, peaceful, tranquil]   --
9.41
<shiyâta->   'happy'   --   [Pokorny kueiu-, kuiie- :: to rest comfortably; quiet, peaceful, tranquil]   --
10.227, 10.316
<shiyu>   'set out, go'   --
8.103, 8.107, 8.228
<shkauri->   'weak'   --
7.367
<shta>   'sit, set, place'   --
10.260, 10.293
<zana->   'man'   --
9.104
<zűra->   'evil'   --
7.370
<zűrakara->   'evil-doer'   --
7.350, 7.420
<zbâ->   'call'   --
10.121
<hauv->   'he, this'   --   [Pokorny 4. au-, u- : ue-, uo- :: other; that (one)]   --
8.43, 8.155, 8.186, 8.237, 10.306
<haxâmanishiya->   'Achaemenid'   --   [Pokorny 3. men- :: to think; mind, spiritual activity]   --
9.133
<hacâ>   'from, out of'   --   [Pokorny 1. seku- :: to segue, follow]   --
7.21, 8.157, 8.169, 8.217, 8.310, 9.329, 9.395
<had>   'sit'   --   [Pokorny sed- :: to sit, set, settle]   --
9.217, 10.75
<hadâ>   'with, together with'   --   [Pokorny 2. sem- :: one, some, together]   --
8.402
<hadugâ->   'record, statute'   --
7.214, 7.249
<ham>   'together'   --   [Pokorny 2. sem- :: one, some, together]   --
7.374
<hama->   'same'   --   [Pokorny 2. sem- :: one, some, together]   --
7.75, 7.134, 7.174, 7.289, 8.60, 8.61
<hamic*iya->   'rebellious'   --
8.215
<haruva->   'all'   --   [Pokorny solo-, sol(e)uo- :: whole, well-kept, salubrious]   --
8.214
<hashiya->   'true'   --   [Pokorny es- :: is, to be]   --
7.122
<hya->   'who, what, which'   --   [Pokorny so(s), sa :: (nom. sg. demonstrative stem: he, she)]   --
7.18, 7.33, 7.80, 7.373, 7.387, 7.412, 7.416, 7.419, 8.200, 8.294, 8.323, 8.351, 9.8, 9.19, 9.30, 9.33, 9.51, 10.217, 10.273