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Old Iranian Online

Old Persian: Master Glossary

Jonathan Slocum and Scott L. Harvey

This Master Glossary page lists, in an alphabetical order suitable to the language and the script employed for it, every unique word form that appears in lesson texts and, for each word, its unique glosses. In addition to the gloss information, sans contextual translation, links are provided to every appearance, in every numbered lesson, of the word/gloss in question. With this index one may perform a quick "word look-up" and, in addition, study how words are used in context by clicking on their links.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (Unicode 2 and Unicode 3) in the left margin.
aita
demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular neuter <aita-> 'he, this' -- 9.350, 9.409, 10.180
aitamaiy
demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular neuter <aita-> 'he, this' + personal pronoun; genitive singular <adam> 'I' -- 9.420
aitâ
demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural feminine <aita-> 'he, this' -- 10.29
aitâ
demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural feminine <aita-> 'he, this' -- 10.85
aivam
adjective; accusative singular masculine <aiva-> 'one' -- 9.62, 9.72
Auramazdahâ
proper name; genitive singular masculine <Auramazdâh-> 'Ahura Mazda' -- 10.61, 10.108, 10.193
Auramazdâ
proper name; nominative singular masculine <Auramazdâh-> 'Ahura Mazda' -- 7.219, 7.320, 8.461, 9.7, 9.163, 9.393, 9.428, 10.50, 10.252, 10.285
Auramazdâtay
proper name; nominative singular masculine <Auramazdâh-> 'Ahura Mazda' + personal pronoun; genitive singular <tuvam-> 'you' -- 7.261
Auramazdâm
proper name; accusative singular masculine <Auramazdâh-> 'Ahura Mazda' -- 8.375, 9.418, 10.145, 10.261, 10.295
Auramazdâmaiy
proper name; nominative singular masculine <Auramazdâh-> 'Ahura Mazda' + enclitic personal pronoun; accusative singular <adam> 'I' -- 7.294, 8.384
Auramazdâmaiy
proper name; nominative singular masculine <Auramazdâh-> 'Ahura Mazda' + personal pronoun; genitive singular <adam> 'I' -- 9.372, 10.202
Auramazdâha
proper name; genitive singular masculine <Auramazdâh-> 'Ahura Mazda' -- 7.74, 7.117, 7.173, 7.292, 8.457
Auramazdâhâ
proper name; genitive singular masculine <Auramazdâh-> 'Ahura Mazda' -- 9.207, 9.363
akariya
verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative passive <kar> 'do, make' -- 10.168
akunaush
verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative active <kar> 'do, make' -- 9.54, 9.195
akunava
verb; 3rd person plural imperfect indicative middle <kar> 'do, make' -- 9.229
akunavam
verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <kar> 'do, make' -- 7.65, 7.77, 7.133, 7.281, 7.293, 7.371, 9.371, 9.384, 10.179, 10.190, 10.194, 10.214
agarbâyatâ
verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative causative middle <grab> 'seize, grab' -- 8.245, 8.261
ajanam
verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <jan> 'smite, strike, slay' -- 10.72
atar
preposition; <atar> 'within, among' -- 10.28, 10.84
atarsa
verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <tars> 'fear, be afraid' -- 8.312
athaham
verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <thah> 'speak, say, declare' -- 9.227
adataiy
adverb; <ada> 'then' + enclitic personal pronoun; genitive singular <tuvam-> 'you' -- 9.294, 9.316
adam
personal pronoun; nominative singular <adam> 'I' -- 7.64, 7.132, 7.280, 7.353, 8.197, 8.340, 8.371, 8.374, 8.401, 8.447, 8.458, 9.82, 9.196, 9.226, 9.410, 10.17, 10.71, 10.109, 10.144, 10.170, 10.182
adamshim
personal pronoun; nominative singular <adam> 'I' + enclitic pronoun; accusative singular feminine <shi-> 'she, this' -- 9.208
adarshnaush
verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative active <dars> 'dare' -- 8.356
adâ
verb; 3rd person singular aorist indicative active <> 'put, make, create' -- 9.18, 9.29, 9.32, 9.42
adânâ
verb; 3rd person singular imperfect middle <xshnâ> 'learn, know' -- 8.326
adâraya
verb; 3rd person singular present indicative middle causative <dar> 'hold, support' -- 9.272
adînam
verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <> 'take, seize' -- 8.448
adurujiya
verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative middle <drug-> 'lie, deceive' -- 8.196
aniyashca
adjective; nominative singular neuter <aniya-> 'other' + conjunction; <ca> 'and, but' -- 10.157
aniyâ
adjective; nominative plural feminine <aniya-> 'other' -- 8.234
aniyâuvâ
adjective; locative plural feminine <aniya-> 'other' -- 8.136
aniyâha
adjective; nominative plural masculine <aniya-> 'other' -- 7.305, 7.324
anushiyâ
noun; nominative plural masculine <anushiya-> 'follower, ally' -- 8.428
apagaudaya
preposition; <apa> 'away' + verb; 2nd person singular present subjunctive active <gud> 'hide' -- 7.204
apagaudayâhy
preposition; <apa> 'away' + verb; 2nd person singular present subjunctive causative active <gud> 'hide' -- 7.216, 7.250
apara
adjective; nominative singular masculine <apara-> 'later, after' -- 10.225
aparam
adverb; <aparam> 'after' -- 7.19, 7.88, 7.413
aparsam
verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <frath> 'ask, inquire, investigate, indict' -- 7.398
abara
verb; 3rd person plural imperfect indicative active <bar> 'bear, carry' -- 7.303, 7.322, 8.386
abara
verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <bar> 'bear, carry' -- 9.374, 10.59, 10.204
abaram
verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <bar> 'bear, carry' -- 7.386
abava
verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <bu> 'be, become' -- 8.89, 8.111, 8.123, 8.216
abavam
verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <bu> 'be, become' -- 8.29, 8.460, 10.26
abiy
preposition; <abiy> 'to, toward, against' -- 8.219
amariyatâ
verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <mar> 'die' -- 8.265
amâxam
personal pronoun; genitive plural <adam> 'I' -- 8.34, 8.291
amiy
verb; 1st person singular present indicative active <ah> 'be' -- 8.199, 8.350, 9.205
ayauda
verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <yaud> 'rise up, bubble over' -- 10.48
ayadaiy
verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative middle <yad> 'revere, worship' -- 10.146
ayadiya
verb; 3rd person plural imperfect indicative passive <yad> 'revere, worship' -- 10.98, 10.142
Arakadrish
geographic name; nominative singular masculine <Arakadri-> a mountain in Persia -- 8.166
arasam
verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <ar> 'move toward' -- 8.372
arika
adjective; nominative singular masculine <arika-> 'treacherous, evil, hostile' -- 7.337, 8.110
ariya
adjective; nominative singular masculine <ariya-> 'Aryan' -- 9.144
ariyacic*a
adjective; <ariya-> 'Aryan' + noun; nominative singular masculine <cic*a-> 'seed, lineage' -- 9.145
artâcâ
noun; instrumental singular neuter <arta-> 'Truth' + conjunction; <ca> 'and, but' -- 10.154, 10.270, 10.304
artâvâ
adjective; nominative singular masculine <artâvan-> 'blessed, righteous' -- 10.239, 10.320
arshtâm
noun; accusative singular feminine <arshtâ-> 'righteousness, Truth' -- 7.357
arshtish
noun; nominative singular feminine <arshti-> 'spear, weapon' -- 9.307
ava
demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular neuter <ava-> 'this, that' -- 9.228
ava
demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular neuter <ava-> 'this, that' -- 9.360, 10.169
ava
preposition; <ava> 'away, down' -- 10.62
avaina
verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <vaina-> 'see' -- 9.172
avaiy
demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural masculine <ava-> 'this, that' -- 7.429
avaishâm
demonstrative pronoun; genitive plural masculine <ava-> 'this, that' -- 7.158
avajata
verbal prefix; <ava> 'away, down' + verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <jan> 'smite, strike, slay' -- 8.92
avathâ
adverb; <avatha> 'thus, then' -- 7.47, 7.200, 8.188, 8.252, 8.400
avadasha
adverb; <avadâ> 'then, there' + enclitic demonstrative pronoun; ablative singular masculine <sha-> 'he, this' -- 8.170
avadashim
adverb; <avadâ> 'then, there' + enclitic demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine <sha-> 'he, this' -- 8.444
avadâ
adverb; <avadâ> 'then, there' -- 9.285, 10.143
avanâ
demonstrative pronoun; instrumental singular neuter <ava-> 'this, that' -- 10.248, 10.274
avam
demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine <ava-> 'this, that' -- 7.36, 7.384, 7.389, 8.72, 8.220, 8.295, 8.412, 9.20
avam
demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular neuter <ava-> 'this, that' -- 10.110
avahyarâdiy
demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular masculine <ava-> 'this, that' + adverb; <râdiy> 'on account of' -- 7.319, 8.327
avahyâ
demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular masculine <ava-> 'this, that' -- 8.47
avâ
adverb; <avâ> 'thus, as' -- 7.159
avâ
relative pronoun; nominative plural feminine <ava-> 'this, that' -- 9.253
avâja
verbal prefix; <ava> 'away, down' + verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <jan> 'smite, strike, slay' -- 8.74, 8.78
avâjanam
verbal prefix; <ava> 'away, down' + verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <jan> 'smite, strike, slay' -- 8.416, 8.445
avâjaniyâ
verbal prefix; <ava> 'away, down' + verb; 3rd person singular present optative active <jan> 'smite, strike, slay' -- 8.322, 8.336
astiy
verb; 3rd person singular present indicative active <ah> 'be' -- 7.161, 10.27
asmânam
noun; accusative singular masculine <asman-> 'sky' -- 9.21
ashiyava
verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <shiyu> 'set out, go' -- 8.103, 8.107, 8.228
azdâ
adverb; <azdâ> 'known' -- 8.88, 9.295, 9.317
ahatiy
verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive active <ah> 'be' -- 7.35, 7.51, 7.418, 7.421
ahaniy
verb; 1st person singular present subjunctive active <ah> 'be' -- 10.228, 10.240
ahyâyâ
demonstrative pronoun; locative singular feminine <a-> 'this' -- 9.113
âha
verb; 3rd person plural imperfect indicative active <ah> 'be' -- 7.157, 8.183, 8.251, 8.399, 9.252
âha
verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative active <ah> 'be' -- 8.46, 8.59, 8.152, 8.277, 9.240, 10.87, 10.165
âhatâ
verb; 3rd person plural imperfect indicative middle <ah> 'be' -- 8.429
âham
verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <ah> 'be' -- 7.338, 7.341, 7.351
âhy
verb; 2nd person singular present subjunctive active <ah> 'be' -- 7.20, 7.414
idâ
adverb; <idâ> 'here' -- 8.44
ima
demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular neuter <ima-> 'he, this' -- 7.62, 7.121, 7.278, 8.15
imâm
demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular feminine <ima-> 'he, this' -- 7.89, 7.206, 7.248, 9.407
imâm
demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine <ima-> 'he, this' -- 9.9, 9.173
utashim
conjunctive particle; <utâ> 'and' + enclitic pronoun; accusative singular feminine <shi-> 'she, this' -- 10.73
utâ
conjunction; <utâ> 'and' -- 7.234, 7.304, 7.323, 8.124, 8.126, 8.128, 8.229, 8.231, 8.233, 8.417, 9.406, 10.83, 10.120, 10.156, 10.237, 10.294, 10.307, 10.318
utâtaiy
conjunctive particle; <utâ> 'and' + personal pronoun; genitive singular <tuvam-> 'you' -- 7.230, 7.264
utâmaiy
conjunctive particle; <utâ> 'and' + personal pronoun; genitive singular <adam> 'I' -- 9.397
udapatatâ
verbal prefix; <ud> 'up' + verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <pat> 'fly, fall' -- 8.156, 8.185
upariy
adverb; <upariy> 'over, above, in accordance with' -- 7.356, 10.39
upariyâyam
adverb; <upariy> 'over, above, in accordance with' + verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <i> 'go' -- 7.358
upastâm
noun; accusative singular feminine <upastâ-> 'aid, support' -- 7.295, 7.321, 8.385, 9.373, 10.51, 10.203
ufrashtam
adverb; <u> 'well, good' + past participle passive; accusative singular masculine <frath> 'ask, inquire, investigate, indict' -- 7.37, 7.390
ufrashtâdiy
adverb; <u> 'well, good' + past participle passive; accusative singular masculine <frath> 'ask, inquire, investigate, indict' + emphatic particle; <diy> (used for emphasis) -- 7.433
ubartam
prefix; <u> 'well, good' + adverb; <bartam> 'well-born' -- 7.385
uvâmarshiyush
adjective; nominative singular masculine <uvâmarshiyu-> 'self-inflicted death' -- 8.264
I
Roman numeral; <I> 'one' -- 8.149
IX
Roman numeral; <IX> 'nine' -- 8.248
kaufa
noun; nominative singular masculine <kaufa-> 'mountain' -- 8.168
Kabűjiya
proper name; nominative singular masculine <Kambűjiya-> 'Cambyses' -- 8.30, 8.64, 8.76, 8.94, 8.105, 8.263
Kabűjiyahyâ
proper name; genitive singular masculine <Kambűjiya-> 'Cambyses' -- 8.48, 8.62, 8.203
Kabűjiyâ
proper name; ablative singular masculine <Kambűjiya-> 'Cambyses' -- 8.218
kamnaibish
adjective; instrumental plural masculine <kamna-> 'few' -- 8.403
kartam
past participle passive; accusative singular neuter <kar> 'do, make' -- 9.383, 10.213
kartam
past participle passive; nominative singular neuter <kar> 'do, make' -- 7.94, 7.162, 7.176, 7.199, 8.18, 9.352
kashciy
indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine <kashciy-> 'any, anyone, anything' -- 8.293, 8.354
particle; <> (denotes generalization) -- 7.16, 7.79, 7.403, 10.216
kâma
noun; nominative singular masculine <kâma-> 'wish, desire' -- 9.239
kâra
noun; nominative singular masculine <kâra-> 'man, person; the people' -- 8.109, 8.213
kâram
noun; accusative singular masculine <kâra-> 'man, person; the people' -- 8.320, 8.335
kârashim
noun; nominative singular masculine <kâra-> 'man, person; the people' + enclitic demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine <sha-> 'he, this' -- 8.309
kârahyâ
noun; genitive singular masculine <kâra-> 'man, person; the people' -- 7.201, 7.217, 7.260, 8.79, 8.187
Kűraush
proper name; genitive singular masculine <Kűru-> 'Cyrus' -- 8.32, 8.201, 8.352
X
Roman numeral; <X> 'ten' -- 8.396
XIV
Roman numeral; <XIV> 'fourteen' -- 8.180
xsâyathiya
noun; nominative singular masculine <xshâyathiya-> 'royal, king' -- 7.61
xshac*am
noun; accusative singular neuter <xshac*a-> 'kingship, sovereignty, kingdom' -- 8.236, 8.253, 8.306, 8.462
xshac*amshim
noun; accusative singular neuter <xshac*a-> 'kingship, sovereignty, kingdom' + enclitic demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine <sha-> 'he, this' -- 8.446
Xshayârshâ
proper name; nominative singular masculine <Xshayârshan-> 'Xerxes' -- 10.6
xshâyathiya
noun; nominative singular masculine <xshâyathiya-> 'royal, king' -- 7.7, 7.17, 7.109, 7.145, 7.186, 7.246, 7.277, 7.318, 7.401, 7.404, 8.14, 8.21, 8.45, 8.140, 8.275, 8.459, 9.84, 9.93, 9.102, 9.112, 9.162, 9.197, 9.264, 9.349, 10.14, 10.25
xshâyathiyam
noun; accusative singular masculine <xshâyathiya-> 'royal, king' -- 9.53, 9.64, 9.187
xshâyathiyâ
noun; instrumental singular masculine <xshâyathiya-> 'royal, king' -- 7.155
xshâyathiyânâm
noun; genitive plural masculine <xshâyathiya-> 'royal, king' -- 9.94
xshnâsâtiy
verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive active <xshnâ> 'learn, know' -- 8.338
xshnâsâhy
verb; 2nd person singular present subjunctive active <xshnâ> 'learn, know' -- 9.286
Gaumâta
proper name; nominative singular masculine <Gaumâta-> 'Gaumata' -- 8.153
Gaumâtam
proper name; accusative singular masculine <Gaumâta-> 'Gaumata' -- 8.296, 8.367, 8.413
Garmapadahya
proper name; genitive singular masculine <Garmapada-> fourth month of the Persian calendar, June - July -- 8.246
gastâ
noun; ablative singular neuter <gasta-> 'evil, harm' -- 9.396
gâthavâ
noun; locative singular feminine <gâthu-> 'place, throne, battlefield' -- 9.216, 10.74
gâthum
noun; accusative singular feminine <gâthu-> 'place, throne, battlefield' -- 9.276
caxriyâ
verb; 3rd person singular perfect optative causative active <kar> 'do, make' -- 8.308
ciyakaram
adverb; <cayakaram> 'how much, how many' -- 9.251
cishciy
indefinite pronoun; accusative singular masculine <kashciy-> 'any, anyone, anything' -- 8.357
jatâ
noun; nominative singular masculine <jatar-> 'smiter' -- 7.262
jadiyâmiy
verb; 1st person singular present indicative active <jad> 'pray, ask' -- 9.419
jîva
present active particle; nominative singular masculine <jiva-> 'living' -- 10.236, 10.308
jîvâ
noun; nominative singular feminine <jîvâ-> 'life' -- 7.236
taumâ
noun; nominative singular feminine <taumâ-> 'family' -- 7.231, 7.265, 7.355
taumâyâ
noun; genitive singular feminine <taumâ-> 'family' -- 8.35, 8.292
tunuvatam
noun; accusative singular masculine <tunuvat-> 'possessing power' -- 7.369
tuva
pronoun; nominative singular <tuvam-> 'you' -- 10.215
tuvam
personal pronoun; nominative singular masculine <tuvam-> 'you' -- 7.15, 7.78, 7.402
tya
relative conjunction; accusative singular neuter <tya-> '(so/in order) that' -- 8.90, 9.243
tya
relative pronoun; <tya-> 'who, which; that' -- 10.16, 10.166
tya
relative pronoun; accusative singular neuter <tya-> 'who, which; that' -- 7.63, 7.279, 8.339, 10.181, 10.251, 10.284
tya
relative pronoun; nominative singular neuter <tya-> 'who, which; that' -- 7.92, 7.190, 8.16, 9.351
tyaiy
demonstrative pronoun; instrumental plural masculine <tya-> 'he, this, that' -- 7.146
tyaiy
relative pronoun; accusative plural masculine <tya-> 'who, which; that' -- 9.275
tyaiy
relative pronoun; accusative singular neuter <tya-> 'who, which; that' -- 10.38
tyaiy
relative pronoun; nominative plural masculine <tya-> 'who, which; that' -- 7.307, 7.333
tyaishaiy
relative pronoun; nominative plural masculine <tya-> 'who, which; that' + enclitic pronoun; genitive singular masculine <sa-> 'he, this' -- 8.418
tyam
demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine <tya-> 'he, this, that' -- 8.304, 8.368, 8.414
tyashâm
relative pronoun; accusative singular neuter <tya-> 'who, which; that' + enclitic demonstrative pronoun; genitive plural masculine <sha-> 'he, this' -- 9.218
tyâ
relative pronoun; nominative plural feminine <tya-> 'who, which; that' -- 9.262
thakatâ
adjective; nominative plural neuter <thakatay-> 'past' -- 8.182, 8.250, 8.398
tharda
noun; genitive singular feminine <thard-> 'autumn, year' -- 7.76, 7.135, 7.175, 7.290
thastanaiy
infinitive; <thah> 'speak, say, declare' -- 8.358
thâtiy
verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative active <thah> 'speak, say, declare' -- 7.59, 7.107, 7.143, 7.177, 7.244, 7.275, 7.309, 7.399, 8.5, 8.138, 8.273, 9.153, 9.340, 10.5
thâtiy
verb; 3rd person singular present indicative active <thah> 'speak, say, declare' -- 7.5
thâhy
verb; 2nd person singular present indicative active <thah> 'speak, say, declare' -- 7.218, 7.259
thuvâm
personal pronoun; accusative singular masculine <tuvam-> 'you' -- 7.103, 7.188, 7.220
daivadânam
noun; <daiva-> 'daiva' + noun; accusative singular neuter <dâna-> 'offering' -- 10.111
daivâ
noun; accusative plural masculine <daiva-> 'daiva' -- 10.97, 10.122, 10.134
daushtâ
noun; nominative singular masculine <daushtar-> 'friend' -- 7.228, 7.431
dadâtuv
verb; 3rd person singular present imperative active <> 'give, take' -- 9.429
dargam
adverb; <dargam> 'long' -- 7.235
darsham
adverb; <darsham> 'greatly, mightily, steadfastly' -- 7.23, 8.311
dahyauvâ
noun; locative singular feminine <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' -- 8.121
dahyâum
noun; accusative singular feminine <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' -- 9.408
dahyâush
noun; nominative singular feminine <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' -- 8.442
dahyâushmaiy
noun; nominative singular feminine <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' + personal pronoun; genitive singular masculine <adam> 'I' -- 7.49
dahyâva
noun; accusative plural feminine <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' -- 10.37, 10.86
dahyâva
noun; nominative plural feminine <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' -- 8.235, 9.254
dahyâvam
noun; accusative singular feminine <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' -- 10.63
dahyushuvâ
noun; locative plural feminine <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' -- 8.137
dahyűnâm
noun; genitive plural feminine <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' -- 9.103
dâtâ
noun; accusative plural neuter <dâta-> 'law' -- 10.249, 10.282
Dârayavaum
proper name; accusative singular masculine <Dârayavahu-> 'Darius' -- 9.52
Dârayavaush
proper name; nominative singular masculine <Dârayavahu-> 'Darius' -- 7.6, 7.60, 7.108, 7.144, 7.185, 7.245, 7.276, 7.310, 7.400, 8.13, 8.139, 8.274, 9.83, 9.161, 9.263, 9.348
didâ
noun; nominative singular feminine <didâ-> 'fortress, wall' -- 8.432
dipim
noun; accusative singular feminine <dipi-> 'inscription' -- 7.90
dîtam
past participle passive; accusative singular neuter <> 'give, take' -- 8.307
dîdiy
verb; 2nd person singular present imperative middle <di> 'see, look' -- 9.274
duruxtam
adjective; accusative singular neuter <duruxta-> 'false' -- 7.124
duruvâ
adjective; nominative singular feminine <duruva-> 'durable, stable, firm, secure' -- 7.50
dushkartam
adverb; <dush> 'difficult, bad, evil' + past participle passive; accusative singular masculine <kar> 'do, make' -- 10.167
dűraiapiy
adverb; <dűra> 'far' + enclitic particle; <apiy> emphatic particle -- 9.123
dűraiy
adverb; <dűraiy> 'afar, far away' -- 9.306
dűrayapiy
adverb; <dűra> 'far' + enclitic particle; <apiy> emphatic particle -- 9.328
drauga
noun; nominative singular masculine <drauga-> 'deceit, the Lie' -- 8.120
draugam
noun; accusative singular masculine <drauga-> 'deceit, the Lie' -- 7.105
draugâ
noun; ablative singular masculine <drauga-> 'deceit, the Lie' -- 7.22
draujana
adjective; nominative singular masculine <draujana-> 'deceitful, follower of the Lie' -- 7.34, 7.340, 7.417
naibam
adjective; accusative singular neuter <naiba-> 'beautiful, pious' -- 10.178
naimaiy
negative particle; <naiy> 'not' + enclitic personal pronoun; genitive singular <adam> 'I' -- 7.354
naiy
negative particle; <naiy> 'not' -- 7.123, 7.160, 7.215, 7.258, 7.336, 7.339, 7.342, 7.352, 7.366, 7.368, 8.87, 8.276, 8.286, 8.288, 8.290, 8.341, 8.355
nâma
adverb; <nâma> 'by name, named, called' -- 8.31, 8.58, 8.154, 8.167
nâmâ
adverb; <nâma> 'by name, named, called' -- 8.431, 8.434
nipishtâ
verbal prefix; <ni> 'down' + past participle passive; accusative plural feminine <paith> 'inscribe, engrave' -- 10.40
niyashâdayam
verbal prefix; <ni> 'down' + verb; 1st person singular present imperfect indicative active causative <had> 'sit' -- 9.217
niyashtâya
verbal prefix; <ni> 'down' + verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <shta> 'sit, set, place' -- 10.260
Nisâya
geographic name; nominative singular masculine <Nisâya-> 'Nisaya' -- 8.433
nîshâdayam
verbal prefix; <ni> 'down' + verb; 1st person singular present indicative active causative <had> 'sit' -- 10.75
nîshtâya
verbal prefix; <ni> 'down' + verb; 3rd person singular present indicative middle <shta> 'sit, set, place' -- 10.293
nűram
adverb; <nűram> 'now' -- 7.187
Paishiyâuvâdâyâ
geographic name; ablative singular feminine <Paishiyâuvâdâ-> 'Paishiyauvada' -- 8.158
patikarâ
noun; accusative plural masculine <patikara-> 'picture, carved/incised likeness' -- 9.273
patipayauvâ
prefix; <patiy> 'against, during, with respect to' + verb; 2nd person singular present imperative middle <> 'protect' -- 7.31
patiparsâhy
prefix; <patiy> 'against, during, with respect to' + verb; 2nd person singular present subjunctive active <parsa-> 'examine, read' -- 7.91
patiyajatâ
verbal prefix; <patiy> 'against, during, with respect to' + verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <jan> 'smite, strike, slay' -- 9.339
patiyazbayam
verbal prefix; <patiy> 'against, during, with respect to' + verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active causative <zbâ-> 'call' -- 10.121
patiyâvahyaiy
preposition; <patiy> 'against, during, with respect to' + denominative; 1st person singular imperfect middle <avahya-> 'ask for help' -- 8.383
paranam
adverb; <paranam> 'before' -- 8.324
parâgmatâ
adverb; <parâ> 'forth, forward, beyond' + past participle passive; nominative singular feminine <gam> 'go' -- 9.315
pariy
adverb; <pariy> 'toward, with respect to' -- 8.366
pariyaita
verbal prefix; <pariy> 'toward, with respect to' + verb; 3rd person singular present indicative middle <ay> 'go' -- 10.283
parîdiy
verbal prefix; <pariy> 'toward, with respect to' + verb; 3rd person singular present imperative middle <ay> 'go' -- 10.250
paruvam
adverb; <paruvam> 'previously, before' -- 10.96, 10.133
paruvâ
adjective; instrumental singular masculine <paruva-> 'before, previous' -- 7.154
parűvnâm
adjective; genitive plural masculine <paru-> 'much, many' -- 9.63, 9.73
partaram
noun; accusative singular neuter <partara-> 'battle' -- 9.338
parsâ
verb; 2nd person singular present imperative <frath> 'ask, inquire, investigate, indict' -- 7.38
parsâ
verb; 2nd person singular present optative active <frath> 'ask, inquire, investigate, indict' -- 7.434
pasâva
adverb; <pasâva> 'after(wards)' -- 8.19, 8.63, 8.93, 8.108, 8.119, 8.141, 8.212, 8.262, 8.373, 10.99
pasâvadim
adverb; <pasâva> 'after(wards)' + enclitic demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine <di-> 'this' -- 9.183
pasâvamaiy
adverb; <pasâva> 'after(wards)' + personal pronoun; genitive singular <adam> 'I' -- 10.49
pâtuv
verb; 3rd person singular present imperative active <> 'protect' -- 9.394
pârsa
adjective; nominative singular masculine <pârsa-> 'Persian' -- 9.134, 9.326
Pârsa
geographic name; nominative singular masculine <Pârsa-> 'Persia' -- 8.230, 8.287
Pârsaiy
geographic name; locative singular masculine <Pârsa-> 'Persia' -- 8.125
pârsahyâ
adjective; genitive singular masculine <pârsa-> 'Persian' -- 9.135, 9.297
Pârsâ
geographic name; ablative singular masculine <Pârsa-> 'Persia' -- 9.330
puc*a
noun; nominative singular masculine <puc*a-> 'son' -- 8.33, 8.202, 8.353, 9.132, 9.143
fratamâ
adjective; nominative plural masculine <fratama-> 'first, foremost' -- 8.419
framâtâram
noun; accusative singular masculine <framâtar-> 'lord, master' -- 9.74
frâbara
verbal prefix; <fra> 'to, toward, forth' + verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative active <bar> 'bear, carry' -- 9.185
frâbara
verbal prefix; <fra> 'to, toward, forth' + verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <bar> 'bear, carry' -- 8.464
baga
noun; nominative singular masculine <baga-> 'god' -- 9.5
bagâha
noun; nominative plural masculine <baga-> 'god' -- 7.306, 7.332
baratiy
verb; 3rd person plural present indicative active <bar> 'bear, carry' -- 9.284
Bardiya
proper name; accusative singular masculine <Bardiya-> 'Bardiya', known from Greek sources as Smerdis -- 8.91
Bardiya
proper name; nominative singular masculine <Bardiya-> 'Bardiya', known from Greek sources as Smerdis -- 8.57, 8.198, 8.342
Bardiyam
proper name; accusative singular masculine <Bardiya-> 'Bardiya', known from Greek sources as Smerdis -- 8.73, 8.77, 8.325
bavatiy
verb; 1st person singular present indicative active <ah> 'be' -- 10.317, 10.328
bavâtiy
verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive active <bu> 'be, become' -- 9.296, 9.318
Bâgayâdaish
proper name; genitive singular masculine <Bâgayâdi-> seventh month of the Persian calendar, September - October -- 8.387
biyâ
verb; 2nd person singular present optative active <bu> 'be, become' -- 7.432
biyâ
verb; 3rd person singular present optative active <bu> 'be, become' -- 7.229, 7.233, 7.263, 7.274
bűmim
noun; accusative singular feminine <bűmi-> 'earth' -- 9.17, 9.174
bűmiyâ
noun; locative singular feminine <bűmi-> 'earth' -- 9.114
brazmaniya
adjective; nominative singular masculine <brazmaniya-> 'reverent' -- 10.155, 10.271, 10.305
brâtâ
noun; nominative singular masculine <brâtar-> 'brother' -- 8.49, 8.204
magum
adjective; accusative singular masculine <magu-> 'Magian' -- 8.305, 8.369, 8.415
magush
adjective; nominative singular masculine <magu-> 'Magian' -- 8.151
manâ
personal pronoun; genitive singular <adam> 'I' -- 7.93, 7.171, 7.191, 8.17, 8.463
manâ
personal pronoun; genitive singular masculine <adam> 'I' -- 7.382, 9.184
maniyâhaiy
verb; 2nd person singular present subjunctive active <man> 'think' -- 7.48
maniyâhaiy
verb; 2nd person singular present subjunctive middle <man> 'think' -- 9.242
maniyâhay
verb; 2nd person singular present imperative middle <man> 'think' -- 7.106
marta
past participle passive; nominative singular masculine <mar> 'die' -- 10.238, 10.319
martiya
noun; nominative singular masculine <martiya-> 'mortal, man, human being' -- 7.32, 7.372, 7.415, 8.150, 8.278, 9.327, 10.272
martiyaibish
noun; instrumental plural masculine <martiya-> 'mortal, man, human being' -- 8.404
martiyam
noun; accusative singular masculine <martiya-> 'mortal, man, human being' -- 9.31
martiyahyâ
noun; genitive singular masculine <martiya-> 'mortal, man, human being' -- 9.43, 9.305
martiyâ
noun; nominative plural masculine <martiya-> 'mortal, man, human being' -- 8.420
injunctive particle; <> (expresses prohibition) -- 7.203, 7.273, 7.430, 10.130
mâtya
injunctive particle; <> (expresses prohibition) + relative conjunction; <tya-> '(so/in order) that' -- 7.104
mâtyamâm
injunctive particle; <> (expresses prohibition) + relative conjunction; accusative singular neuter <tya-> '(so/in order) that' + personal pronoun; accusative singular <adam> 'I' -- 8.337
Mâda
geographic name; nominative singular masculine <Mâda-> 'Media' -- 8.232, 8.289
Mâdaiy
geographic name; locative singular masculine <Mâda-> 'Media' -- 8.127, 8.443
mâm
personal pronoun; accusative singular masculine <adam> 'I' -- 9.186, 9.231, 9.385
mâhyâ
noun; genitive singular masculine <mâha-> 'month' -- 8.172, 8.247, 8.395
Mudrâyam
geographic name; accusative singular masculine <Mudrâya-> 'Egypt' -- 8.95, 8.106
yaudatim
present participle active; accusative singular feminine <yaud> 'rise up, bubble over' -- 9.175
yathâ
adverbial conjunction; <yathâ> 'as, when, because' -- 7.120, 7.170, 7.335, 8.20, 8.75, 8.104, 9.164, 9.230, 10.15
yadaishâ
verb; 2nd person singular present optative middle <yad> 'revere, worship' -- 10.262
yadataiy
verb; 3rd person singular present indicative active <yad> 'revere, worship' -- 10.296
yadâtya
adverb; <yadâ> 'where' + demonstrative pronoun; <tya-> 'he, this, that' -- 10.88
yadâyâ
adverb; <yadâ> 'where' + <tya-> (corrupt form) 'that' -- 10.132
yadipatiy
relative adverb; <yadiy> 'if, when' + adverb; <patiy> 'against, during, with respect to' -- 9.241
yadimaniyâiy
relative adverb; <yadiy> 'if, when' + verb; 3rd person singular present indicative middle <man> 'think' -- 10.226
yadiy
adverb; <yadiy> 'if, when' -- 7.39, 7.205, 7.247, 8.184
yadiyaisha
verb; 3rd person plural present imperative passive <yad> 'revere, worship' -- 10.131
yâtâ
adverbial conjunction; <yâtâ> 'until, while, as long as' -- 7.156, 8.370, 9.382, 10.212
raucabish
noun; instrumental plural neuter <raucah-> 'day' -- 8.181, 8.249, 8.397
ragam
adverb; <ranga-> 'speed, haste' -- 7.118
râdiy
adverb; <râdiy> 'on account of' -- 7.202
vartaiyaiy
verb; 1st person singular present indicative causative middle <vart> 'turn' -- 7.119
varnavatâm
verb; 3rd person singular present imperative middle <var> active 'cover', middle 'choose, convince' -- 7.95, 7.189
vasiy
adverb; <vasiy> 'greatly, utterly' -- 7.232, 8.122, 8.321
vashnâ
noun; instrumental singular masculine <vashna-> 'will, favor' -- 7.73, 7.172, 7.291, 8.449, 9.206, 9.362, 10.60, 10.100, 10.192
vazraka
adjective; nominative singular masculine <vazraka-> 'great' -- 9.6, 9.85
vazrakâyâ
adjective; locative singular feminine <vazraka-> 'great' -- 9.122
vitham
noun; accusative singular feminine <vith-> 'house(hold), clan, royal court' -- 9.405
vithiyâ
noun; instrumental singular feminine <vith-> 'house(hold), clan, royal court' -- 7.383
viyakanam
verbal prefix; <vi> 'wide, apart' + verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <kan> 'dig' -- 10.119
Viyaxnahya
proper name; genitive singular masculine <Viyaxna-> twelfth month of the Persian calendar, February - March -- 8.171
viyanâthaya
verbal prefix; <vi> 'wide, apart' + verb; <nâth> 'injure, rend' -- 7.388
visam
adjective; accusative singular masculine <visa-> 'all, every' -- 10.191
visam
adjective; accusative singular neuter <visa-> 'all, every' -- 9.361
vispazanânâm
adjective; <vispa-> 'all, every' + noun; genitive plural masculine <zana-> 'man' -- 9.104
Vishtâspahyâ
proper name; genitive singular masculine <Vishtâspa-> 'Hystaspes' -- 9.124
Sikayauvatish
geographic name; nominative singular masculine <Sikayauvati-> 'Sikayauvati' -- 8.430
shiyâta
adjective; nominative singular masculine <shiyâta-> 'happy' -- 10.227, 10.316
shiyâtim
noun; accusative singular feminine <shiyati-> 'welfare, peace, happiness' -- 9.41
shkaurim
noun; accusative singular masculine <shkauri-> 'weak' -- 7.367
zűra
noun; <zűra-> 'evil' -- 7.370
zűrakara
noun; nominative singular masculine <zűrakara-> 'evil-doer' -- 7.350, 7.420
hauv
demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular masculine <hauv-> 'he, this' -- 8.155, 8.186, 8.237, 10.306
hauvam
demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular masculine <hauv-> 'he, this' -- 8.43
haxâmanishiya
adjective; nominative singular masculine <haxâmanishiya-> 'Achaemenid' -- 9.133
hacâ
adposition; <hacâ> 'from, out of' -- 7.21, 8.157, 8.169, 8.217, 8.310, 9.329, 9.395
hatiy
verb; 3rd person plural present indicative active <ah> 'be' -- 7.308, 7.334
hadâ
preposition; <hadâ> 'with, together with' -- 8.402
hadugâm
noun; accusative singular feminine <hadugâ-> 'record, statute' -- 7.214, 7.249
hamataxshatâ
prefix; <ham> 'together' + verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <taxsh> 'be active, build, carve, make' -- 7.374
hamapitâ
adverb; <hama-> 'same' + noun; masculine singular nominative <pîtar-> 'father' -- 8.61
hamahyâya
adjective; genitive singular masculine <hama-> 'same' + demonstrative pronoun; locative singular feminine <a-> 'this' -- 7.289
hamahyâyâ
adjective; genitive singular masculine <hama-> 'same' + demonstrative pronoun; locative singular feminine <a-> 'this' -- 7.75, 7.134, 7.174
hamâtâ
adverb; <hama-> 'same' + noun; feminine singular nominative <mâtar-> 'mother' -- 8.60
hamic*iya
adjective; nominative singular masculine <hamic*iya-> 'rebellious' -- 8.215
haruva
adjective; nominative singular masculine <haruva-> 'all' -- 8.214
hashiyam
adjective; accusative singular neuter <hashiya-> 'true' -- 7.122
hya
relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine <hya-> 'who, what, which' -- 7.18, 7.33, 7.80, 7.373, 7.387, 7.412, 7.416, 8.200, 8.294, 8.323, 8.351, 9.8, 9.19, 9.30, 9.33, 9.51, 10.217, 10.273
hyavâ
relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine <hya-> 'who, what, which' + conjunctive particle; <> 'or' -- 7.419