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Old Iranian Online

Old Persian: Master Glossary

Jonathan Slocum and Scott L. Harvey

This Master Glossary page lists, in an alphabetical order suitable to the language and the script employed for it, every unique word form that appears in lesson texts and, for each word, its unique glosses. In addition to the gloss information, sans contextual translation, links are provided to every appearance, in every numbered lesson, of the word/gloss in question. With this index one may perform a quick "word look-up" and, in addition, study how words are used in context by clicking on their links.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to (Romanized) Old Iranian. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (Romanized and Unicode 2) in the left margin.
aita
demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular neuter <aita-> 'he, this' -- 9.350, 9.409, 10.180
aitamaiy
demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular neuter <aita-> 'he, this' + personal pronoun; genitive singular <adam> 'I' -- 9.420
aitā
demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural feminine <aita-> 'he, this' -- 10.29
aitā
demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural feminine <aita-> 'he, this' -- 10.85
aivam
adjective; accusative singular masculine <aiva-> 'one' -- 9.62, 9.72
Auramazdahā
proper name; genitive singular masculine <Auramazdāh-> 'Ahura Mazda' -- 10.61, 10.108, 10.193
Auramazdā
proper name; nominative singular masculine <Auramazdāh-> 'Ahura Mazda' -- 7.219, 7.320, 8.461, 9.7, 9.163, 9.393, 9.428, 10.50, 10.252, 10.285
Auramazdātay
proper name; nominative singular masculine <Auramazdāh-> 'Ahura Mazda' + personal pronoun; genitive singular <tuvam-> 'you' -- 7.261
Auramazdām
proper name; accusative singular masculine <Auramazdāh-> 'Ahura Mazda' -- 8.375, 9.418, 10.145, 10.261, 10.295
Auramazdāmaiy
proper name; nominative singular masculine <Auramazdāh-> 'Ahura Mazda' + enclitic personal pronoun; accusative singular <adam> 'I' -- 7.294, 8.384
Auramazdāmaiy
proper name; nominative singular masculine <Auramazdāh-> 'Ahura Mazda' + personal pronoun; genitive singular <adam> 'I' -- 9.372, 10.202
Auramazdāha
proper name; genitive singular masculine <Auramazdāh-> 'Ahura Mazda' -- 7.74, 7.117, 7.173, 7.292, 8.457
Auramazdāhā
proper name; genitive singular masculine <Auramazdāh-> 'Ahura Mazda' -- 9.207, 9.363
akariya
verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative passive <kar> 'do, make' -- 10.168
akunauš
verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative active <kar> 'do, make' -- 9.54, 9.195
akunava
verb; 3rd person plural imperfect indicative middle <kar> 'do, make' -- 9.229
akunavam
verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <kar> 'do, make' -- 7.65, 7.77, 7.133, 7.281, 7.293, 7.371, 9.371, 9.384, 10.179, 10.190, 10.194, 10.214
agarbāyatā
verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative causative middle <grab> 'seize, grab' -- 8.245, 8.261
ajanam
verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <jan> 'smite, strike, slay' -- 10.72
atar
preposition; <atar> 'within, among' -- 10.28, 10.84
atarsa
verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <tars> 'fear, be afraid' -- 8.312
aθaham
verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <θah> 'speak, say, declare' -- 9.227
adataiy
adverb; <ada> 'then' + enclitic personal pronoun; genitive singular <tuvam-> 'you' -- 9.294, 9.316
adam
personal pronoun; nominative singular <adam> 'I' -- 7.64, 7.132, 7.280, 7.353, 8.197, 8.340, 8.371, 8.374, 8.401, 8.447, 8.458, 9.82, 9.196, 9.226, 9.410, 10.17, 10.71, 10.109, 10.144, 10.170, 10.182
adamšim
personal pronoun; nominative singular <adam> 'I' + enclitic pronoun; accusative singular feminine <ši-> 'she, this' -- 9.208
adaršnauš
verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative active <dars> 'dare' -- 8.356
adā
verb; 3rd person singular aorist indicative active <> 'put, make, create' -- 9.18, 9.29, 9.32, 9.42
adānā
verb; 3rd person singular imperfect middle <xšnā> 'learn, know' -- 8.326
adāraya
verb; 3rd person singular present indicative middle causative <dar> 'hold, support' -- 9.272
adīnam
verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <> 'take, seize' -- 8.448
adurujiya
verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative middle <drug-> 'lie, deceive' -- 8.196
aniyašca
adjective; nominative singular neuter <aniya-> 'other' + conjunction; <ca> 'and, but' -- 10.157
aniyā
adjective; nominative plural feminine <aniya-> 'other' -- 8.234
aniyāuvā
adjective; locative plural feminine <aniya-> 'other' -- 8.136
aniyāha
adjective; nominative plural masculine <aniya-> 'other' -- 7.305, 7.324
anušiyā
noun; nominative plural masculine <anušiya-> 'follower, ally' -- 8.428
apagaudaya
preposition; <apa> 'away' + verb; 2nd person singular present subjunctive active <gud> 'hide' -- 7.204
apagaudayāhy
preposition; <apa> 'away' + verb; 2nd person singular present subjunctive causative active <gud> 'hide' -- 7.216, 7.250
apara
adjective; nominative singular masculine <apara-> 'later, after' -- 10.225
aparam
adverb; <aparam> 'after' -- 7.19, 7.88, 7.413
aparsam
verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <fraθ> 'ask, inquire, investigate, indict' -- 7.398
abara
verb; 3rd person plural imperfect indicative active <bar> 'bear, carry' -- 7.303, 7.322, 8.386
abara
verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <bar> 'bear, carry' -- 9.374, 10.59, 10.204
abaram
verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <bar> 'bear, carry' -- 7.386
abava
verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <bu> 'be, become' -- 8.89, 8.111, 8.123, 8.216
abavam
verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <bu> 'be, become' -- 8.29, 8.460, 10.26
abiy
preposition; <abiy> 'to, toward, against' -- 8.219
amariyatā
verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <mar> 'die' -- 8.265
amāxam
personal pronoun; genitive plural <adam> 'I' -- 8.34, 8.291
amiy
verb; 1st person singular present indicative active <ah> 'be' -- 8.199, 8.350, 9.205
ayauda
verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <yaud> 'rise up, bubble over' -- 10.48
ayadaiy
verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative middle <yad> 'revere, worship' -- 10.146
ayadiya
verb; 3rd person plural imperfect indicative passive <yad> 'revere, worship' -- 10.98, 10.142
Arakadriš
geographic name; nominative singular masculine <Arakadri-> a mountain in Persia -- 8.166
arasam
verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <ar> 'move toward' -- 8.372
arika
adjective; nominative singular masculine <arika-> 'treacherous, evil, hostile' -- 7.337, 8.110
ariya
adjective; nominative singular masculine <ariya-> 'Aryan' -- 9.144
ariyaciça
adjective; <ariya-> 'Aryan' + noun; nominative singular masculine <ciça-> 'seed, lineage' -- 9.145
artācā
noun; instrumental singular neuter <arta-> 'Truth' + conjunction; <ca> 'and, but' -- 10.154, 10.270, 10.304
artāvā
adjective; nominative singular masculine <artāvan-> 'blessed, righteous' -- 10.239, 10.320
arštām
noun; accusative singular feminine <arštā-> 'righteousness, Truth' -- 7.357
arštiš
noun; nominative singular feminine <aršti-> 'spear, weapon' -- 9.307
ava
demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular neuter <ava-> 'this, that' -- 9.228
ava
demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular neuter <ava-> 'this, that' -- 9.360, 10.169
ava
preposition; <ava> 'away, down' -- 10.62
avaina
verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <vaina-> 'see' -- 9.172
avaiy
demonstrative pronoun; accusative plural masculine <ava-> 'this, that' -- 7.429
avaišām
demonstrative pronoun; genitive plural masculine <ava-> 'this, that' -- 7.158
avajata
verbal prefix; <ava> 'away, down' + verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <jan> 'smite, strike, slay' -- 8.92
avaθā
adverb; <avaθa> 'thus, then' -- 7.47, 7.200, 8.188, 8.252, 8.400
avadaša
adverb; <avadā> 'then, there' + enclitic demonstrative pronoun; ablative singular masculine <ša-> 'he, this' -- 8.170
avadašim
adverb; <avadā> 'then, there' + enclitic demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine <ša-> 'he, this' -- 8.444
avadā
adverb; <avadā> 'then, there' -- 9.285, 10.143
avanā
demonstrative pronoun; instrumental singular neuter <ava-> 'this, that' -- 10.248, 10.274
avam
demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine <ava-> 'this, that' -- 7.36, 7.384, 7.389, 8.72, 8.220, 8.295, 8.412, 9.20
avam
demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular neuter <ava-> 'this, that' -- 10.110
avahyarādiy
demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular masculine <ava-> 'this, that' + adverb; <rādiy> 'on account of' -- 7.319, 8.327
avahyā
demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular masculine <ava-> 'this, that' -- 8.47
avā
adverb; <avā> 'thus, as' -- 7.159
avā
relative pronoun; nominative plural feminine <ava-> 'this, that' -- 9.253
avāja
verbal prefix; <ava> 'away, down' + verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <jan> 'smite, strike, slay' -- 8.74, 8.78
avājanam
verbal prefix; <ava> 'away, down' + verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <jan> 'smite, strike, slay' -- 8.416, 8.445
avājaniyā
verbal prefix; <ava> 'away, down' + verb; 3rd person singular present optative active <jan> 'smite, strike, slay' -- 8.322, 8.336
astiy
verb; 3rd person singular present indicative active <ah> 'be' -- 7.161, 10.27
asmānam
noun; accusative singular masculine <asman-> 'sky' -- 9.21
ašiyava
verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <šiyu> 'set out, go' -- 8.103, 8.107, 8.228
azdā
adverb; <azdā> 'known' -- 8.88, 9.295, 9.317
ahatiy
verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive active <ah> 'be' -- 7.35, 7.51, 7.418, 7.421
ahaniy
verb; 1st person singular present subjunctive active <ah> 'be' -- 10.228, 10.240
ahyāyā
demonstrative pronoun; locative singular feminine <a-> 'this' -- 9.113
āha
verb; 3rd person plural imperfect indicative active <ah> 'be' -- 7.157, 8.183, 8.251, 8.399, 9.252
āha
verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative active <ah> 'be' -- 8.46, 8.59, 8.152, 8.277, 9.240, 10.87, 10.165
āhatā
verb; 3rd person plural imperfect indicative middle <ah> 'be' -- 8.429
āham
verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <ah> 'be' -- 7.338, 7.341, 7.351
āhy
verb; 2nd person singular present subjunctive active <ah> 'be' -- 7.20, 7.414
idā
adverb; <idā> 'here' -- 8.44
ima
demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular neuter <ima-> 'he, this' -- 7.62, 7.121, 7.278, 8.15
imām
demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular feminine <ima-> 'he, this' -- 7.89, 7.206, 7.248, 9.407
imām
demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine <ima-> 'he, this' -- 9.9, 9.173
utašim
conjunctive particle; <utā> 'and' + enclitic pronoun; accusative singular feminine <ši-> 'she, this' -- 10.73
utā
conjunction; <utā> 'and' -- 7.234, 7.304, 7.323, 8.124, 8.126, 8.128, 8.229, 8.231, 8.233, 8.417, 9.406, 10.83, 10.120, 10.156, 10.237, 10.294, 10.307, 10.318
utātaiy
conjunctive particle; <utā> 'and' + personal pronoun; genitive singular <tuvam-> 'you' -- 7.230, 7.264
utāmaiy
conjunctive particle; <utā> 'and' + personal pronoun; genitive singular <adam> 'I' -- 9.397
udapatatā
verbal prefix; <ud> 'up' + verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <pat> 'fly, fall' -- 8.156, 8.185
upariy
adverb; <upariy> 'over, above, in accordance with' -- 7.356, 10.39
upariyāyam
adverb; <upariy> 'over, above, in accordance with' + verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <i> 'go' -- 7.358
upastām
noun; accusative singular feminine <upastā-> 'aid, support' -- 7.295, 7.321, 8.385, 9.373, 10.51, 10.203
ufraštam
adverb; <u> 'well, good' + past participle passive; accusative singular masculine <fraθ> 'ask, inquire, investigate, indict' -- 7.37, 7.390
ufraštādiy
adverb; <u> 'well, good' + past participle passive; accusative singular masculine <fraθ> 'ask, inquire, investigate, indict' + emphatic particle; <diy> (used for emphasis) -- 7.433
ubartam
prefix; <u> 'well, good' + adverb; <bartam> 'well-born' -- 7.385
uvāmaršiyuš
adjective; nominative singular masculine <uvāmaršiyu-> 'self-inflicted death' -- 8.264
I
Roman numeral; <I> 'one' -- 8.149
IX
Roman numeral; <IX> 'nine' -- 8.248
kaufa
noun; nominative singular masculine <kaufa-> 'mountain' -- 8.168
Kabūjiya
proper name; nominative singular masculine <Kambūjiya-> 'Cambyses' -- 8.30, 8.64, 8.76, 8.94, 8.105, 8.263
Kabūjiyahyā
proper name; genitive singular masculine <Kambūjiya-> 'Cambyses' -- 8.48, 8.62, 8.203
Kabūjiyā
proper name; ablative singular masculine <Kambūjiya-> 'Cambyses' -- 8.218
kamnaibiš
adjective; instrumental plural masculine <kamna-> 'few' -- 8.403
kartam
past participle passive; accusative singular neuter <kar> 'do, make' -- 9.383, 10.213
kartam
past participle passive; nominative singular neuter <kar> 'do, make' -- 7.94, 7.162, 7.176, 7.199, 8.18, 9.352
kašciy
indefinite pronoun; nominative singular masculine <kašciy-> 'any, anyone, anything' -- 8.293, 8.354
particle; <> (denotes generalization) -- 7.16, 7.79, 7.403, 10.216
kāma
noun; nominative singular masculine <kāma-> 'wish, desire' -- 9.239
kāra
noun; nominative singular masculine <kāra-> 'man, person; the people' -- 8.109, 8.213
kāram
noun; accusative singular masculine <kāra-> 'man, person; the people' -- 8.320, 8.335
kārašim
noun; nominative singular masculine <kāra-> 'man, person; the people' + enclitic demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine <ša-> 'he, this' -- 8.309
kārahyā
noun; genitive singular masculine <kāra-> 'man, person; the people' -- 7.201, 7.217, 7.260, 8.79, 8.187
Kūrauš
proper name; genitive singular masculine <Kūru-> 'Cyrus' -- 8.32, 8.201, 8.352
X
Roman numeral; <X> 'ten' -- 8.396
XIV
Roman numeral; <XIV> 'fourteen' -- 8.180
xsāyaθiya
noun; nominative singular masculine <xšāyaθiya-> 'royal, king' -- 7.61
xšaçam
noun; accusative singular neuter <xšaça-> 'kingship, sovereignty, kingdom' -- 8.236, 8.253, 8.306, 8.462
xšaçamšim
noun; accusative singular neuter <xšaça-> 'kingship, sovereignty, kingdom' + enclitic demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine <ša-> 'he, this' -- 8.446
Xšayāršā
proper name; nominative singular masculine <Xšayāršan-> 'Xerxes' -- 10.6
xšāyaθiya
noun; nominative singular masculine <xšāyaθiya-> 'royal, king' -- 7.7, 7.17, 7.109, 7.145, 7.186, 7.246, 7.277, 7.318, 7.401, 7.404, 8.14, 8.21, 8.45, 8.140, 8.275, 8.459, 9.84, 9.93, 9.102, 9.112, 9.162, 9.197, 9.264, 9.349, 10.14, 10.25
xšāyaθiyam
noun; accusative singular masculine <xšāyaθiya-> 'royal, king' -- 9.53, 9.64, 9.187
xšāyaθiyā
noun; instrumental singular masculine <xšāyaθiya-> 'royal, king' -- 7.155
xšāyaθiyānām
noun; genitive plural masculine <xšāyaθiya-> 'royal, king' -- 9.94
xšnāsātiy
verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive active <xšnā> 'learn, know' -- 8.338
xšnāsāhy
verb; 2nd person singular present subjunctive active <xšnā> 'learn, know' -- 9.286
Gaumāta
proper name; nominative singular masculine <Gaumāta-> 'Gaumata' -- 8.153
Gaumātam
proper name; accusative singular masculine <Gaumāta-> 'Gaumata' -- 8.296, 8.367, 8.413
Garmapadahya
proper name; genitive singular masculine <Garmapada-> fourth month of the Persian calendar, June - July -- 8.246
gastā
noun; ablative singular neuter <gasta-> 'evil, harm' -- 9.396
gāθavā
noun; locative singular feminine <gāθu-> 'place, throne, battlefield' -- 9.216, 10.74
gāθum
noun; accusative singular feminine <gāθu-> 'place, throne, battlefield' -- 9.276
caxriyā
verb; 3rd person singular perfect optative causative active <kar> 'do, make' -- 8.308
ciyakaram
adverb; <cayakaram> 'how much, how many' -- 9.251
cišciy
indefinite pronoun; accusative singular masculine <kašciy-> 'any, anyone, anything' -- 8.357
jatā
noun; nominative singular masculine <jatar-> 'smiter' -- 7.262
jadiyāmiy
verb; 1st person singular present indicative active <jad> 'pray, ask' -- 9.419
jīva
present active particle; nominative singular masculine <jiva-> 'living' -- 10.236, 10.308
jīvā
noun; nominative singular feminine <jīvā-> 'life' -- 7.236
taumā
noun; nominative singular feminine <taumā-> 'family' -- 7.231, 7.265, 7.355
taumāyā
noun; genitive singular feminine <taumā-> 'family' -- 8.35, 8.292
tunuvatam
noun; accusative singular masculine <tunuvat-> 'possessing power' -- 7.369
tuva
pronoun; nominative singular <tuvam-> 'you' -- 10.215
tuvam
personal pronoun; nominative singular masculine <tuvam-> 'you' -- 7.15, 7.78, 7.402
tya
relative conjunction; accusative singular neuter <tya-> '(so/in order) that' -- 8.90, 9.243
tya
relative pronoun; <tya-> 'who, which; that' -- 10.16, 10.166
tya
relative pronoun; accusative singular neuter <tya-> 'who, which; that' -- 7.63, 7.279, 8.339, 10.181, 10.251, 10.284
tya
relative pronoun; nominative singular neuter <tya-> 'who, which; that' -- 7.92, 7.190, 8.16, 9.351
tyaiy
demonstrative pronoun; instrumental plural masculine <tya-> 'he, this, that' -- 7.146
tyaiy
relative pronoun; accusative plural masculine <tya-> 'who, which; that' -- 9.275
tyaiy
relative pronoun; accusative singular neuter <tya-> 'who, which; that' -- 10.38
tyaiy
relative pronoun; nominative plural masculine <tya-> 'who, which; that' -- 7.307, 7.333
tyaišaiy
relative pronoun; nominative plural masculine <tya-> 'who, which; that' + enclitic pronoun; genitive singular masculine <sa-> 'he, this' -- 8.418
tyam
demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine <tya-> 'he, this, that' -- 8.304, 8.368, 8.414
tyašām
relative pronoun; accusative singular neuter <tya-> 'who, which; that' + enclitic demonstrative pronoun; genitive plural masculine <ša-> 'he, this' -- 9.218
tyā
relative pronoun; nominative plural feminine <tya-> 'who, which; that' -- 9.262
θakatā
adjective; nominative plural neuter <θakatay-> 'past' -- 8.182, 8.250, 8.398
θarda
noun; genitive singular feminine <θard-> 'autumn, year' -- 7.76, 7.135, 7.175, 7.290
θastanaiy
infinitive; <θah> 'speak, say, declare' -- 8.358
θātiy
verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative active <θah> 'speak, say, declare' -- 7.59, 7.107, 7.143, 7.177, 7.244, 7.275, 7.309, 7.399, 8.5, 8.138, 8.273, 9.153, 9.340, 10.5
θātiy
verb; 3rd person singular present indicative active <θah> 'speak, say, declare' -- 7.5
θāhy
verb; 2nd person singular present indicative active <θah> 'speak, say, declare' -- 7.218, 7.259
θuvām
personal pronoun; accusative singular masculine <tuvam-> 'you' -- 7.103, 7.188, 7.220
daivadānam
noun; <daiva-> 'daiva' + noun; accusative singular neuter <dāna-> 'offering' -- 10.111
daivā
noun; accusative plural masculine <daiva-> 'daiva' -- 10.97, 10.122, 10.134
dauštā
noun; nominative singular masculine <dauštar-> 'friend' -- 7.228, 7.431
dadātuv
verb; 3rd person singular present imperative active <> 'give, take' -- 9.429
dargam
adverb; <dargam> 'long' -- 7.235
daršam
adverb; <daršam> 'greatly, mightily, steadfastly' -- 7.23, 8.311
dahyauvā
noun; locative singular feminine <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' -- 8.121
dahyāum
noun; accusative singular feminine <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' -- 9.408
dahyāuš
noun; nominative singular feminine <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' -- 8.442
dahyāušmaiy
noun; nominative singular feminine <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' + personal pronoun; genitive singular masculine <adam> 'I' -- 7.49
dahyāva
noun; accusative plural feminine <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' -- 10.37, 10.86
dahyāva
noun; nominative plural feminine <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' -- 8.235, 9.254
dahyāvam
noun; accusative singular feminine <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' -- 10.63
dahyušuvā
noun; locative plural feminine <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' -- 8.137
dahyūnām
noun; genitive plural feminine <dahyu-> 'country, land, region' -- 9.103
dātā
noun; accusative plural neuter <dāta-> 'law' -- 10.249, 10.282
Dārayavaum
proper name; accusative singular masculine <Dārayavahu-> 'Darius' -- 9.52
Dārayavauš
proper name; nominative singular masculine <Dārayavahu-> 'Darius' -- 7.6, 7.60, 7.108, 7.144, 7.185, 7.245, 7.276, 7.310, 7.400, 8.13, 8.139, 8.274, 9.83, 9.161, 9.263, 9.348
didā
noun; nominative singular feminine <didā-> 'fortress, wall' -- 8.432
dipim
noun; accusative singular feminine <dipi-> 'inscription' -- 7.90
dītam
past participle passive; accusative singular neuter <> 'give, take' -- 8.307
dīdiy
verb; 2nd person singular present imperative middle <di> 'see, look' -- 9.274
duruxtam
adjective; accusative singular neuter <duruxta-> 'false' -- 7.124
duruvā
adjective; nominative singular feminine <duruva-> 'durable, stable, firm, secure' -- 7.50
duškartam
adverb; <duš> 'difficult, bad, evil' + past participle passive; accusative singular masculine <kar> 'do, make' -- 10.167
dūraiapiy
adverb; <dūra> 'far' + enclitic particle; <apiy> emphatic particle -- 9.123
dūraiy
adverb; <dūraiy> 'afar, far away' -- 9.306
dūrayapiy
adverb; <dūra> 'far' + enclitic particle; <apiy> emphatic particle -- 9.328
drauga
noun; nominative singular masculine <drauga-> 'deceit, the Lie' -- 8.120
draugam
noun; accusative singular masculine <drauga-> 'deceit, the Lie' -- 7.105
draugā
noun; ablative singular masculine <drauga-> 'deceit, the Lie' -- 7.22
draujana
adjective; nominative singular masculine <draujana-> 'deceitful, follower of the Lie' -- 7.34, 7.340, 7.417
naibam
adjective; accusative singular neuter <naiba-> 'beautiful, pious' -- 10.178
naimaiy
negative particle; <naiy> 'not' + enclitic personal pronoun; genitive singular <adam> 'I' -- 7.354
naiy
negative particle; <naiy> 'not' -- 7.123, 7.160, 7.215, 7.258, 7.336, 7.339, 7.342, 7.352, 7.366, 7.368, 8.87, 8.276, 8.286, 8.288, 8.290, 8.341, 8.355
nāma
adverb; <nāma> 'by name, named, called' -- 8.31, 8.58, 8.154, 8.167
nāmā
adverb; <nāma> 'by name, named, called' -- 8.431, 8.434
nipištā
verbal prefix; <ni> 'down' + past participle passive; accusative plural feminine <paiθ> 'inscribe, engrave' -- 10.40
niyašādayam
verbal prefix; <ni> 'down' + verb; 1st person singular present imperfect indicative active causative <had> 'sit' -- 9.217
niyaštāya
verbal prefix; <ni> 'down' + verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <šta> 'sit, set, place' -- 10.260
Nisāya
geographic name; nominative singular masculine <Nisāya-> 'Nisaya' -- 8.433
nīšādayam
verbal prefix; <ni> 'down' + verb; 1st person singular present indicative active causative <had> 'sit' -- 10.75
nīštāya
verbal prefix; <ni> 'down' + verb; 3rd person singular present indicative middle <šta> 'sit, set, place' -- 10.293
nūram
adverb; <nūram> 'now' -- 7.187
Paišiyāuvādāyā
geographic name; ablative singular feminine <Paišiyāuvādā-> 'Paishiyauvada' -- 8.158
patikarā
noun; accusative plural masculine <patikara-> 'picture, carved/incised likeness' -- 9.273
patipayauvā
prefix; <patiy> 'against, during, with respect to' + verb; 2nd person singular present imperative middle <> 'protect' -- 7.31
patiparsāhy
prefix; <patiy> 'against, during, with respect to' + verb; 2nd person singular present subjunctive active <parsa-> 'examine, read' -- 7.91
patiyajatā
verbal prefix; <patiy> 'against, during, with respect to' + verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <jan> 'smite, strike, slay' -- 9.339
patiyazbayam
verbal prefix; <patiy> 'against, during, with respect to' + verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active causative <zbā-> 'call' -- 10.121
patiyāvahyaiy
preposition; <patiy> 'against, during, with respect to' + denominative; 1st person singular imperfect middle <avahya-> 'ask for help' -- 8.383
paranam
adverb; <paranam> 'before' -- 8.324
parāgmatā
adverb; <parā> 'forth, forward, beyond' + past participle passive; nominative singular feminine <gam> 'go' -- 9.315
pariy
adverb; <pariy> 'toward, with respect to' -- 8.366
pariyaita
verbal prefix; <pariy> 'toward, with respect to' + verb; 3rd person singular present indicative middle <ay> 'go' -- 10.283
parīdiy
verbal prefix; <pariy> 'toward, with respect to' + verb; 3rd person singular present imperative middle <ay> 'go' -- 10.250
paruvam
adverb; <paruvam> 'previously, before' -- 10.96, 10.133
paruvā
adjective; instrumental singular masculine <paruva-> 'before, previous' -- 7.154
parūvnām
adjective; genitive plural masculine <paru-> 'much, many' -- 9.63, 9.73
partaram
noun; accusative singular neuter <partara-> 'battle' -- 9.338
parsā
verb; 2nd person singular present imperative <fraθ> 'ask, inquire, investigate, indict' -- 7.38
parsā
verb; 2nd person singular present optative active <fraθ> 'ask, inquire, investigate, indict' -- 7.434
pasāva
adverb; <pasāva> 'after(wards)' -- 8.19, 8.63, 8.93, 8.108, 8.119, 8.141, 8.212, 8.262, 8.373, 10.99
pasāvadim
adverb; <pasāva> 'after(wards)' + enclitic demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine <di-> 'this' -- 9.183
pasāvamaiy
adverb; <pasāva> 'after(wards)' + personal pronoun; genitive singular <adam> 'I' -- 10.49
pātuv
verb; 3rd person singular present imperative active <> 'protect' -- 9.394
pārsa
adjective; nominative singular masculine <pārsa-> 'Persian' -- 9.134, 9.326
Pārsa
geographic name; nominative singular masculine <Pārsa-> 'Persia' -- 8.230, 8.287
Pārsaiy
geographic name; locative singular masculine <Pārsa-> 'Persia' -- 8.125
pārsahyā
adjective; genitive singular masculine <pārsa-> 'Persian' -- 9.135, 9.297
Pārsā
geographic name; ablative singular masculine <Pārsa-> 'Persia' -- 9.330
puça
noun; nominative singular masculine <puça-> 'son' -- 8.33, 8.202, 8.353, 9.132, 9.143
fratamā
adjective; nominative plural masculine <fratama-> 'first, foremost' -- 8.419
framātāram
noun; accusative singular masculine <framātar-> 'lord, master' -- 9.74
frābara
verbal prefix; <fra> 'to, toward, forth' + verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative active <bar> 'bear, carry' -- 9.185
frābara
verbal prefix; <fra> 'to, toward, forth' + verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <bar> 'bear, carry' -- 8.464
baga
noun; nominative singular masculine <baga-> 'god' -- 9.5
bagāha
noun; nominative plural masculine <baga-> 'god' -- 7.306, 7.332
baratiy
verb; 3rd person plural present indicative active <bar> 'bear, carry' -- 9.284
Bardiya
proper name; accusative singular masculine <Bardiya-> 'Bardiya', known from Greek sources as Smerdis -- 8.91
Bardiya
proper name; nominative singular masculine <Bardiya-> 'Bardiya', known from Greek sources as Smerdis -- 8.57, 8.198, 8.342
Bardiyam
proper name; accusative singular masculine <Bardiya-> 'Bardiya', known from Greek sources as Smerdis -- 8.73, 8.77, 8.325
bavatiy
verb; 1st person singular present indicative active <ah> 'be' -- 10.317, 10.328
bavātiy
verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive active <bu> 'be, become' -- 9.296, 9.318
Bāgayādaiš
proper name; genitive singular masculine <Bāgayādi-> seventh month of the Persian calendar, September - October -- 8.387
biyā
verb; 2nd person singular present optative active <bu> 'be, become' -- 7.432
biyā
verb; 3rd person singular present optative active <bu> 'be, become' -- 7.229, 7.233, 7.263, 7.274
būmim
noun; accusative singular feminine <būmi-> 'earth' -- 9.17, 9.174
būmiyā
noun; locative singular feminine <būmi-> 'earth' -- 9.114
brazmaniya
adjective; nominative singular masculine <brazmaniya-> 'reverent' -- 10.155, 10.271, 10.305
brātā
noun; nominative singular masculine <brātar-> 'brother' -- 8.49, 8.204
magum
adjective; accusative singular masculine <magu-> 'Magian' -- 8.305, 8.369, 8.415
maguš
adjective; nominative singular masculine <magu-> 'Magian' -- 8.151
manā
personal pronoun; genitive singular <adam> 'I' -- 7.93, 7.171, 7.191, 8.17, 8.463
manā
personal pronoun; genitive singular masculine <adam> 'I' -- 7.382, 9.184
maniyāhaiy
verb; 2nd person singular present subjunctive active <man> 'think' -- 7.48
maniyāhaiy
verb; 2nd person singular present subjunctive middle <man> 'think' -- 9.242
maniyāhay
verb; 2nd person singular present imperative middle <man> 'think' -- 7.106
marta
past participle passive; nominative singular masculine <mar> 'die' -- 10.238, 10.319
martiya
noun; nominative singular masculine <martiya-> 'mortal, man, human being' -- 7.32, 7.372, 7.415, 8.150, 8.278, 9.327, 10.272
martiyaibiš
noun; instrumental plural masculine <martiya-> 'mortal, man, human being' -- 8.404
martiyam
noun; accusative singular masculine <martiya-> 'mortal, man, human being' -- 9.31
martiyahyā
noun; genitive singular masculine <martiya-> 'mortal, man, human being' -- 9.43, 9.305
martiyā
noun; nominative plural masculine <martiya-> 'mortal, man, human being' -- 8.420
injunctive particle; <> (expresses prohibition) -- 7.203, 7.273, 7.430, 10.130
mātya
injunctive particle; <> (expresses prohibition) + relative conjunction; <tya-> '(so/in order) that' -- 7.104
mātyamām
injunctive particle; <> (expresses prohibition) + relative conjunction; accusative singular neuter <tya-> '(so/in order) that' + personal pronoun; accusative singular <adam> 'I' -- 8.337
Māda
geographic name; nominative singular masculine <Māda-> 'Media' -- 8.232, 8.289
Mādaiy
geographic name; locative singular masculine <Māda-> 'Media' -- 8.127, 8.443
mām
personal pronoun; accusative singular masculine <adam> 'I' -- 9.186, 9.231, 9.385
māhyā
noun; genitive singular masculine <māha-> 'month' -- 8.172, 8.247, 8.395
Mudrāyam
geographic name; accusative singular masculine <Mudrāya-> 'Egypt' -- 8.95, 8.106
yaudatim
present participle active; accusative singular feminine <yaud> 'rise up, bubble over' -- 9.175
yaθā
adverbial conjunction; <yaθā> 'as, when, because' -- 7.120, 7.170, 7.335, 8.20, 8.75, 8.104, 9.164, 9.230, 10.15
yadaišā
verb; 2nd person singular present optative middle <yad> 'revere, worship' -- 10.262
yadataiy
verb; 3rd person singular present indicative active <yad> 'revere, worship' -- 10.296
yadātya
adverb; <yadā> 'where' + demonstrative pronoun; <tya-> 'he, this, that' -- 10.88
yadāyā
adverb; <yadā> 'where' + <tya-> (corrupt form) 'that' -- 10.132
yadipatiy
relative adverb; <yadiy> 'if, when' + adverb; <patiy> 'against, during, with respect to' -- 9.241
yadimaniyāiy
relative adverb; <yadiy> 'if, when' + verb; 3rd person singular present indicative middle <man> 'think' -- 10.226
yadiy
adverb; <yadiy> 'if, when' -- 7.39, 7.205, 7.247, 8.184
yadiyaiša
verb; 3rd person plural present imperative passive <yad> 'revere, worship' -- 10.131
yātā
adverbial conjunction; <yātā> 'until, while, as long as' -- 7.156, 8.370, 9.382, 10.212
raucabiš
noun; instrumental plural neuter <raucah-> 'day' -- 8.181, 8.249, 8.397
ragam
adverb; <ranga-> 'speed, haste' -- 7.118
rādiy
adverb; <rādiy> 'on account of' -- 7.202
vartaiyaiy
verb; 1st person singular present indicative causative middle <vart> 'turn' -- 7.119
varnavatām
verb; 3rd person singular present imperative middle <var> active 'cover', middle 'choose, convince' -- 7.95, 7.189
vasiy
adverb; <vasiy> 'greatly, utterly' -- 7.232, 8.122, 8.321
vašnā
noun; instrumental singular masculine <vašna-> 'will, favor' -- 7.73, 7.172, 7.291, 8.449, 9.206, 9.362, 10.60, 10.100, 10.192
vazraka
adjective; nominative singular masculine <vazraka-> 'great' -- 9.6, 9.85
vazrakāyā
adjective; locative singular feminine <vazraka-> 'great' -- 9.122
viθam
noun; accusative singular feminine <viθ-> 'house(hold), clan, royal court' -- 9.405
viθiyā
noun; instrumental singular feminine <viθ-> 'house(hold), clan, royal court' -- 7.383
viyakanam
verbal prefix; <vi> 'wide, apart' + verb; 1st person singular imperfect indicative active <kan> 'dig' -- 10.119
Viyaxnahya
proper name; genitive singular masculine <Viyaxna-> twelfth month of the Persian calendar, February - March -- 8.171
viyanāθaya
verbal prefix; <vi> 'wide, apart' + verb; <nāθ> 'injure, rend' -- 7.388
visam
adjective; accusative singular masculine <visa-> 'all, every' -- 10.191
visam
adjective; accusative singular neuter <visa-> 'all, every' -- 9.361
vispazanānām
adjective; <vispa-> 'all, every' + noun; genitive plural masculine <zana-> 'man' -- 9.104
Vištāspahyā
proper name; genitive singular masculine <Vištāspa-> 'Hystaspes' -- 9.124
Sikayauvatiš
geographic name; nominative singular masculine <Sikayauvati-> 'Sikayauvati' -- 8.430
šiyāta
adjective; nominative singular masculine <šiyāta-> 'happy' -- 10.227, 10.316
šiyātim
noun; accusative singular feminine <šiyati-> 'welfare, peace, happiness' -- 9.41
škaurim
noun; accusative singular masculine <škauri-> 'weak' -- 7.367
zūra
noun; <zūra-> 'evil' -- 7.370
zūrakara
noun; nominative singular masculine <zūrakara-> 'evil-doer' -- 7.350, 7.420
hauv
demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular masculine <hauv-> 'he, this' -- 8.155, 8.186, 8.237, 10.306
hauvam
demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular masculine <hauv-> 'he, this' -- 8.43
haxāmanišiya
adjective; nominative singular masculine <haxāmanišiya-> 'Achaemenid' -- 9.133
hacā
adposition; <hacā> 'from, out of' -- 7.21, 8.157, 8.169, 8.217, 8.310, 9.329, 9.395
hatiy
verb; 3rd person plural present indicative active <ah> 'be' -- 7.308, 7.334
hadā
preposition; <hadā> 'with, together with' -- 8.402
hadugām
noun; accusative singular feminine <hadugā-> 'record, statute' -- 7.214, 7.249
hamataxšatā
prefix; <ham> 'together' + verb; 3rd person singular imperfect indicative middle <taxš> 'be active, build, carve, make' -- 7.374
hamapitā
adverb; <hama-> 'same' + noun; masculine singular nominative <pītar-> 'father' -- 8.61
hamahyāya
adjective; genitive singular masculine <hama-> 'same' + demonstrative pronoun; locative singular feminine <a-> 'this' -- 7.289
hamahyāyā
adjective; genitive singular masculine <hama-> 'same' + demonstrative pronoun; locative singular feminine <a-> 'this' -- 7.75, 7.134, 7.174
hamātā
adverb; <hama-> 'same' + noun; feminine singular nominative <mātar-> 'mother' -- 8.60
hamiçiya
adjective; nominative singular masculine <hamiçiya-> 'rebellious' -- 8.215
haruva
adjective; nominative singular masculine <haruva-> 'all' -- 8.214
hašiyam
adjective; accusative singular neuter <hašiya-> 'true' -- 7.122
hya
relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine <hya-> 'who, what, which' -- 7.18, 7.33, 7.80, 7.373, 7.387, 7.412, 7.416, 8.200, 8.294, 8.323, 8.351, 9.8, 9.19, 9.30, 9.33, 9.51, 10.217, 10.273
hyavā
relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine <hya-> 'who, what, which' + conjunctive particle; <> 'or' -- 7.419