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Tocharian Online

Tocharian A: Base Form Dictionary

Jonathan Slocum and Todd B. Krause

This Base Form Dictionary index lists, in an alphabetical order suitable to the language and the script employed for it, every unique base form underlying one or more surface (word) forms in lesson texts. For each base form a general meaning (if any) is shown, along with links to every usage, in every numbered lesson, of the associated surface forms. With this index, one may click on any link to perform a quick "usage look-up," and thereby study how surface forms in texts are constructed from base forms.

A new, experimental feature is being introduced to these EIEOL lessons, namely the addition of pointers to Proto-Indo-European roots identified by Julius Pokorny in his monumental work, Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (2 vols. Bern: Franke, 1959-1969; reprinted in 1989). Because Pokorny is becoming increasingly outdated, we may revise these links in the future; however, for the time being, this information might prove interesting to those who are curious about Indo-European etymology. Notice of potential error is always welcome.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (Unicode 2 and Unicode 3) in the left margin.
<akälyme>   under the control of   --
2.309
<akäm.tsune>   possession   --
2.100
<appärma:t>   despicable   --
1.213
<amok>   art, skill   --
2.7, 2.48, 2.54, 2.88, 2.117, 2.132, 2.327
<amokäts>   artist, artisan   --
2.22, 2.66
<amoks.i>   artistic   --
2.67
<ats>   (emphasizing particle), even, indeed   --
2.141, 2.257
<a:käls.äl>   (one) to be taught, student   --
2.97
<a:ral>   end (?)   --
2.286
<a:rkis'os.i>   world   --
1.306, 2.113
<a:rwar>   ready   --
1.253
<a:rs.al>   serpent   --
1.132, 1.161
<a:lak>   other   --
1.232
<a:la:s>   slothful   --
1.266
<a:la:sune>   sloth   --
1.236, 1.298
<a:s.a:nik>   worthy (of praise)   --
3.22, 5.76
<a:s.a:m.>   worthy   --
2.305
<a:suk>   over   --
1.177
<-k>   (emphatic particle), indeed, even   --
1.196, 2.70
<-ne>   (indefinite marker), (relative marker)   --
2.65, 2.223
<-puklyi>   yearly, pertaining to the year   --
3.23, 3.78, 4.22, 4.78, 5.24, 5.77
<-m, -äm>   (pronominal suffix for 1st, 2nd, 3rd persons pl.) us, you, them   --
1.258, 1.270, 1.273, 1.284, 1.289, 2.73, 2.83, 2.86, 2.91, 2.102
<i->   go   --
1.85, 1.146, 1.151, 2.207, 3.52, 3.107, 4.51, 4.77, 4.105, 5.51, 5.103
<ekrorn'e>   poverty   --
1.187
<ents->   seize   --
2.284
<empele>   awful   --
1.175, 2.243
<el>   gift   --
2.303
<okät>   eight   --
3.5, 4.100, 5.24
<oki>   like, as   --
2.292
<oppal>   lotus   --
1.124, 1.126, 1.127
<omäskem.>   evil   --
2.244
<ort>   friend (?)   --
2.283
<ortune>   friendship   --
2.94
<olyi>   ship   --
1.95
<os.en'i>   by night   --
2.220
<Kanakamuni>   Kanakamuni, name of a Buddha   --
5.9
<kappa:n'>   (pl.) cotton plant (?)   --
1.271
<kayurs.>   bull   --
2.291
<kalpavr.käs.>   "wish-tree"   --
1.252, 1.269
<ka:cke>   joy   --
2.90
<ka:run.ik>   compassionate, merciful   --
3.77
<ka:rp->   step down to, descend   --
1.82, 1.128
<ka:ryap>   harm   --
1.230
<Ka:s'yap>   Kasyap, name of a Buddha   --
5.63
<ka:su>   good   --
1.5, 1.59, 1.208, 2.20, 2.162, 4.76
<kätk->   go beyond, exceed   --
1.164, 1.178, 1.200, 1.201, 1.207
<käm->   come   --
1.41
<kärs.t->   cut off   --
2.47
<kälk->   go   --
1.104, 1.108, 1.112, 1.129, 1.135, 2.310
<kälp>   attain   --
2.100
<kälp->   acquire, attain   --
3.25, 3.80, 4.24, 4.80, 5.26, 5.79
<kälp->   attain   --
1.17, 1.21, 1.184, 1.209, 2.95, 2.134
<kälyme>   direction, path, path to heaven   --
1.9, 2.23, 2.208
<käs.s.i>   teacher   --
2.121, 3.21
<käs->   expire, die   --
3.51, 3.106, 4.50, 4.104, 5.50, 5.102
<kuprene>   when, if   --
2.312
<kuma...>   ... (name of a type of metrical verse)   --
2.12
<k(u)yalte>   because, for   --
1.244, 2.11
<kuryar>   commerce   --
2.180
<kursär>   mile, vehicle   --
1.131
<kusne>   which   --
2.200
<kosne>   as, as much (as), as often (as)   --
1.235
<kosprem.>   how much?, how far?   --
2.63
<kom.>   day, sun   --
1.101, 1.106, 1.110, 1.121
<kn'uk>   neck   --
1.102
<kna:->   know   --
5.23
<Krakasundi>   Krakasundi, name of a Buddha   --
4.63
<krop->   gather   --
1.268, 2.29, 2.137, 2.138, 2.204, 2.217
<klu>   rice   --
1.249, 1.267, 1.283
<klum.ts>   thread   --
1.167
<klyu>   fame   --
1.6, 2.21
<cinta:man.i>   'wish-jewel' (a type of precious stone)   --
1.181
<cwal>   beginning (?)   --
2.285
<Jambudvip>   Jambudvipa   --
1.97, 1.186
<n'a:tse>   hardship, danger   --
2.159
<n'äkci>   godly, heavenly   --
2.112
<n'u>   nine   --
3.23
<n'emi>   jewel   --
1.93
<n'emis.i>   related to jewels, of jewels   --
1.83
<n'om>   name   --
1.6, 2.21, 3.10, 3.65, 4.10, 4.64, 5.10, 5.64
<n'kät>   god   --
2.315
<tampewa:ts>   powerful   --
2.247
<tam.ne>   so   --
2.122, 2.216
<ta:->   set, lay   --
2.163, 2.187, 2.237
<ta:k->   be   --
1.273, 1.289
<täprem.>   so (much)   --
1.226, 2.70
<täm->   beget, produce   --
2.89
<tämne>   so, thus   --
1.73
<tämyo>   by this, from this, therefore   --
1.58, 1.303, 2.118, 2.326
<torim.>   finally   --
1.183, 1.210
<tkam.>   earth   --
1.134, 2.173
<tma:m.>   ten thousand   --
3.5, 3.23, 3.33, 3.46, 3.60, 3.78, 3.88, 3.100, 4.5, 4.22, 4.32, 4.45, 4.59, 4.78, 4.88, 5.5, 5.34, 5.59, 5.87
<tmäs.>   thereupon, then   --
1.143, 1.147, 1.149, 1.159, 2.135
<trän`k->   say   --
2.6
<trit>   third   --
2.92, 2.179
<tre, tri>   three   --
4.22, 4.32, 5.5
<traidha:tuk>   the world composed of three spheres (desire, beauty, non-beauty)   --
1.204
<dvip>   island   --
1.145
<nam>   bow, obeisance   --
1.13
<nas->   be   --
1.50, 1.234, 1.302, 2.83, 2.116, 3.12, 3.67, 4.12, 4.66, 5.12, 5.66
<na:k>   serpent   --
1.176
<na:käm>   blame   --
2.318
<näk->   perish, destroy   --
1.270, 1.284, 2.41, 2.51
<näm->   bow, bend   --
1.38
<näs., n'uk>   I   --
1.63, 1.305, 2.328
<nis.pal>   domain, holdings   --
1.33, 2.39, 2.52, 2.136, 2.140, 2.202, 2.218, 2.235
<nu>   now, even, anyway   --
1.299, 2.49, 2.139, 2.176, 2.182, 2.226, 2.269
<nu->   roar   --
2.293
<nes.>   earlier, prior   --
1.74, 1.245, 2.133
<pat>   or   --
2.225
<pa:k>   part   --
2.142, 2.152, 2.201
<pa:kär>   overtly, manifestly, visibly   --
1.272, 1.288
<pa:s->   guard   --
1.173, 2.38, 2.178
<pän'>   five   --
1.130, 2.71, 2.203, 3.34, 4.33
<pät>   over, beyond (?)   --
2.100
<pänt>   fifth   --
2.98, 2.185
<pärko>   advantage, rise   --
2.72, 2.82, 2.101
<pälk->   see   --
2.160
<pälk->   shine   --
2.270
<pält>   blade, leaf   --
1.123
<pältsäk>   thought, opinion   --
1.309, 2.329
<pältsäk>   thought, opinion   --
1.64
<puk>   all, every, whole   --
1.16, 1.61, 1.185, 1.228, 1.307, 2.9, 2.287, 2.307, 2.330
<p(u)käl>   year   --
3.6, 3.35, 3.48, 3.61, 3.89, 3.102, 4.6, 4.34, 4.47, 4.60, 4.90, 4.101, 5.6, 5.36, 5.47, 5.60, 5.88, 5.99
<puk, pont->   all, every, whole   --
5.22
<puttis'paräm.>   Buddha-dignity   --
1.211
<puttis'paräm.>   Buddha-lordship, -majesty, -dignity   --
3.24, 3.79, 4.23, 4.79, 4.91, 5.25, 5.37, 5.78, 5.89
<puttis'pars.i>   relating to Buddha-lordship   --
3.36, 3.90, 4.35
<pe>   also   --
1.98, 2.246
<penu>   also; even, in fact   --
3.76, 4.21, 4.75, 5.21, 5.75
<poke>   arm   --
1.107
<pot->   flatter   --
2.28
<poto>   flattery, obeisance   --
1.14
<por>   fire   --
2.43, 2.273
<pta:n'kät (pätta:n'kät)>   Buddha(lord)   --
3.11, 3.66, 4.11, 4.65, 5.11, 5.65
<pyutk->   make come into being, produce   --
1.254, 2.69, 2.86
<pran`k>   island   --
1.84
<pratipakäs. (pratipaks.)>   barrier, opposing part; the opposite   --
1.301
<pras.t>   time   --
1.75
<praski>   anxiety, dread   --
1.49
<pruccamo>   excellent, superior   --
1.62, 1.308, 2.10, 2.331
<psäl>   chaff   --
1.248, 1.282, 1.287
<Baladvip>   Baladvipa (name of an island)   --
1.150
<bodhisattu>   bodhisattva, a saint who foregoes Nirvana to help others   --
1.80
<mar>   no, not   --
2.263
<ma:>   no, not   --
1.48, 1.213, 1.225, 2.50, 2.236, 2.238, 2.242, 2.245, 2.260
<ma:k>   much   --
1.32, 1.35
<ma:ski>   hard   --
1.199
<mäsk->   be located, be   --
2.27, 2.73, 2.91, 2.102, 2.241
<mäm.tne (mätne)>   as, so as, so as to   --
2.222, 2.271, 2.305
<mok>   old   --
2.234
<mn'e>   certitude, assurance (?)   --
2.46
<yakäs.>   (type of) demon   --
1.148
<ya:t->   be able, be capable   --
1.23, 1.215, 2.316
<ya:m>   make   --
1.99
<ya:m->   make   --
1.216, 2.26, 2.143, 2.255, 2.259, 2.261, 2.264, 2.265, 2.267
<yärk>   reverence   --
1.11, 1.42, 2.25
<yärm>   measure   --
1.214
<yäslu>   enemy   --
1.20, 1.39
<yuk->   conquer, overcome   --
1.18
<yetwe>   jewelry, decoration   --
1.256
<yom->   attain   --
2.313
<ykom.>   by day   --
2.219
<yna:n'mune>   esteem   --
1.12
<ypic>   full, complete   --
1.94
<ype>   land   --
2.240
<yma:r>   quickly   --
1.19, 1.22
<ywa:rcka: (ywa:rs'ka:)>   between, among, in the middle of   --
2.289
<ys.am.>   ditch, moat   --
1.163
<ra:ks.ats>   (type of) monster   --
1.144
<räk->   cover oneself, be covered   --
1.133, 1.162
<ritw->   coalesce   --
2.199
<lame>   place, location   --
2.314
<la:n'ci>   kingly, of a king   --
1.171
<läm->   sit   --
2.111, 2.196
<lip->   remain, be left over; (caus.) leave (over), give up/over, spare   --
3.50, 3.105, 4.49, 4.103, 5.49, 5.101
<lo>   away   --
2.40
<lya:->   wipe away   --
2.224
<lyäk>   thief   --
2.45
<lyom>   mud   --
1.111
<was.t>   house   --
1.172, 2.110, 2.153, 2.195
<waste>   protection   --
1.45
<wät>   second   --
2.87, 2.175
<wär>   water   --
1.103, 1.125, 2.42, 2.172
<wärp->   enjoy   --
2.154, 2.304
<wärs.s.älts>   strong, energetic   --
1.212
<wäl>   king   --
1.77, 1.170, 1.180, 2.44
<wäl->   die   --
2.308
<wälts>   thousand   --
1.122
<wälts>   thousand   --
3.23, 3.34, 3.47, 3.78, 3.101, 4.22, 4.33, 4.46, 4.89, 4.100, 5.24, 5.35, 5.46, 5.77, 5.98
<wäs->   clothe   --
1.257
<wäs->   give   --
2.302
<wik->   decrease   --
1.188
<Vipas'yi>   Vipasyin, name of a Buddha   --
3.9
<Vis'vabhu:>   Visvabhu, name of a Buddha   --
4.9
<wu, we>   two   --
2.155, 4.46, 4.88, 4.89, 5.59
<wen'->   say   --
2.123
<wkäm.>   manner, type   --
1.160, 1.165, 2.203
<wma:r>   jewel, pearl   --
1.182
<wram>   thing, matter   --
1.233, 2.68, 2.85, 2.256, 2.262, 2.266
<wras(om)>   (living) creature, man   --
1.46, 1.246, 2.8, 2.30, 2.93, 2.268, 2.311, 2.332
<wrasom>   living being, human, man   --
3.7, 3.62, 4.7, 4.61, 5.7, 5.61
<wles>   perform   --
1.247, 1.281
<wles>   service, work, action   --
1.286, 2.156, 2.174, 2.206
<wles>   service, work, activity   --
3.37, 3.91, 4.36
<wles->   accomplish, perform   --
3.38, 3.92, 4.37, 4.92, 5.38, 5.90
<wles->   perform   --
2.84, 2.157
<wsa:l>   garment   --
1.255
<s'a:we>   (only plural) big   --
1.174, 2.120
<s'a:we>   (pl. forms only) big   --
1.285
<s'äk>   ten   --
1.8
<S'ikhi>   Shikhin, name of a Buddha   --
3.64
<S'ilpava:m.>   Shilpavant (name of a prince)   --
2.5
<s'u>   over   --
2.239
<s'u-, s'wa:->   eat   --
1.250
<S'uris.in>   (name of a type of metrical verse)   --
2.124
<s'emäl>   cattle, livestock   --
2.177, 2.183
<s'ol>   life   --
3.8, 3.49, 3.63, 3.103, 4.8, 4.48, 4.62, 4.102, 5.8, 5.48, 5.62, 5.100
<s'kam.>   and, also   --
1.36
<s'kam.>   and, also, and also   --
1.197, 2.53, 2.64, 2.99, 2.114
<s'ka:>   still, yet, moreover   --
3.104
<s'tärt>   fourth   --
2.96, 2.161, 2.181
<s'twar>   four   --
1.160, 1.165, 2.142, 3.33, 3.88, 3.101, 4.59, 5.98
<s'la>   (together) with   --
1.196
<s.akk>   certainly   --
2.141
<s.a:mner>   novice   --
1.198
<s.äk>   six   --
2.198, 3.47, 3.78, 4.5, 5.35, 5.46, 5.77
<s.->   be   --
1.251, 1.258
<s.käs.t>   sixth   --
2.186
<s.n'as.s.e>   relation, relative   --
1.37, 2.282, 2.288
<s.n'i>   (genitive only, reflexive for all numbers and persons) my, your, their, his (own), her (own), its (own)   --
2.281
<s.pät>   seven   --
1.100, 1.105, 1.109, 1.120, 3.60
<sam>   same (as)   --
2.306
<Sarva:rthasiddhe>   Sarvathasiddhe, name of a Bodhisattva   --
1.79
<sas, säm.>   one   --
2.81, 2.151, 2.171
<sam.>   some, any   --
1.227
<sam.sa:r>   cycle of birth   --
1.205, 1.229
<Sa:gare>   Sagara (name of a king)   --
1.169, 1.179
<sa:mudtär>   ocean   --
1.81, 1.203
<sa:rth>   caravan, campaign, troop   --
1.96
<sätk->   spread   --
1.10, 2.24
<säm, sa:m, täm>   the; he, she, it   --
3.20, 3.75, 4.20, 4.74, 5.20, 5.74
<säm, sa:m, täm>   the; he, she, it, they   --
1.297, 2.119, 2.205, 2.290
<särki>   thereupon, later   --
2.158
<sälp->   glow   --
2.272
<säs, sa:s, täs.>   this, this here   --
2.197
<Siddha:rthe>   Siddhartha, name of the father of the Bodhisattva Sarvarthasiddha   --
1.76
<se>   son   --
1.78
<sopi>   net   --
1.168
<skam>   always   --
2.258
<sne>   without   --
1.247, 1.248, 1.281, 1.282, 2.317
<spa:nte>   confidently   --
2.294
<spa:rtw->   turn (intrans.), be located   --
1.231
<spes.i>   rock-crystalline, of rock crystal   --
1.166
<tsäm->   grow   --
2.184, 2.221
<tsma:r>   root   --
2.55, 2.115
<tsras.i>   energetic   --
1.7, 1.31, 1.34, 1.40, 1.43, 1.44, 1.47, 1.202
<tsras.s.une>   energy   --
1.15, 1.60, 1.72, 1.206, 1.217, 1.300, 1.304
<tsru>   few, small   --
1.214