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Tocharian Online

Tocharian A: Base Form Dictionary

Jonathan Slocum and Todd B. Krause

This Base Form Dictionary index lists, in an alphabetical order suitable to the language and the script employed for it, every unique base form underlying one or more surface (word) forms in lesson texts. For each base form a general meaning (if any) is shown, along with links to every usage, in every numbered lesson, of the associated surface forms. With this index, one may click on any link to perform a quick "usage look-up," and thereby study how surface forms in texts are constructed from base forms.

A new, experimental feature is being introduced to these EIEOL lessons, namely the addition of pointers to Proto-Indo-European roots identified by Julius Pokorny in his monumental work, Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (2 vols. Bern: Franke, 1959-1969; reprinted in 1989). Because Pokorny is becoming increasingly outdated, we may revise these links in the future; however, for the time being, this information might prove interesting to those who are curious about Indo-European etymology. Notice of potential error is always welcome.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to (Romanized) Tocharian. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (Romanized and Unicode 2) in the left margin.
<akälyme>   under the control of   --
2.309
<akäṃtsune>   possession   --
2.100
<appärmāt>   despicable   --
1.213
<amok>   art, skill   --
2.7, 2.48, 2.54, 2.88, 2.117, 2.132, 2.327
<amokäts>   artist, artisan   --
2.22, 2.66
<amokṣi>   artistic   --
2.67
<ats>   (emphasizing particle), even, indeed   --
2.141, 2.257
<ākälṣäl>   (one) to be taught, student   --
2.97
<āral>   end (?)   --
2.286
<ārkiśoṣi>   world   --
1.306, 2.113
<ārwar>   ready   --
1.253
<ārṣal>   serpent   --
1.132, 1.161
<ālak>   other   --
1.232
<ālās>   slothful   --
1.266
<ālāsune>   sloth   --
1.236, 1.298
<āṣānik>   worthy (of praise)   --
3.22, 5.76
<āṣāṃ>   worthy   --
2.305
<āsuk>   over   --
1.177
<-k>   (emphatic particle), indeed, even   --
1.196, 2.70
<-ne>   (indefinite marker), (relative marker)   --
2.65, 2.223
<-puklyi>   yearly, pertaining to the year   --
3.23, 3.78, 4.22, 4.78, 5.24, 5.77
<-m, -äm>   (pronominal suffix for 1st, 2nd, 3rd persons pl.) us, you, them   --
1.258, 1.270, 1.273, 1.284, 1.289, 2.73, 2.83, 2.86, 2.91, 2.102
<i->   go   --
1.85, 1.146, 1.151, 2.207, 3.52, 3.107, 4.51, 4.77, 4.105, 5.51, 5.103
<ekrorñe>   poverty   --
1.187
<ents->   seize   --
2.284
<empele>   awful   --
1.175, 2.243
<el>   gift   --
2.303
<okät>   eight   --
3.5, 4.100, 5.24
<oki>   like, as   --
2.292
<oppal>   lotus   --
1.124, 1.126, 1.127
<omäskeṃ>   evil   --
2.244
<ort>   friend (?)   --
2.283
<ortune>   friendship   --
2.94
<olyi>   ship   --
1.95
<oṣeñi>   by night   --
2.220
<Kanakamuni>   Kanakamuni, name of a Buddha   --
5.9
<kappāñ>   (pl.) cotton plant (?)   --
1.271
<kayurṣ>   bull   --
2.291
<kalpavṛkäṣ>   "wish-tree"   --
1.252, 1.269
<kācke>   joy   --
2.90
<kāruṇik>   compassionate, merciful   --
3.77
<kārp->   step down to, descend   --
1.82, 1.128
<kāryap>   harm   --
1.230
<Kāśyap>   Kasyap, name of a Buddha   --
5.63
<kāsu>   good   --
1.5, 1.59, 1.208, 2.20, 2.162, 4.76
<kätk->   go beyond, exceed   --
1.164, 1.178, 1.200, 1.201, 1.207
<käm->   come   --
1.41
<kärṣt->   cut off   --
2.47
<kälk->   go   --
1.104, 1.108, 1.112, 1.129, 1.135, 2.310
<kälp>   attain   --
2.100
<kälp->   acquire, attain   --
3.25, 3.80, 4.24, 4.80, 5.26, 5.79
<kälp->   attain   --
1.17, 1.21, 1.184, 1.209, 2.95, 2.134
<kälyme>   direction, path, path to heaven   --
1.9, 2.23, 2.208
<käṣṣi>   teacher   --
2.121, 3.21
<käs->   expire, die   --
3.51, 3.106, 4.50, 4.104, 5.50, 5.102
<kuprene>   when, if   --
2.312
<kuma...>   ... (name of a type of metrical verse)   --
2.12
<kuyalte>   because, for   --
1.244, 2.11
<kuryar>   commerce   --
2.180
<kursär>   mile, vehicle   --
1.131
<kusne>   which   --
2.200
<kosne>   as, as much (as), as often (as)   --
1.235
<kospreṃ>   how much?, how far?   --
2.63
<koṃ>   day, sun   --
1.101, 1.106, 1.110, 1.121
<kñuk>   neck   --
1.102
<knā->   know   --
5.23
<Krakasundi>   Krakasundi, name of a Buddha   --
4.63
<krop->   gather   --
1.268, 2.29, 2.137, 2.138, 2.204, 2.217
<klu>   rice   --
1.249, 1.267, 1.283
<kluṃts>   thread   --
1.167
<klyu>   fame   --
1.6, 2.21
<cintāmaṇi>   'wish-jewel' (a type of precious stone)   --
1.181
<cwal>   beginning (?)   --
2.285
<Jambudvip>   Jambudvipa   --
1.97, 1.186
<ñātse>   hardship, danger   --
2.159
<ñäkci>   godly, heavenly   --
2.112
<ñu>   nine   --
3.23
<ñemi>   jewel   --
1.93
<ñemiṣi>   related to jewels, of jewels   --
1.83
<ñom>   name   --
1.6, 2.21, 3.10, 3.65, 4.10, 4.64, 5.10, 5.64
<ñkät>   god   --
2.315
<tampewāts>   powerful   --
2.247
<taṃne>   so   --
2.122, 2.216
<tā->   set, lay   --
2.163, 2.187, 2.237
<tāk->   be   --
1.273, 1.289
<täpreṃ>   so (much)   --
1.226, 2.70
<täm->   beget, produce   --
2.89
<tämne>   so, thus   --
1.73
<tämyo>   by this, from this, therefore   --
1.58, 1.303, 2.118, 2.326
<toriṃ>   finally   --
1.183, 1.210
<tkaṃ>   earth   --
1.134, 2.173
<tmāṃ>   ten thousand   --
3.5, 3.23, 3.33, 3.46, 3.60, 3.78, 3.88, 3.100, 4.5, 4.22, 4.32, 4.45, 4.59, 4.78, 4.88, 5.5, 5.34, 5.59, 5.87
<tmäṣ>   thereupon, then   --
1.143, 1.147, 1.149, 1.159, 2.135
<träṅk->   say   --
2.6
<trit>   third   --
2.92, 2.179
<tre, tri>   three   --
4.22, 4.32, 5.5
<traidʰātuk>   the world composed of three spheres (desire, beauty, non-beauty)   --
1.204
<dvip>   island   --
1.145
<nam>   bow, obeisance   --
1.13
<nas->   be   --
1.50, 1.234, 1.302, 2.83, 2.116, 3.12, 3.67, 4.12, 4.66, 5.12, 5.66
<nāk>   serpent   --
1.176
<nākäm>   blame   --
2.318
<näk->   perish, destroy   --
1.270, 1.284, 2.41, 2.51
<näm->   bow, bend   --
1.38
<näṣ, ñuk>   I   --
1.63, 1.305, 2.328
<niṣpal>   domain, holdings   --
1.33, 2.39, 2.52, 2.136, 2.140, 2.202, 2.218, 2.235
<nu>   now, even, anyway   --
1.299, 2.49, 2.139, 2.176, 2.182, 2.226, 2.269
<nu->   roar   --
2.293
<neṣ>   earlier, prior   --
1.74, 1.245, 2.133
<pat>   or   --
2.225
<pāk>   part   --
2.142, 2.152, 2.201
<pākär>   overtly, manifestly, visibly   --
1.272, 1.288
<pās->   guard   --
1.173, 2.38, 2.178
<päñ>   five   --
1.130, 2.71, 2.203, 3.34, 4.33
<pät>   over, beyond (?)   --
2.100
<pänt>   fifth   --
2.98, 2.185
<pärko>   advantage, rise   --
2.72, 2.82, 2.101
<pälk->   see   --
2.160
<pälk->   shine   --
2.270
<pält>   blade, leaf   --
1.123
<pältsäk>   thought, opinion   --
1.309, 2.329
<pältsäk>   thought, opinion   --
1.64
<puk>   all, every, whole   --
1.16, 1.61, 1.185, 1.228, 1.307, 2.9, 2.287, 2.307, 2.330
<pukäl>   year   --
3.6, 3.35, 3.48, 3.61, 3.89, 3.102, 4.6, 4.34, 4.47, 4.60, 4.90, 4.101, 5.6, 5.36, 5.47, 5.60, 5.88, 5.99
<puk, pont->   all, every, whole   --
5.22
<puttiśparäṃ>   Buddha-dignity   --
1.211
<puttiśparäṃ>   Buddha-lordship, -majesty, -dignity   --
3.24, 3.79, 4.23, 4.79, 4.91, 5.25, 5.37, 5.78, 5.89
<puttiśparṣi>   relating to Buddha-lordship   --
3.36, 3.90, 4.35
<pe>   also   --
1.98, 2.246
<penu>   also; even, in fact   --
3.76, 4.21, 4.75, 5.21, 5.75
<poke>   arm   --
1.107
<pot->   flatter   --
2.28
<poto>   flattery, obeisance   --
1.14
<por>   fire   --
2.43, 2.273
<ptāñkät (pättāñkät)>   Buddha(lord)   --
3.11, 3.66, 4.11, 4.65, 5.11, 5.65
<pyutk->   make come into being, produce   --
1.254, 2.69, 2.86
<praṅk>   island   --
1.84
<pratipakäṣ (pratipakṣ)>   barrier, opposing part; the opposite   --
1.301
<praṣt>   time   --
1.75
<praski>   anxiety, dread   --
1.49
<pruccamo>   excellent, superior   --
1.62, 1.308, 2.10, 2.331
<psäl>   chaff   --
1.248, 1.282, 1.287
<Baladvip>   Baladvipa (name of an island)   --
1.150
<bodʰisattu>   bodhisattva, a saint who foregoes Nirvana to help others   --
1.80
<mar>   no, not   --
2.263
<>   no, not   --
1.48, 1.213, 1.225, 2.50, 2.236, 2.238, 2.242, 2.245, 2.260
<māk>   much   --
1.32, 1.35
<māski>   hard   --
1.199
<mäsk->   be located, be   --
2.27, 2.73, 2.91, 2.102, 2.241
<mäṃtne (mätne)>   as, so as, so as to   --
2.222, 2.271, 2.305
<mok>   old   --
2.234
<mñe>   certitude, assurance (?)   --
2.46
<yakäṣ>   (type of) demon   --
1.148
<yāt->   be able, be capable   --
1.23, 1.215, 2.316
<yām>   make   --
1.99
<yām->   make   --
1.216, 2.26, 2.143, 2.255, 2.259, 2.261, 2.264, 2.265, 2.267
<yärk>   reverence   --
1.11, 1.42, 2.25
<yärm>   measure   --
1.214
<yäslu>   enemy   --
1.20, 1.39
<yuk->   conquer, overcome   --
1.18
<yetwe>   jewelry, decoration   --
1.256
<yom->   attain   --
2.313
<ykoṃ>   by day   --
2.219
<ynāñmune>   esteem   --
1.12
<ypic>   full, complete   --
1.94
<ype>   land   --
2.240
<ymār>   quickly   --
1.19, 1.22
<ywārckā (ywārśkā)>   between, among, in the middle of   --
2.289
<yṣaṃ>   ditch, moat   --
1.163
<rākṣats>   (type of) monster   --
1.144
<räk->   cover oneself, be covered   --
1.133, 1.162
<ritw->   coalesce   --
2.199
<lame>   place, location   --
2.314
<lāñci>   kingly, of a king   --
1.171
<läm->   sit   --
2.111, 2.196
<lip->   remain, be left over; (caus.) leave (over), give up/over, spare   --
3.50, 3.105, 4.49, 4.103, 5.49, 5.101
<lo>   away   --
2.40
<lyā->   wipe away   --
2.224
<lyäk>   thief   --
2.45
<lyom>   mud   --
1.111
<waṣt>   house   --
1.172, 2.110, 2.153, 2.195
<waste>   protection   --
1.45
<wät>   second   --
2.87, 2.175
<wär>   water   --
1.103, 1.125, 2.42, 2.172
<wärp->   enjoy   --
2.154, 2.304
<wärṣṣälts>   strong, energetic   --
1.212
<wäl>   king   --
1.77, 1.170, 1.180, 2.44
<wäl->   die   --
2.308
<wälts>   thousand   --
1.122
<wälts>   thousand   --
3.23, 3.34, 3.47, 3.78, 3.101, 4.22, 4.33, 4.46, 4.89, 4.100, 5.24, 5.35, 5.46, 5.77, 5.98
<wäs->   clothe   --
1.257
<wäs->   give   --
2.302
<wik->   decrease   --
1.188
<Vipaśyi>   Vipasyin, name of a Buddha   --
3.9
<Viśvabʰū>   Visvabhu, name of a Buddha   --
4.9
<wu, we>   two   --
2.155, 4.46, 4.88, 4.89, 5.59
<weñ->   say   --
2.123
<wkäṃ>   manner, type   --
1.160, 1.165, 2.203
<wmār>   jewel, pearl   --
1.182
<wram>   thing, matter   --
1.233, 2.68, 2.85, 2.256, 2.262, 2.266
<wras(om)>   (living) creature, man   --
1.46, 1.246, 2.8, 2.30, 2.93, 2.268, 2.311, 2.332
<wrasom>   living being, human, man   --
3.7, 3.62, 4.7, 4.61, 5.7, 5.61
<wles>   perform   --
1.247, 1.281
<wles>   service, work, action   --
1.286, 2.156, 2.174, 2.206
<wles>   service, work, activity   --
3.37, 3.91, 4.36
<wles->   accomplish, perform   --
3.38, 3.92, 4.37, 4.92, 5.38, 5.90
<wles->   perform   --
2.84, 2.157
<wsāl>   garment   --
1.255
<śāwe>   (only plural) big   --
1.174, 2.120
<śāwe>   (pl. forms only) big   --
1.285
<śäk>   ten   --
1.8
<Śikʰi>   Shikhin, name of a Buddha   --
3.64
<Śilpavāṃ>   Shilpavant (name of a prince)   --
2.5
<śu>   over   --
2.239
<śu-, śwā->   eat   --
1.250
<Śuriṣin>   (name of a type of metrical verse)   --
2.124
<śemäl>   cattle, livestock   --
2.177, 2.183
<śol>   life   --
3.8, 3.49, 3.63, 3.103, 4.8, 4.48, 4.62, 4.102, 5.8, 5.48, 5.62, 5.100
<śkaṃ>   and, also   --
1.36
<śkaṃ>   and, also, and also   --
1.197, 2.53, 2.64, 2.99, 2.114
<śkā>   still, yet, moreover   --
3.104
<śtärt>   fourth   --
2.96, 2.161, 2.181
<śtwar>   four   --
1.160, 1.165, 2.142, 3.33, 3.88, 3.101, 4.59, 5.98
<śla>   (together) with   --
1.196
<ṣakk>   certainly   --
2.141
<ṣāmner>   novice   --
1.198
<ṣäk>   six   --
2.198, 3.47, 3.78, 4.5, 5.35, 5.46, 5.77
<ṣ->   be   --
1.251, 1.258
<ṣkäṣt>   sixth   --
2.186
<ṣñaṣṣe>   relation, relative   --
1.37, 2.282, 2.288
<ṣñi>   (genitive only, reflexive for all numbers and persons) my, your, their, his (own), her (own), its (own)   --
2.281
<ṣpät>   seven   --
1.100, 1.105, 1.109, 1.120, 3.60
<sam>   same (as)   --
2.306
<Sarvārtʰasiddʰe>   Sarvathasiddhe, name of a Bodhisattva   --
1.79
<sas, säṃ>   one   --
2.81, 2.151, 2.171
<saṃ>   some, any   --
1.227
<saṃsār>   cycle of birth   --
1.205, 1.229
<Sāgare>   Sagara (name of a king)   --
1.169, 1.179
<sāmudtär>   ocean   --
1.81, 1.203
<sārtʰ>   caravan, campaign, troop   --
1.96
<sätk->   spread   --
1.10, 2.24
<säm, sām, täm>   the; he, she, it   --
3.20, 3.75, 4.20, 4.74, 5.20, 5.74
<säm, sām, täm>   the; he, she, it, they   --
1.297, 2.119, 2.205, 2.290
<särki>   thereupon, later   --
2.158
<sälp->   glow   --
2.272
<säs, sās, täṣ>   this, this here   --
2.197
<Siddʰārtʰe>   Siddhartha, name of the father of the Bodhisattva Sarvarthasiddha   --
1.76
<se>   son   --
1.78
<sopi>   net   --
1.168
<skam>   always   --
2.258
<sne>   without   --
1.247, 1.248, 1.281, 1.282, 2.317
<spānte>   confidently   --
2.294
<spārtw->   turn (intrans.), be located   --
1.231
<speṣi>   rock-crystalline, of rock crystal   --
1.166
<tsäm->   grow   --
2.184, 2.221
<tsmār>   root   --
2.55, 2.115
<tsraṣi>   energetic   --
1.7, 1.31, 1.34, 1.40, 1.43, 1.44, 1.47, 1.202
<tsraṣṣune>   energy   --
1.15, 1.60, 1.72, 1.206, 1.217, 1.300, 1.304
<tsru>   few, small   --
1.214