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Tocharian Online

Tocharian B: Base Form Dictionary

Jonathan Slocum and Todd B. Krause

This Base Form Dictionary index lists, in an alphabetical order suitable to the language and the script employed for it, every unique base form underlying one or more surface (word) forms in lesson texts. For each base form a general meaning (if any) is shown, along with links to every usage, in every numbered lesson, of the associated surface forms. With this index, one may click on any link to perform a quick "usage look-up," and thereby study how surface forms in texts are constructed from base forms.

A new, experimental feature is being introduced to these EIEOL lessons, namely the addition of pointers to Proto-Indo-European roots identified by Julius Pokorny in his monumental work, Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (2 vols. Bern: Franke, 1959-1969; reprinted in 1989). Because Pokorny is becoming increasingly outdated, we may revise these links in the future; however, for the time being, this information might prove interesting to those who are curious about Indo-European etymology. Notice of potential error is always welcome.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (Unicode 2 and Unicode 3) in the left margin.
<aka:lk>   wish   --
8.5
<as'ra:m>   ashram, the abode of an ascetic   --
10.35
<a:ketke, a:ktike>   wonderful; (subst.) wonder, wonderful thing   --
7.25
<a:jivike>   a Jainist religious mendicant   --
7.6
<a:jivi:ke>   a Jainist religious mendicant   --
9.6
<a:rttaln'e>   pleasure, love   --
8.60
<a:s'irva:t>   benediction   --
8.25
<-ne>   (enclitic oblique third person singular pronoun)   --
8.6, 8.42, 9.33, 9.62, 9.80, 10.15, 10.17, 10.97, 10.101
<-me>   (enclitic pronoun referring to first, second, or thir persons plural)   --
9.10, 10.43, 10.76
<-mem.>   (ending of the ablative)   --
10.19
<-s'(c)>   (allative case ending)   --
9.10, 9.33, 10.43, 10.76, 10.101
<i->   go, travel   --
6.17, 7.10, 7.29, 8.24, 9.9, 9.65, 9.80
<Indre>   Indra (proper name of a god)   --
10.5
<iprer>   sky, air   --
6.46
<istak>   suddenly   --
7.43
<i:ke>   place, location; position   --
7.13
<i:te>   full   --
8.50
<Upage>   Upaga (proper name)   --
9.5, 9.60
<upage>   Upaga, a proper name   --
7.7
<en`k->   take, grip, seize; conclude   --
10.100
<enen`ka>   within, herein, among   --
6.36
<epin`kte>   (adv.-postposition) within; between, among; (with nouns denoting periods of time) for; (noun) interval   --
10.30
<epin`kte>   (adv.-postposition) within; between, among; (with nouns denoting periods of time) for; meanwhile, in the meantime; (noun) interval   --
8.28
<epe>   or; otherwise   --
10.49
<ere>   appearance, color (of complexion)   --
8.63
<es.ern'e>   related as sisters   --
9.7
<etsuwai>   towards, near to   --
9.8
<ai->   give   --
9.24, 9.52, 10.46, 10.55, 10.71
<ais'amn'e>   wisdom   --
7.58
<aise>   power?; surplus, excess?; pot, bowl   --
8.41, 8.43
<on`karn'o, on`korn'o>   porridge, rice gruel   --
6.6, 7.22, 7.55, 8.11, 8.30, 9.22, 9.35, 9.50, 9.75, 10.16, 10.98
<orotstse, wrotstse>   great, big, large   --
9.86
<olyapo>   (adv.) more; (conj.) rather (than)   --
7.57
<ost>   house   --
9.13
<ka>   (emphasizing particle) just; scarcely; already; only; (with adverbs of motion) very   --
9.19
<kartse, krent>   (adj.) good, beautiful; (noun) good, welfare   --
8.64, 8.66, 8.68, 8.69
<ka:tk->   rejoice, be glad   --
10.94
<ka:rp->   descend, come down, step down   --
10.6, 10.32
<k(ä)>   (emphasizing particle)   --
7.12
<kän->   come to pass (of a wish); be realized; (caus.) fulfill (a wish)   --
8.71
<käm->   come   --
7.11
<kärs->   know, understand, recognize   --
7.44
<kärst->   cut off, cut down, terminate; tear; destroy utterly   --
9.62
<käl->   lead, bring   --
10.15, 10.85
<kälp->   find, get, obtain, achieve   --
8.14
<käly-, stäm->   (intr.) stand, stay, stand still; last; (caus.) establish, fix (in place)   --
8.51
<kem.>   earth, ground   --
6.45
<kauc>   high, up, above   --
6.16
<ksa>   some, any   --
8.9
<ca:kkär>   wheel; cakra, wheel as mystical symbol   --
6.32
<celen'n'->   appear   --
6.37
<n'as', wes>   I, me; (plural) we   --
9.48, 10.19, 10.45, 10.51, 10.80
<n'äs' (n'is')>   I   --
8.12, 9.12, 9.18
<n'or>   below, beneath, under; down   --
10.11
<tane, tne>   here, there   --
7.8
<tapre>   high; fat   --
6.15
<täl->   uphold, keep raised; (caus.) raise, lift; acquire   --
8.61, 9.74
<tuwe, yes>   thou; you   --
9.36, 10.67
<totka>   few, little, short, small   --
6.21, 10.33
<daks.in.a:ke>   worthy of sacrifice   --
9.17, 9.84
<Nanda:bala>   Nandabala (proper name)   --
9.76, 10.64
<nandika:wart>   nandikavarta (designation of a mystic diagram)   --
6.34
<Na:nda>   Nanda (proper name)   --
9.73, 10.63
<nes->   be, exist; (as auxiliary with past ptcple) have   --
7.24, 8.15, 8.62, 9.15, 9.39, 9.44, 10.53, 10.69, 10.82
<nai>   (intensifying particle) indeed, then, surely   --
10.84
<no>   (adversative) however, but; (al)though; (connective, in if-clauses) then   --
6.19
<naumiyes.s.e>   pertaining to jewels, bejeweled   --
8.48
<nta>   (intensifying particle, usu. in negative clauses)   --
6.20
<parna>   (adv., postposition) outside; (w. abl.) beyond, out from; (w. perl.) aside from; (prepos., postpos.) except, absent   --
6.23
<päk->   (medp.) become ready for eating, cook, boil, ripen (intrans.); (act.) make ready for eating, cook, boil, ripen (trans.)   --
7.21
<pälsk->   think about, consider   --
7.37
<päst>   away, back; (also used with verbs with a perfectivizing force)   --
8.31
<pi>   really, indeed (used to emphasize questions and commands)   --
8.8
<pintwa:t>   alms   --
9.23, 9.51, 10.20, 10.48
<pilycaln'e>   burning, inflammation; pain, torture, mortification; penance   --
9.40
<pen'iyatstse>   splendid   --
10.36
<po>   (indeclinable/declinable adj.) all, every, each, complete; (noun) everything, all   --
8.45
<postäm.>   (adv.) finally, afterwards; (indecl. adj.) latter   --
9.79
<pyutk->   establish, bring into being, create; (intrans.) become ready   --
8.32
<pränts->   spatter   --
6.24
<Bra(h)m-näkte>   (the god) Brahma   --
10.31, 10.73, 10.95
<bha:jam.>   vessel, pot   --
8.49
<man`ka:läs.s.e>   pertaining to good luck, bliss, health   --
6.47
<man'u>   desire   --
9.61
<mant>   so; thus   --
10.74
<mam.tstsas'>   (with loc.) under(neath)   --
10.34
<ma:>   (simple negation and prohibition) not, no; (quasi-prefix) un-   --
6.18, 7.27, 8.46, 9.38
<mäkte>   (comparative) as; (final) so, in order that; (causal) because; (temporal) as, while; (manner) how; (interrogative) how?   --
8.7
<mäsk->   exchange   --
10.9, 10.42
<mit->   go; set out (as 'go' it provides preterite plural to i-)   --
9.81, 10.96
<mutka:ntse>   (unit of liquid measure)   --
8.44
<mutk->   strengthen?; pour, spill   --
8.42
<yakne>   way, manner, custom, habit; (as second member of a compound with a number) -fold   --
10.37
<yäp->   enter; set (of the sun); (caus.) cause to enter   --
9.82
<yäm->   achieve, obtain; reach   --
7.60
<yta:rye>   road; way   --
9.64
<Ylain'äkte>   Indra   --
10.39, 10.72
<ysapar(sa)>   near by   --
8.23
<rano>   (joins clauses and independent sentences, usu. in second position) also, in addition; even though; (neither...) nor; however   --
6.22
<ra:m->   compare   --
7.42
<rit->   direct (someone, with obl.); demand (something of someone, with obl. of thing and abl.); (medp.) seek, long for something/someone (with obl.); seek/long (to do something, with infin.)   --
9.85
<rs.a:kän'n'e>   pertaining to a rshi   --
10.7, 10.40
<rs.a:ke>   sage, (inspired) seer   --
9.43, 9.45, 9.87, 10.21, 10.79
<la:l->   exert oneself, strive for; (caus.) tire (trans.), subjugate   --
9.41
<lä-n-t->   go out   --
9.14
<läk->   see, look at, catch sight of; visit   --
7.23
<läk->   see; look at; catch sight of; visit   --
6.49, 10.14
<lau>   (with verbs of rest) afar; (with verbs of motion) far; very   --
7.26
<laukito>   stranger   --
9.42
<lka:llän'n'e>   sight, insight   --
8.59
<wartto>   forest   --
9.83
<wärp->   partake; undergo, suffer, enjoy   --
10.18
<wärpauca>   partaker, one who partakes   --
9.16
<wina:-sk->   honor, worship   --
10.97
<we->   speak, say, tell; (medp.) be called   --
8.26, 9.10, 9.33, 10.17, 10.43, 10.65, 10.76, 10.101
<were>   smell   --
8.65
<wes.>   guise, appearance   --
10.8, 10.41
<s'a:stär>   (sacred) book, shastra   --
7.40
<s'u->   eat (at); consume, devour   --
7.54, 8.13, 9.37
<s'u:ke>   taste; sap; liquid, juice   --
8.67
<s'pa:lmem.>   superior, excellent   --
9.46, 10.52, 10.68, 10.81
<s.an'>   own (reflexive on the topic of the phrase or sentence); (n.) nature, characteristic   --
9.63
<s.ad.ap-s.alywe-malkwer>   (name of a meter of 4 by 18 syllables)   --
7.5
<s.ar>   hand   --
10.99
<s.äm-, läm->   sit; remain, be present; subside   --
10.13, 10.38
<s.ärp->   explain to, inform; teach; indicate, guide   --
10.75
<s.e, sana>   (numeral adj.) one; same; some; (preposition/adverb) together   --
7.41
<s.ers'ka>   (little) sister   --
9.11, 9.78, 10.44, 10.77
<s.otri>   sign, mark, (manifestation of) action   --
6.35, 6.48, 7.39, 8.70
<s.pä>   and (conjoins both clauses and words)   --
7.28, 9.20
<sam(p), som(p), tam(p)>   that (one)   --
7.9, 10.78, 10.83
<su, sa:(u), tu>   the; he, she, it   --
6.5, 7.12, 7.59, 8.29, 9.47, 10.12, 10.54, 10.70
<se, sa:, te>   this   --
7.52, 7.53, 8.10, 9.32, 9.34, 9.49, 9.77, 10.47, 10.50, 10.66, 10.93
<sem., sa:m., tem.>   this (one)   --
7.38, 8.27, 9.21
<sta:m>   tree   --
10.10
<snai>   without   --
7.56, 10.29
<spharir>   crystal   --
8.40
<sränk->   boil   --
6.7
<svastik>   swastika (a symbol denoting good luck)   --
6.33
<tsän`k->   rise, raise oneself up; stand up, arise   --
8.6
<tsu->   (act.) cohere, adhere; (medp.) adhere, stick, cling, attach oneself; (caus.) make cohere, add to   --
8.47