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Ancient Sanskrit Online

Lesson 10

Karen Thomson and Jonathan Slocum

The world of the poets of the Rigveda was governed by laws of Newtonian orderliness, represented by a group of abstract nouns of complex meaning. One of these, vratá 'holy law, divine commandment', was described in the introduction to Lesson 7. Of similar complexity are dhā́man 'foundation, just law, precept', related to Greek θέμις and English doom, and dhárman 'support, fixed order', both of which are found in the Lesson 10 text, together with r̥tá (see below), a word which is repeated in the last two verses, joining them together into one grammatical sentence.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The lesson text is verses 10-20 of an Archaic poem, VIII, 27 (647) which, like the Lesson 4 text, is in the alternating lyric br̥hatī/satobr̥hatī metre. The poem apostrophizes all the gods, beginning in traditional style with Agni: agnír ukthé puróhitaḥ 'Agni is placed first in holy song' (verse 1). Verses 10-20 are specifically addressed to the gods of Truth and Order, in particular Aryaman, Mitra and Varuna, who are named in the passage. The most important of the network of words describing the abstract concepts that these deities embody is r̥tá, perhaps best translated 'Truth', but also having the sense 'Cosmic Order'. Poetry itself is born from r̥tá: prá bráhma etu sádanād [sádanāt] r̥tásya, ví raśmíbhiḥ sasr̥je sū́ryo gā́ (VII, 36, 1) 'let prayer go forth from the seat of Truth; the sun despatches singers with his rays (raśmí (m))'. And through their attention to Truth, and the wisdom that results, mortals become allied with the gods -- an alliance that is the theme of the Lesson 10 text.

ásti hí vaḥ sajātíyaṃ riśādaso
dévāso ásti ā́piyam
prá naḥ pū́rvasmai suvitā́ya vocata
makṣū́ sumnā́ya návyase

  • ásti -- verb; 3rd person singular active present of <√as, ásti> be -- there is
  • -- particle; <> for, because -- because
  • vas -- personal pronoun; accusative/dative/genitive enclitic form of <yūyám> you (pl.) -- with you
  • sajātyàm -- noun; nominative singular neuter of <sajātyà> kinship -- kinship
  • riśādasas -- adjective; vocative plural masculine of <riśā́das> benign -- O benign # The meaning of the epithet remains uncertain.
  • dévāsas -- noun; vocative plural masculine of <devá> divine, god -- gods
  • ásti -- verb; 3rd person singular active present of <√as, ásti> be -- there is
  • ā́pyam -- noun; nominative singular neuter of <ā́pya> alliance -- alliance
  • nas -- personal pronoun; accusative/dative/genitive enclitic form of <vayám> we -- us
  • ́rvasmai -- adjective; dative singular neuter of <́rva> former, previous -- of old
  • suvitā́ya -- noun; dative singular neuter of <suvitá> well-being -- to well-being
  • prá vocata -- verb; 2nd person plural active simple aorist imperative of <√vac> speak + preverb <prá> forth -- admit
  • makṣū́ -- adverb; <makṣū́> swiftly, soon -- soon # Always given as makṣú in the Pada text. Compare Latin mox.
  • sumnā́ya -- noun; dative singular neuter of <sumná> favour, boon -- to favour
  • návyase -- comparative adjective; dative singular neuter of <návyāṃs> newer -- newer

idā́ hí va úpastutim
idā́ vāmásya bhaktáye
úpa vo viśvavedaso namasyúr ā́
ásr̥kṣi ániyām iva

  • idā́ -- adverb; <idā́> at this moment -- at this moment
  • -- particle; <> for, because -- for
  • vas -- personal pronoun; accusative/dative/genitive enclitic form of <yūyám> you (pl.) -- to you
  • úpastutim -- noun; accusative singular feminine of <úpastuti> paean of praise -- a paean of praise
  • idā́ -- adverb; <idā́> at this moment -- this moment
  • vāmásya -- noun; genitive singular neuter of <vāmá> dear, beloved thing -- of weal
  • bhaktáye -- noun; dative singular feminine of <bhaktí> distribution -- for a share
  • vas -- personal pronoun; accusative/dative/genitive enclitic form of <yūyám> you (pl.) -- you
  • viśvavedasas -- noun; vocative plural masculine of <viśvávedas> all-knowing one -- all-knowing ones
  • namasyús -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <namasyú> honouring -- honouring
  • úpa ā́ ásr̥kṣi -- verb; 1st person singular middle sigmatic aorist of <√sr̥j, sr̥játi> let go + preverb <úpa> up to + preverb <ā́> (intensifies or reverses meaning) -- I have sent up
  • ányām -- adjective; accusative singular feminine of <ánya> inexhaustible -- inexhaustible
  • iva -- particle; <iva> like -- seemingly

úd u ṣyá vaḥ savitā́ supraṇītayo
ásthād ūrdhvó váreṇiyaḥ
ní dvipā́daś cátuṣpādo arthíno
áviśran patayiṣṇávaḥ

  • u -- particle; <u> and, now -- now
  • syás -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <syás, syā́, tyát> that -- that
  • vas -- personal pronoun; accusative/dative/genitive enclitic form of <yūyám> you (pl.) -- of you
  • savitā́ -- noun; nominative singular masculine of <savitŕ̥> enlivener, Savitar -- Savitar
  • supraṇītayas -- adjective; vocative plural masculine of <supráṇīti> guiding safely -- you sure guides # Compare the feminine noun supráṇīti 'safe guidance' in the Lesson 8 text.
  • út ásthāt -- verb; 3rd person singular active simple aorist of <√sthā, tíṣṭhati> stand + preverb <út> up -- he has risen
  • ūrdhvás -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <ūrdhvá> upright, straight -- straight # Often occurs with the verb √sthā, as in Homeric στη̃ δ̍ ὀρθός.
  • váreṇyas -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <váreṇya> beloved -- beloved
  • dvipā́das -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <dvipád> two-footed -- two-footed creatures
  • cátuṣpādas -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <cátuṣpad> four-footed -- four-footed creatures
  • arthínas -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <arthín> purposeful -- purposeful
  • ní áviśran -- verb; 3rd person plural middle simple aorist of <√viś, viśáte> enter, come to rest + preverb <> down -- they have come to rest
  • patayiṣṇávas -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <patayiṣṇú> flying -- winged ones

deváṃ-devaṃ vo ávase
deváṃ-devam abhíṣṭaye
deváṃ-devaṃ huvema vā́jasātaye
gr̥ṇánto deviyā́ dhiyā́

  • deváṃ-devam -- iterative compound; <deváṃ-devam> god after god -- god after god
  • vas -- personal pronoun; accusative/dative/genitive enclitic form of <yūyám> you (pl.) -- you
  • ávase -- noun; dative singular neuter of <ávas> help -- for aid
  • deváṃ-devam -- iterative compound; <deváṃ-devam> god after god -- god after god
  • abhíṣṭaye -- noun; dative singular feminine of <abhíṣṭi> being at hand, ready help -- for ready help
  • deváṃ-devam -- iterative compound; <deváṃ-devam> god after god -- god after god
  • huvema -- verb; 1st person plural active optative of <√hū, hávate> invoke, call upon -- may we call upon
  • ́jasātaye -- noun; dative singular feminine of <́jasāti> lit. strength-winning -- that we may gain strength
  • gr̥ṇántas -- participle; nominative plural masculine present active participle of <√gr̥, gr̥ṇā́ti> sing -- singing
  • devyā́ -- adjective; instrumental singular feminine of <devī́> divine, goddess -- with divine
  • dhiyā́ -- noun; instrumental singular feminine of <dhī́> thought -- thought

devā́so hí ṣmā mánave sámanyavo
víśve sākáṃ sárātayaḥ
té no adyá té aparáṃ tucé tú no
bhávantu varivovídaḥ

  • devā́sas -- noun; nominative plural masculine of <devá> divine, god -- the gods
  • -- particle; <> for, because -- for
  • smā -- particle; <sma, smā> indeed -- indeed
  • mánave -- noun; dative singular masculine of <mánu> man, mankind -- with man
  • sámanyavas -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <sámanyu> of the same mind -- of one mind
  • víśve -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <víśva> all -- all
  • sākám -- preposition; <sākám> together -- united
  • sárātayas -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <sárāti> giving together -- giving together
  • -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <sás, sā́, tát> that; he, she, it -- as such
  • nas -- personal pronoun; accusative/dative/genitive enclitic form of <vayám> we -- for us
  • adyá -- adverb; <adyá> on this day, today -- today
  • -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural masculine of <sás, sā́, tát> that; he, she, it -- as such
  • aparám -- adverb; <aparám> in the future -- in future
  • tucé -- noun; dative singular feminine of <túc> offspring -- for offspring
  • -- particle; <> then, but -- then
  • nas -- personal pronoun; accusative/dative/genitive enclitic form of <vayám> we -- our
  • bhávantu -- verb; 3rd person plural active imperative of <√bhū, bhávati> be -- may they be
  • varivovídas -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <varivovíd> providers of space -- providers of spacious freedom

prá vaḥ śaṃsāmi adruhaḥ
saṃsthá úpastutīnām
ná táṃ dhūrtír varuṇa mitra mártiyaṃ
yó vo dhā́mabhyo ávidhat

  • vas -- personal pronoun; accusative/dative/genitive enclitic form of <yūyám> you (pl.) -- to you
  • prá śaṃsāmi -- verb; 1st person singular present active of <√śaṃs, śáṃsati> praise + preverb <prá> forth -- I sing out praises
  • adruhas -- adjective; vocative plural masculine of <adrúh> not betraying -- guileless
  • saṃsthé -- preposition; <saṃsthé> in amongst -- in amongst # Takes the genitive.
  • úpastutīnām -- noun; genitive plural feminine of <úpastuti> paean of praise -- paeans of praise
  • -- particle; <> not -- not
  • tám -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <sás, sā́, tát> that; he, she, it -- him
  • dhūrtís -- noun; nominative singular feminine of <dhūrtí> injury -- injury # The verb is understood: 'injury will not (befall) him' (see section 38 in Lesson 8).
  • varuṇa -- noun; vocative singular masculine of <váruṇa> Varuna -- O Varuna
  • mitra -- noun; vocative singular masculine of <mitrá> friend, Mitra -- O Mitra
  • mártyam -- noun; accusative singular masculine of <mártya> mortal man -- the mortal
  • yás -- relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <yás, yā́, yát> who, which -- who
  • vas -- personal pronoun; accusative/dative/genitive enclitic form of <yūyám> you (pl.) -- your # The pronoun refers to the trilogy of gods, Mitra, Varuna, and Aryaman (see below).
  • dhā́mabhyas -- noun; dative plural neuter of <dhā́man> foundation, just law, precept -- precepts
  • ávidhat -- verb; 3rd person singular active simple aorist of <√vidh> pay homage to, honour -- he has honoured # The verb takes the dative.

prá sá kṣáyaṃ tirate ví mahī́r íṣo
yó vo várāya dā́śati
prá prajā́bhir jāyate dhármaṇas pári
áriṣṭaḥ sárva edhate

  • sás -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <sás, sā́, tát> that; he, she, it -- the one
  • kṣáyam -- noun; accusative singular masculine of <kṣáya> home -- domestic life
  • prá tirate -- verb; 3rd person singular middle present of <√tr̥̄, tiráti> cross + preverb <prá> forth -- he prolongs
  • -- preverb; <> apart -- (he is afforded) # The preceding verb tiráte is understood with the preverb in its special sense 'afford, bestow', here with passive sense (see grammar points 38 in Lesson 8, and 48 in this lesson).
  • mahī́s -- adjective; accusative plural feminine of <máh> great -- fine
  • íṣas -- noun; accusative plural feminine of <íṣ> refreshment -- refreshments
  • yás -- relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <yás, yā́, yát> who, which -- who
  • vas -- personal pronoun; accusative/dative/genitive enclitic form of <yūyám> you (pl.) -- your
  • várāya -- noun; dative singular masculine of <vára> wish -- according to wish
  • ́śati -- verb; 3rd person singular middle present of <√dāś, dā́śati> worship -- worships
  • prajā́bhis -- noun; instrumental plural feminine of <prajā́> creature, progeny -- in his progeny
  • prá jāyate -- verb; 3rd person singular middle present of <√jā, jā́yate> be born + preverb <prá> forth -- he is born anew
  • dhármaṇas -- noun; ablative singular neuter of <dhárman> support, fixed order -- established order
  • pári -- preposition; <pári> around, out of -- according to
  • áriṣṭas -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <áriṣṭa> unharmed -- unharmed
  • sárvas -- adjective; nominative singular masculine of <sárva> whole, all -- whole
  • edhate -- verb; 3rd person singular middle present of <√edh, édhate> thrive -- he thrives

r̥té sá vindate yudháḥ
sugébhir yāti ádhvanaḥ
aryamā́ mitró váruṇaḥ sárātayo
yáṃ trā́yante sajóṣasaḥ

  • r̥té -- preposition; <r̥té> without -- without # Takes the ablative.
  • sás -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <sás, sā́, tát> that; he, she, it -- he
  • vindate -- verb; 3rd person singular middle present of <√vid, vindáti> find -- he achieves his ends
  • yudhás -- noun; ablative singular feminine of <yúdh> fighting -- fighting
  • sugébhis -- adjective; instrumental plural neuter of <sugá> good passage -- by good paths
  • yāti -- verb; 3rd person singular active present of <√yā, yā́ti> go, travel -- he travels
  • ádhvanas -- noun; accusative plural masculine of <ádhvan> way -- on his ways
  • aryamā́ -- noun; nominative singular masculine of <aryamán> Aryaman -- Aryaman
  • mitrás -- noun; nominative singular masculine of <mitrá> friend, Mitra -- Mitra
  • váruṇas -- noun; nominative singular masculine of <váruṇa> Varuna -- Varuna
  • sárātayas -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <sárāti> giving together -- giving together
  • yám -- relative pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <yás, yā́, yát> who, which -- whom
  • trā́yante -- verb; 3rd person plural middle present of <√trā> rescue, protect -- they protect
  • sajóṣasas -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <sajóṣas> accordant -- joining together

ájre cid asmai kr̥ṇuthā niáñcanaṃ
durgé cid ā́ susaraṇáṃ
eṣā́ cid asmād aśániḥ paró nú sā́
ásredhantī ví naśyatu

  • ájre -- noun; locative singular masculine of <ájra> plain, flatland -- on flat land # Greek ἀγρος, Latin ager.
  • cit -- particle; <cit> even, all -- even
  • asmai -- demonstrative pronoun; dative singular masculine of <ayám, iyám, idám> this -- for him # Unaccented, like asmāt in the third line, as referring back to the subject of the previous verse.
  • kr̥ṇutha -- verb; 2nd person plural active present of <√kr̥, kr̥ṇóti> do, make -- you make
  • nyáñcanam -- noun; accusative singular of <nyáñcana> downward slope -- a gentle slope
  • durgé -- noun; locative singular neuter of <durgá> hard way -- on the hard way
  • cit -- particle; <cit> even, all -- even
  • ā́ -- preposition; <ā́> from, in -- in
  • susaraṇám -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <susaraṇá> good passage -- an easy passage
  • eṣā́ -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <eṣás, eṣā́, etát> this -- this
  • cit -- particle; <cit> even, all -- even
  • asmāt -- demonstrative pronoun; ablative singular masculine of <ayám, iyám, idám> this -- from him
  • aśánis -- noun; nominative singular feminine of <aśáni> thunderbolt -- thunderbolt
  • parás -- adverb; <parás> in the distance -- in the distance
  • -- adverb; <> now -- now
  • ́ -- demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <sás, sā́, tát> that; he, she, it -- it
  • ásredhantī -- participle; nominative singular feminine active participle of <√sridh, srédhati> slip, fail + privative prefix <a-> (reverses meaning) -- unfailing
  • ví naśyatu -- verb; 3rd person singular active imperative of <√naś, náśyati> be lost + preverb <> apart -- let it disappear

yád adyá sū́rya udyatí
príyakṣatrā r̥táṃ dadhá
yán nimrúci prabúdhi viśvavedaso
yád vā madhyáṃdine diváḥ

  • yát -- conjunction; <yát> that, when -- when
  • adyá -- adverb; <adyá> on this day, today -- today
  • ́rye -- noun; locative singular masculine of <́rya> sun -- at the sun's # Locative by attraction.
  • udyatí -- participle; locative singular masculine present active participle of <√i, éti> go + preverb <út> up -- rising
  • príyakṣatrās -- adjective; vocative plural masculine of <priyákṣatra> ruling benevolently -- O benevolent rulers
  • r̥tám -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <r̥tá> Truth -- Truth
  • dadhá -- verb; 2nd person plural active perfect of <√dhā, dádhāti> place, grant -- you grant
  • yát -- conjunction; <yát> that, when -- when
  • nimrúci -- noun; locative singular feminine of <nimrúc> setting, sunset -- at sunset
  • prabúdhi -- noun; locative singular feminine of <prabúdh> wakening -- at wakening
  • viśvavedasas -- noun; vocative plural masculine of <viśvávedas> all-knowing one -- O all-knowing ones
  • yát -- conjunction; <yát> that, when -- when
  • -- conjunction; <> or -- or
  • madhyáṃdine -- noun; locative singular masculine of <madhyáṃdina> midday, middle time -- at the midpoint
  • divás -- noun; genitive singular masculine of <dyú, dív> sky, heaven, day -- of the day

yád vābhipitvé asurā r̥táṃ yaté
chardír yemá ví dāśúṣe
vayáṃ tád vo vasavo viśvavedasa
úpa stheyāma mádhya ā́

  • yát -- conjunction; <yát> that, when -- when
  • -- conjunction; <> or -- or
  • abhipitvé -- noun; locative singular neuter of <abhipitvá> homecoming -- at homecoming
  • asurās -- noun; vocative plural masculine of <ásura> spiritual lord -- Lords
  • r̥tám -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <r̥tá> Truth -- of Truth # The accusative here used adverbially, literally 'going according to Truth'.
  • yaté -- participle; dative singular masculine present active participle of <√i, éti> go -- who follows the path
  • chardís -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <chardís> protection, shield -- a shield
  • ví yemá -- verb; 2nd person plural active perfect of <√yam, yáchati> extend, stretch out + preverb <> apart -- you proffer
  • dāśúṣe -- noun; dative singular masculine of <dāśvā́ṃs> the one worshipping -- for the worshipper
  • vayám -- personal pronoun; nominative of <vayám> we -- we
  • tát -- adverb; <tát> then -- then
  • vas -- personal pronoun; accusative/dative/genitive enclitic form of <yūyám> you (pl.) -- of you
  • vasavas -- adjective; vocative plural masculine of <vásu> good, beneficent -- gentle
  • viśvavedasas -- noun; vocative plural masculine of <viśvávedas> all-knowing one -- all-knowing ones
  • úpa stheyāma -- verb; 1st person plural active simple aorist optative of <√sthā, tíṣṭhati> stand + preverb <úpa> up to -- may we stand closely
  • mádhye -- noun; locative singular neuter of <mádhya> middle -- in the midst # Latin medius, Greek μέσσος.
  • ā́ -- preposition; <ā́> from, in -- in

Lesson Text

ásti hí vaḥ sajātíyaṃ riśādaso
dévāso ásti ā́piyam
prá naḥ pū́rvasmai suvitā́ya vocata
makṣū́ sumnā́ya návyase

idā́ hí va úpastutim
idā́ vāmásya bhaktáye
úpa vo viśvavedaso namasyúr ā́
ásr̥kṣi ániyām iva

úd u ṣyá vaḥ savitā́ supraṇītayo
ásthād ūrdhvó váreṇiyaḥ
ní dvipā́daś cátuṣpādo arthíno
áviśran patayiṣṇávaḥ

deváṃ-devaṃ vo ávase
deváṃ-devam abhíṣṭaye
deváṃ-devaṃ huvema vā́jasātaye
gr̥ṇánto deviyā́ dhiyā́

devā́so hí ṣmā mánave sámanyavo
víśve sākáṃ sárātayaḥ
té no adyá té aparáṃ tucé tú no
bhávantu varivovídaḥ

prá vaḥ śaṃsāmi adruhaḥ
saṃsthá úpastutīnām
ná táṃ dhūrtír varuṇa mitra mártiyaṃ
yó vo dhā́mabhyo ávidhat

prá sá kṣáyaṃ tirate ví mahī́r íṣo
yó vo várāya dā́śati
prá prajā́bhir jāyate dhármaṇas pári
áriṣṭaḥ sárva edhate

r̥té sá vindate yudháḥ
sugébhir yāti ádhvanaḥ
aryamā́ mitró váruṇaḥ sárātayo
yáṃ trā́yante sajóṣasaḥ

ájre cid asmai kr̥ṇuthā niáñcanaṃ
durgé cid ā́ susaraṇáṃ
eṣā́ cid asmād aśániḥ paró nú sā́
ásredhantī ví naśyatu

yád adyá sū́rya udyatí
príyakṣatrā r̥táṃ dadhá
yán nimrúci prabúdhi viśvavedaso
yád vā madhyáṃdine diváḥ

yád vābhipitvé asurā r̥táṃ yaté
chardír yemá ví dāśúṣe
vayáṃ tád vo vasavo viśvavedasa
úpa stheyāma mádhya ā́

Translation

Because there is kinship with you,
O benign gods -- there is alliance --
Admit us to our well-being of old,
And soon to newer favour.
For at this moment I have sent up to you --
This moment, for a share of weal,
Honouring you, all-knowing ones,
A paean of praise, seemingly inexhaustible.
Now he has risen straight up, you sure guides,
The one beloved of you, that Savitar;
Two-footed, and four-footed creatures,
Purposeful winged ones have come to rest.
May we call upon you, god after god, for aid,
God after god, for ready help,
God after god that we may gain strength,
Singing with divine thought.
For indeed the gods are of one mind with man,
All united, giving together.
As such may they be today for us, then in future for our offspring
Providers of spacious freedom.
I sing out praises to you, guileless ones,
In amongst paeans of praise;
No injury will befall, O Varuna, O Mitra,
The mortal who has honoured your precepts.
The one who worships according to your wish
Prolongs his domestic life, is afforded fine refreshments.
He is born anew in his progeny, according to established order
Unharmed and whole he thrives.
Without fighting he achieves his ends;
He travels on his ways by good paths
Whom Aryaman, Mitra, and Varuna, giving together,
Joining together, protect.
Even on flat land you make a gentle slope for him,
On the hard way an easy passage,
From him even this thunderbolt, now in the distance
Unfailing -- let it disappear.
When today at the sun's rising
O benevolent rulers, you grant Truth,
When at sunset, at wakening, all-knowing ones
Or at the midpoint of the day --
-- Or when at homecoming, Lords, you proffer a shield
For the worshipper who follows the path of Truth;
Then may we stand, gentle, all-knowing ones,
Closely within the midst of you.

Grammar

46. Primary stems in long vowels.
46.1. Primary stems in and .

The declension of secondary feminine stems in was given in Lesson 4 (17.3). There are three important monosyllabic feminine abstract nouns that follow the primary declension: dhī́ 'thought', bhī́ 'respect, fear' and śrī́ 'splendour, glory'. The usual endings are given below, as they would be if made from from dhī́ 'thought'. When the case endings begin with a vowel -ī- changes to -iy-. Dual forms (nominative/accusative dhiyā́, instrumental dhībhyā́m, gen/loc dhiyós) are rare.

    Singular   Plural
Nom   dhī́s   dhíyas
Acc   dhíyam   dhíyas
Ins   dhiyā́   dhībhís
Dat   dhiyé   dhībhyás
Gen   dhiyás   dhīnā́m
Loc       dhīṣú

A number of compounds follow this declension, like the masculine adjectives su-dhī́ 'of good thought' and brahma-prī́ 'delighting in prayer'.

There are in addition some uncompounded polysyllabic nouns which belong to this declension, and are always accented on the -ī- or -iy- of the suffix, although in the ancient texts -iy- is consistently changed to y with displacement of the accent. Of this group nadī́ (feminine) 'stream' is of frequent occurrence: it appeared in the Lesson 3 text in the accusative plural nadyàs (correctly nadíyas) and genitive plural nadī́nām, again in examples 296 and 258 in these two forms, and in example 157 in the nominative plural nadyàs, (nadíyas).

The endings of the primary stems are parallel to those of the primary stems. When the case ending begins with a vowel -ū- changes to -uv-. Many of the words that follow this declension are adjectival compounds, like nominative singular masculine pari-bhū́s 'being around, encompassing' in the Lesson 2 text, and mayo-bhū́ 'bringing happiness', which occurs in the instrumental singular neuter mayobhúvā in the Lesson 8 text.

Compounds formed with these primary endings show a tendency to be transferred to more common declensions. The or regularly appears in shortened form, the compound then following the declension given in section 3 of Lesson 1. An example of this, the alternative adjective mayobhú, occurs in example 325, in the accusative singular neuter mayobhú, in section 47.3 of this lesson.

  • puró agnī́ṃ dhiyā́ dadhe (1, 139, 1) 'with thought I place Agni first' [307]
  • pátir vacasyate dhiyáḥ (IX, 99, 6) 'the lord of thought speaks fluently' (the denominative verb vacasy-, from vácas) [308]
  • dhīnā́m antáḥ [antár] sabardúghaḥ, hinvānó mā́nuṣā yugā́ (IX, 12, 7) 'producing clarity of thoughts within, encouraging the generations of men' (The first element of the compound sabar-dúgha 'producing clarity' is related to Greek σαφής 'clear' and σοφός 'wise', Latin sapor 'savour, taste' and sapiens 'judicious') [309]
  • té anyā́m-anyāṃ nadyàṃ saniṣṇata (I, 131, 5) 'they win (an intensive form of √san, sanóti 'win') of you (Indra) stream after stream' (nadíyam) [310]
  • tád víśvam abhibhū́r [abhibhū́s] asi (VIII, 89, 6) 'you (Indra) surpass all that' [311]
  • agníṃ juhvā̀ vacasyā́, madhupŕ̥caṃ dhanasā́ [dhanasā́s] johavīmi (II, 10, 6) 'With fluent tongue, winning wealth, I entreat Agni, shedding sweetness' (properly juhúvā, from juhū́ (f) 'tongue, call'; the adjective is formed from the denominative verb vacasy- in example 308 above)' [312]
46.2. Primary stems in .

Secondary stems in , which form the feminine of masculine/neuter nouns and adjectives in -a as described in section 6 of Lesson 2, are very common. There are in addition a few primary stems, many of which occur as compounds, like the masculine adjectives dhana-sā́ 'winning wealth' in the last example above, vrata-pā́ 'protecting holy law' in example 243, and purā-jā́ 'born aforetime' in the Lesson 6 text. The forms that are found, if made from the monosyllable ́ 'child' (m/f), are given below. All oblique cases are rare, and only the nominative/accusative/vocative dual forms, ́ or jaú, occur.

    Singular   Plural
Nom   ́s   ́s
Acc   ́m   ́s
Ins   ́   ́bhis
Dat     ́bhyas
Gen   jás    
Loc       ́su
Voc   ́s    

As with the stems in and , there is a tendency for compounds to be transferred to the secondary declension. The compound prajā́ 'creature', for example, has been assimilated to the secondary declension throughout, and indeed was used to illustrate that declension in Lesson 2. As a result the primary stems are uncommon, and have on occasion been differently assigned: the feminine ́ 'gift', for example, which appears only in the accusative ́m in X, 111, 7, the first example below, has been taken to be an irregular form of rayí, and in the concluding verse of X, 127, the only poem in the Rigveda addressed to dawn's sister, the goddess of night, I follow Professor Lanman (Noun-inflection, JAOS vol. x, 1880, p. 443) in taking ́s to be from a monosyllabic ́ 'singer', rather than the accusative plural 'cows' (example 316 below). I have also interpreted the word form in this way at its occurrence in VII, 36,1 quoted in the introduction to this lesson.

  • sácanta yád uṣásaḥ sū́ryeṇa, citrā́m asya ketávo rā́m avindan (X, 111, 7) 'when the dawns accompanied (imperfect without augment; √sac here takes the instrumental) the sun, his rays discovered a bright gift' [313]
  • ásuṃ yá īyúr avr̥kā́ r̥tajñā́s, té no avantu pitáro háveṣu (X, 15, 1) 'may those who have left life, not harming, knowing Truth (r̥ta-jñā́, from √jñā 'know'), the fathers, may they bring help at our invocations' (quoted in the introduction to Lesson 6) [314]
  • ubhé vā́cau vadati sāmagā́ [sāmagā́s] iva, gāyatráṃ ca traíṣṭubhaṃ cā́nu rājati (II, 43, 1) 'he speaks both voices, like a harmony (́man)-singer; he commands both sacred song and triple praise' (see example 290 for the last verse of this poem) [315]
  • úpa te gā́ ivā́karaṃ [gā́s iva ā́ akaram], vr̥ṇīṣvá duhitar divaḥ, rā́tri stómaṃ na jigyúṣe (X, 127, 8) 'I have offered up to you, daughter of heaven, like a singer; accept, O Night, as it were a song of praise to the victor' [316] (see example 242 for verse 5)
47. Aorist System: participles and moods.

The examples below are given to illustrate the forms. Participles and moods made from the reduplicating or sigmatic aorists are clearly aorist forms; when made from the simple aorist the Present System forms are given in parentheses for comparison.

47.1. Aorist participles.
  • abhí yáṃ devī́ áditir gr̥ṇā́ti, saváṃ devásya savitúr juṣāṇā́ (VII, 38, 4) 'to whom goddess Aditi sings, enjoying the encouragement of divine Savitar' (simple aorist middle participle from √juṣ, juṣáte; compare juṣámāṇā) [317]
  • sá yó ví ásthād abhí dákṣad [dákṣat] urvī́m, paśúr ná eti svayúr ágopāḥ (II, 4, 7) 'he (fire), who has spread out, burning up the broad earth, like a beast without a herdsman he goes at will' (sigmatic aorist active participle from √dah, dáhati 'burn') [318]
47.2. The aorist imperative.

The first two examples are simple aorist imperative forms without connecting -a-, from verbs whose forms in the Present System belong to the thematic (-a-) conjugation. As the endings are added directly to the root in the Aorist System, they are those of the athematic conjugation (compare the aorist middle participle juṣāṇá in example 317 above).

  • devébhir devi adite, áriṣṭabharman ā́ gahi (Lesson 5 text) 'with gods, O goddess Aditi, unfailing in support, come hither' (from √gam, gáchati; compare gacha) [319]
  • utā́vamásya puruhūta bodhi (Lesson 6 text) 'and, O much invoked, observe the most recent one' (from √budh, bódhati; compare bodha) [320]
  • devó-devaḥ suhávo bhūtu máhyam (Lesson 8 text) 'may god after god be easily invoked for me' (simple aorist imperative from √bhū, bhávati; compare bhavatu) [321]
  • mánma śrudhi návīyasaḥ (I, 131, 6) 'listen to the thought of a newer one' (simple aorist imperative from √śru, śr̥ṇóti; compare śr̥ṇuhi, śr̥ṇudhi) [322] (=189)
  • aviṣṭáṃ dhíyo jigr̥tám púraṃdhīḥ (IV, 50, 11) 'favour (dual) thoughts, waken abundance' (sigmatic aorist imperative from √av, ávati 'favour', and reduplicating aorist imperative from √gr̥ 'wake') [323]
47.3. The aorist subjunctive.

The sigmatic aorist is regularly used to make subjunctive forms.

  • sá naḥ parṣad [parṣat] áti durgā́ṇi víśvā, nāvéva síndhuṃ duritā́ti agníḥ (I, 99, 1) 'so will Agni bear us over all hard ways and dangers, as with a boat over a river' (sigmatic aorist subjunctive, from √pr̥, píparti 'pass' with preverb áti) [324] (=124)
  • ́ta ā́ vātu bheṣajáṃ, śambhú mayobhú no hr̥dé, prá ṇa ā́yūṃṣi tāriṣat (X, 186, 1 ) 'may the wind blow healing hither, kind, bringing happiness to us in the heart, it will prolong our lives' (sigmatic aorist subjunctive, from √tr̥̄, tiráti 'cross' with preverb prá) [325]
  • ápād itá [itás] úd u naś citrátamo, mahī́m bharṣad [bharṣat] dyumátīm índrahūtim (VI, 38, 1) 'the brightest one has drunk from here, now he will carry up our great, splendid appeal to Indra (Indra-call)' (sigmatic aorist subjunctive, from √bhr̥, bhárati 'bring, bear' with preverb út) [326]
  • utá syā́ no dívā matír, áditir ūtyā́ gamat (Lesson 5 text) 'and that our thought by day, Aditi will come with help' (simple aorist subjunctive from √gam, gáchati; compare gachāt) [327]
47.4. The aorist optative.

A rare form of the aorist optative, the precative, adds an -s- before the endings, which when simply consonantal are then lost, as explained in section 18. An example occurred in the Lesson 8 text, repeated below (example 330).

  • távéd uṣo vyúṣi sū́ryasya ca, sám bhakténa gamemahi (Lesson 4 text) 'at your own brightening, O dawn, and the sun's, may we partake of our share' (simple aorist optative of √gam, gáchati; compare gáchemahi) [328]
  • táṃ no devā́ ánu maṃsīrata krátum (Lesson 7 text) 'may the gods commend that wisdom of ours' (sigmatic aorist optative of √man, mányate with preverb ánu) [329]
  • prá suṣṭutí stanáyantaṃ ruvántam, iḷás pátiṃ jaritar nūnám aśyāḥ (Lesson 8 text) 'may a fine hymn of praise now reach (aśyās, = aśyās-t) the roaring thunder-maker, lord of refreshment, O singer' (precative of √aṃś, aśnóti 'reach') [330]
48. The passive.

The passive is formed with the suffix -yá-, and the endings of the middle voice. The middle voice, without the suffix, can also be used with passive sense, as in the seventh verse of the lesson text, ví tirate, and the last two examples below.

  • idám pitré marútām ucyate vácaḥ (I, 114, 6) 'this speech is addressed to the father of the Maruts' (from √vac 'speak') [331] (=187)
  • svā́diṣṭhā dhītír ucáthāya śasyate (I, 110, 1) 'the sweetest thought is sung for praise' (from √śaṃs 'sing praise') [332] (=193)
  • vibhrā́jamāna uṣásām upásthād, rebhaír úd eti anumadyámānaḥ (VII, 63, 3) 'refulgent, from the lap of dawns (the sun) rises, delighted in by the singers' (passive participle from √mad 'delight in' with preverb ánu) [333]
  • evá agnír gótamebhir r̥tā́vā, víprebhir astoṣṭa jātávedāḥ (I, 77, 5) 'so Agni, possessed of Truth, knowing created things, has been praised by the poets, the Gotamas' (sigmatic aorist middle of √stu 'praise') [334]
  • ātmā́ devā́nām bhúvanasya gárbha, yathāvaśáṃ carati devá eṣáḥ, ghóṣā íd asya śr̥ṇvire ná rūpám (X, 168, 4) 'the breath of the gods, the germ of existence, this god goes as he wills, his sounds are heard but his form is not (seen)' (from √śru 'hear', and supplying dadr̥śe from √dr̥ś 'see') [335] (=259)
48.1. The aorist passive.

This passive is found only in the 3rd person singular. It is formed with the augment, and the suffix -i is added to the verbal root, which is usually strengthened. An example occurred at the beginning of the Lesson 4 text: práty u adarśi āyatī́, uchántī duhitā́ diváḥ 'now she has been seen (a-darś-i, from √dr̥ś 'see, appear'), approaching, shining, the daughter of heaven'. The aorist passive is characteristic of poems of early date.

  • ásarji vāṃ sthávirā vedhasā gī́ (I, 181, 7) 'a steadfast song has been sent (from √sr̥j) to you, honourable pair' [336]
  • ádhāyi agnír mā́nuṣīṣu vikṣú (III, 5, 3) 'fire has been placed (from √dhā) among settlements of men' (the adjective ́nuṣī, feminine of ́nuṣa in example 309 above) [337]
  • mátsi ápāyi te máhaḥ (I, 175, 1) 'rejoice (Indra), your greatness has been drunk (from √pā, píbati 'drink')' (for the last verse of this poem, concluding the image, see example 279: '... you were like happiness, like water to a thirsty man') [338]
  • áceti ketúr uṣásaḥ purástāt 'the sign of dawn has been seen (from √cit) up ahead' (VII, 67, 2) [339]
  • uṣā́ [uṣā́s] adarśi raśmíbhir vyàktā 'dawn has come into view, made bright with rays' (VII, 77, 3) [340]
  • víśvaṃ jīváṃ támaso nír amoci, máhi jyótiḥ pitŕ̥bhir dattám ā́gāt (X, 107, 1) 'all life has been released (from √muc 'make free' with preverb nís 'out') from darkness, the great light given by the fathers has come' [341]
  • iyáṃ vām asyá mánmana, índrāgnī pūrvyástutiḥ, abhrā́d vr̥ṣṭír ivājani [iva ajani] (VII, 94, 1) 'this praise of old has been produced (from √jan) for you from this one's thought, O Indra and Agni, like rain from the storm-cloud' [342]
49. Primary nominal formation.

The formation of nominal (noun and adjective) stems from verbs in Sanskrit is more regular and clear than in any other Indo-European language. The ancient grammarians therefore set up a body of verbal roots, describing the regular processes by which these roots become nouns and adjectives by means of the addition of suffixes.

The table below gives a sample of three verbal roots, √kr̥ 'do', √jan 'produce', and √man 'think', and the nouns and adjectives that they form by means of four common suffixes: -ana, -as, -tu and -man. The position of the accent often differentiates meaning: for example, kar-aṇá 'active' exists alongside root-accented kár-aṇa 'deed'. The form that the root takes can vary depending on the suffix, as √kr̥ demonstrates: *kr̥-aṇá and *kŕ̥-as are not possible word forms.

    √kr̥ 'do'   √jan 'produce'   √man 'think'
-ana   kar-aṇá 'active'   ján-ana 'producer'   man-ána 'thoughtful'
-as   kár-as 'deed'   ján-as 'race'   mán-as 'understanding'
-tu   krá-tu 'power'   jan-tú 'creature'   mán-tu 'arbiter'
-man   kár-man 'deed'   ján-man 'birth'   mán-man 'thought'

Further examples of nouns and adjectives formed with these suffixes, together with four more primary suffixes, are given below.

-ana   cáraṇa from √car 'move', bhúvana from √bhū 'be', vakṣáṇa from √vakṣ 'grow', vacaná from √vac 'speak', sacaná from √sac 'accompany', sádana from √sad 'sit', hávana from √hū 'call upon'
-as   ávas from √av 'favour', uṣás from √vas 'shine', cákṣas from √cakṣ 'see', páyas from √pī 'swell with plenty', vácas from √vac, védas both from √vid 'find' and √vid 'know', vedhás from √vidh 'honour', śrávas from √śru 'hear', sádas from √sad
-tu   aktú from √añj 'make bright', gātú both from √gā 'go' and √gā 'sing'
-man   ́man from √dā 'give', dhárman from √dhr̥ 'hold firm', dhā́man from √dhā 'place', pátman from √pat 'fly', vídman from √vid 'know', sádman from √sad
-ani   caráṇi from √car, vakṣáṇi from √vakṣ
-tra   mántra from √man, vr̥trá from √vr̥ 'hinder'; with connecting vowel gāyatrá from √gā 'sing', carítra from √car, janítra from √jan
-tha   with connecting vowel ucátha from √vac, carátha from √car, vakṣátha from √vakṣ, vidátha from √vid, sacátha from √sac, stanátha from √stan 'thunder', várūtha from √vr̥ 'protect'
-ra   usrá from √vas 'shine'; with connecting vowel patará from √pat, madirá from √mad 'be pleased'

The addition of secondary suffixes to these nominal stems to form derivative nouns and adjectives was treated in section 17 of Lesson 4 ('Secondary nominal formation'). Among the examples given were the secondary suffixes -a, -ya (-iya), -vant and -mant. Some derivatives made with these secondary suffixes, from nouns given above, are manasá from mánas; śravasíya from śrávas, vidathíya from vidátha, sacathíya from sacátha, (all given with suffixal -yà in the ancient texts) and usríya from usrá; mánasvant from mánas and ́manvant from ́man; krátumant from krátu and gātumánt from gātú.

The Lesson 10 text is remarkable for its wealth of adjectives and abstract feminine nouns formed with the primary suffix -ti. The passage contains nine examples: sa-rā-tí 'giving together' from √rā 'grant' and úpa-ṣṭu-ti 'paean' from √stu 'praise' both occur twice, together with bhak-tí 'share' from √bhaj 'share', su-pra-ṇī́-ti 'guiding safely' from √nī 'lead', abhí-ṣ-ti 'ready help' from √as 'be', ́ja-sā-ti 'strength-winning' from san 'win', and dhūr-tí 'injury' from √dhvr̥ 'injure'.

50. The indological tradition: interpretation of verbal roots and their derivatives in the Rigveda.
50.1. Abstract, not concrete: the example of √grabh.

In the translations of indology the Rigveda often appears an unsophisticated and bizarre text because of the tradition of interpreting verbal roots, together with their nominal derivatives, in a primarily concrete or literal sense. Verbal meaning in the Rigveda is however regularly abstract and metaphorical -- the use of √pā 'drink' in I, 175, quoted in example 338 above, is an instance of this: 'rejoice (Indra), your greatness has been drunk... you were like happiness, like water to a thirsty man'. A few illustrations of the abstract use of the verb √grabh, gr̥bhṇā́ti 'take (not necessarily with the hand)' are given below.

  • svéneva [svéna iva] dhī́ro mánasā yád ágrabhīt (I, 145, 2) 'which the wise man has grasped with his own understanding, so to speak' [343]
  • śréyāṃsaṃ dákṣam mánasā jagr̥bhyāt (X, 31, 2) 'let him acquire finer virtue with his mind' [344]
  • práti me stómam áditir jagr̥bhyāt, sūnúṃ ná mātā́ hŕ̥dyaṃ suśévam (V, 42, 2) 'may Aditi welcome my praise, like a mother a beloved son dear to her heart' (with preverb práti) [345] (=283)
  • devó bhuvan [bhuvat] návedā ma r̥tā́nāṃ, námo jagr̥bhvā́m̐ [jagr̥bhvā́n] abhí yáj jújoṣat (IV, 23, 4) 'may the god be cognizant (návedas) of my Truths, having accepted (perfect active participle) the honour that he enjoys' [346]
50.2. Later specialization of meaning: the example of √pī.

Indologists call the language of the Rigveda 'Vedic', a word that is also used to describe the language of later texts which owe their existence to the Rigveda and the need to understand it (see the Series Introduction). The influence of these later texts leads to the continuing 'reading back' of interpretations that are later into Rigvedic contexts. A typical example is √pī, pínvate 'swell with plenty, yield abundantly' and its primary derivative páyas 'fruitfulness, plenty'. In the later texts the abstract sense was lost, and the root acquired the specific meaning 'swell with milk'. Despite the varied contexts in which páyas occurs in the Rigveda -- the word is ascribed to rivers, plants and speech for instance (see the first verse of the Lesson 3 text, and examples 88, 98, and 300, and 351 below) -- it continues to be consistently translated 'milk' by indologists, and the rivers in the Lesson 3 text, for example, are understood to be pictured as cows.

  • ́ ṣṭutá indra nū́ gr̥ṇāná, íṣaṃ jaritré nadyò ná pīpeḥ (IV, 16, 21) 'now praised, now lauded, Indra, yield refreshment abundantly for the singer, like streams' [347] (=296)
  • evá agnír gótamebhir r̥tā́vā, víprebhir astoṣṭa jātávedāḥ, sá eṣu dyumnám pīpayat sá vā́jam (I, 77, 5) 'so Agni, possessed of Truth, knowing created things, has been praised by the poets, the Gotamas; so will he yield glory and strength abundantly among them' [348] (first two lines = 334)
  • índra yás te návīyasīṃ, gíram mandrā́m ájījanat, cikitvínmanasaṃ dhíyam, pratnā́m r̥tásya pipyúṣīm (VIII, 95, 5) 'who for you, Indra, has produced a newer, pleasing song, a perceptive thought, ancient, productive of Truth' (feminine perfect active participle) [349]
  • prá vā́tā vā́nti patáyanti vidyúta, úd óṣadhīr jíhate pínvate svàḥ (V, 83, 4) 'the winds blow forth, the lightnings fall; the plants shoot up, heaven yields abundance' (with preverb út, quoted in the introduction to Lesson 8) [350]
  • sárasvatī saptáthī síndhumātā, yā́ḥ suṣváyanta sudúghāḥ sudhārā́, abhí svéna páyasā pī́pyānāḥ (VII, 36, 6) 'may they be fertile -- the seventh one Sarasvati, mother of the rivers -- those richly giving forth, flowing well, yielding abundantly with their own plenty (páyas)' [351]

In the last example the compound su-dúgha 'richly giving forth', describing the rivers, is formed from a primary nominal derivative of a verb that is similar in meaning to √pī, √duh 'produce, give forth' with prefix su-. The same derivative, dúgha, occurred at the end of the compound sabar-dúgha in example 309 earlier in this lesson: dhīnā́m antáḥ sabardúghaḥ, hinvānó mā́nuṣā yugā́ (IX, 12, 7) 'producing clarity of thoughts within, encouraging the generations of men'. Like √pī, √duh later became restricted in meaning to the production of milk, so that IX, 12, 7, when quoted in a later text, is 'corrected': the genitive plural dhī́nām 'of thoughts' is changed to the accusative singular dhenā́m 'stream of milk', and the ending of the adjective changed to agree with the new noun (SV II,5,1,4,7). In the same way at IX, 108, 8, an Archaic poem, the accusative adjective payo-vŕ̥dham 'plentiful' is changed to payo-dúham (SV II,6,2,6,2). The sophistication and abstraction of the language of the Rigveda was not understood by the authors of the later Vedic texts, and the continuing use of the word 'Vedic' to include the language of the Rigveda perpetuates important mistranslations in these early poems.

50.3. The assumption of ritual meaning: the example of √añj.

Many words continue to be defined in dictionaries in ways that belong to later texts devoted to the description of ritual practice. A significant example of this is the verb √añj, anákti, to which Monier-Williams gives the primary sense for the Rigveda "to apply an ointment or pigment, smear with oil, anoint", and which Macdonell translates simply as 'anoint'. Most recently (1986) the verb is defined by Manfred Mayrhofer in his dictionary of early Sanskrit "salben, bestreichen, beschmieren", 'anoint, smear with oil'. This later specialization of sense occasions many strange translations of Rigvedic passages, and footnotes attempting to justify them. Geldner in the 1920s commented on his translation of example 356 below in a footnote "Das Loblied ist eine Salbe"; Renou in the 1960s translated example 353 "je vais lancer-avec-onction la parole que voici"; and the most recent translator of the Rigveda, Tatiana Elizarenkova (1999) notes to bhānúm añjate in the first example 'they anoint themselves with light as ointment', and to aktó vácobhis in example 359 'anointed with sacrificial butter and praised with words'. The later ritual interpretation also causes perplexity about one of the verb's primary derivatives, aktú 'twilight ray'. The meaning of √añj in the Rigveda, both with and without preverbs -- see examples 352, 353, 358 and 359 -- is abstract and complex, lying in the region 'cause to appear, reveal, make bright'.

  • etā́ u tyā́ uṣásaḥ ketúm akrata, pū́rve árdhe rájaso bhānúm añjate (I, 92, 1) 'now these dawns have shone out, in the eastern half of the dark region they cause brightness to appear' (present middle) [352]
  • prá śárdhāya mā́rutāya svábhānava, imā́ṃ vā́cam anajā parvatacyúte (V, 54, 1) 'for the Maruts' troop, self-luminous, moving mountains, I shall reveal this speech' (subjunctive) [353]
  • purogā́ [purogā́s] agnír devā́nāṃ, gāyatréṇa sám ajyate (I, 188, 11) 'Agni, herald of the gods, is made bright with sacred song' (passive, with preverb sám) [354]
  • uṣā́ adarśi raśmíbhir vyàktā 'dawn has come into view, made bright with rays' (past participle, with preverb ) (VII, 77, 3) [355] (=340)
  • índrāya arkáṃ juhvā̀ [juhúvā] sám añje (I, 61, 5) 'for Indra I reveal a song of praise with my tongue' (present middle, with preverb sám) [356]
  • tváṣṭā rūpā́ṇi hí prabhúḥ, paśū́n víśvān samānajé (I, 188, 9) 'for Tvashtar presides over the forms, he has made manifest all the beasts' (perfect middle, with preverb sám, quoted in the introduction to Lesson 8) [357]
  • imā́ṃ te dhíyam prá bhare mahó mahī́m, asyá stotré dhiṣáṇā yát ta [te] ānajé (I, 102, 1) 'this thought I offer to you, mighty for the mighty, when your power to inspire has been made manifest in this man's song of praise' [358]
  • yác chasyáse [yát śasyáse] dyúbhir aktó [aktás] vácobhis, táj [tát] juṣasva jaritúr ghóṣi mánma (VI, 5, 6) 'when you (Agni) are praised through the course of days, made manifest with words, then enjoy the voiced (ghósi, compare ghóṣa in example 335) thought of the singer' (past participle) [359]
  • dídr̥kṣanta uṣáso yā́man aktór, vivásvatyā máhi citrám ánīkam, víśve jānanti mahinā́ yád ā́gād, índrasya kárma súkr̥tā purū́ṇi (III, 30, 13) 'they long to see, at the approach of the glimmering light (aktú) of dawn, the great bright face of the radiant one; all know when she has come in her glory -- the many deeds of Indra are well done' [360] (=223)