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Ancient Sanskrit Online

Lesson 7

Karen Thomson and Jonathan Slocum

The opening verse of this passage to the sun turns on two important words of complex meaning in the Rigvedic vocabulary, vrat and krtu. The word vrat (related to Greek rma, and English word) previously occurred in the Lesson 2 text, where Savitar, the driving force behind the solar cycle, both guarded the vratni and protected us with them, a passage that gives an indication of the double sense of the word. On the one hand it describes the unfathomable system that regulates the universe: am y rks nhitsa ucc, nktam ddrre kha cid dveyuh, dabdhni vrunasya vratni, vickaac candrm nktam eti (I, 24, 10) 'that far off constellation set on high that shows itself at night, wherever does it go by day? Inviolate are the holy laws of Varuna; the shining moon goes keeping watch by night'. But the vratni are also divine commandments, obeyed not only by the waters and the wind in II, 38, 2 (see the introduction to Lesson 2) but also by man if he is wise, as indicated in X, 2, 4, quoted in example 199 in the last lesson.

The second verse of VII, 61, the two halves of which have appeared as examples 56 and 184, describes how a poet can acquire krtu with the help of the gods: pr vm s mitrvarunv rtv, vpro mnmni drghard iyarti, ysya brhmni sukrat vtha, yt krtv n ardah prnathe 'to you, Mitra and Varuna, he, the far-famed holy poet, lifts up his thoughts; whose prayers, O very able pair, you may favour, so that you will fill his autumns with krtu, as it were'. The word is cognate with Greek kratos 'strength', but significantly in the Rigveda has the sense of reasoning power or intellectual ability, not bodily strength. In another passage, X, 64, 2, the noun krtu is turned into a verb (see section 33.4 in this lesson), kratynti krtavo hrts dhtyah 'conceptual powers, thoughts, have power in our hearts'.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The lesson text forms the central section, verses 5-10, of X, 37 (863), a poem of 12 verses addressed to the sun. The name srya, from svr 'sunlight', is related to Old English svegle and also to Homeric Greek elios. The poem is in the jagat metre with the exception of verse 10, the last verse here, which is in tristubh. The sun, which is vvasya sthtr jgata ca gop 'guardian of all that stands and moves' in VII, 60, 2, in protecting vvasya vratm in this passage merits the praise of men, praise which will, thanks to their krtu, be commendable to all the gods.

vvasya h prsito rksasi vratm
helayann uccrasi svadh nu
yd ady tv srya upabrvmahai
tm no dev nu mamsrata krtum

  • vvasya -- adjective; genitive singular masculine of <vva> all -- of all
  • h -- particle; <h> for, because -- since
  • prsitas -- participle; nominative singular masculine past participle of </is, syati> send + preverb <pr> forth -- sent forth # The past participle of /is is isit, and the initial i combines with the final a of the preverb to form e.
  • rksasi -- verb; 2nd person singular active present of </raks, rksati> protect -- you protect
  • vratm -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <vrat> holy law, divine commandment -- the holy law
  • helayan -- participle; nominative singular masculine present active causative participle of </hd> be hostile + privative prefix <a-> (reverses meaning) -- not invidious
  • uccrasi -- verb; 2nd person singular active present of </car, crati> move + preverb <t> up -- you rise
  • svadhs -- noun; accusative plural feminine of <svadh> inherent power -- your own powers # Compare svadhvant in the last lesson text.
  • nu -- preposition; <nu> after -- according to
  • yt -- conjunction; <yt> that, when -- when
  • ady -- adverb; <ady> on this day, today -- today # a-dy, compare Latin ho-die and English to-day.
  • tv -- personal pronoun; accusative singular enclitic form of <tvm> you -- you
  • srya -- noun; vocative singular masculine of <srya> sun -- O sun
  • upabrvmahai -- verb; 1st person plural middle subjunctive of </br, brvti> say + preverb <pa> up to -- we address
  • tm -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <ss, s, tt> that; he, she, it -- that
  • nas -- personal pronoun; accusative/dative/genitive enclitic form of <vaym> we -- our
  • devs -- noun; nominative plural masculine of <dev> divine, god -- the gods
  • nu mamsrata -- verb; 3rd person plural middle aorist optative of </man, mnyate> think + preverb <nu> after -- may they commend
  • krtum -- noun; accusative singular masculine of <krtu> power, intellectual ability -- wisdom

tm no dyvprthiv tn no pa
ndrah rnvantu marto hvam vcah
m ne bhma sriyasya samdri
bhadrm jvanto jaranm amahi

  • tm -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <ss, s, tt> that; he, she, it -- that # Agrees with hvam in the second line.
  • nas -- personal pronoun; accusative/dative/genitive enclitic form of <vaym> we -- our
  • dyvprthiv -- noun; nominative dual feminine of <dyvprthiv> Heaven and Earth -- Heaven and Earth
  • tt -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <ss, s, tt> that; he, she, it -- that # Agrees with vcas in the second line.
  • nas -- personal pronoun; accusative/dative/genitive enclitic form of <vaym> we -- our
  • pas -- noun; nominative plural feminine of <p> water -- the waters
  • ndras -- noun; nominative singular masculine of <ndra> Indra -- Indra
  • rnvantu -- verb; 3rd person plural active imperative of </ru, rnti> hear -- may they hear
  • martas -- noun; nominative plural masculine of <mart> Marut, storm god -- the storm gods
  • hvam -- noun; accusative singular masculine of <hva> call -- call
  • vcas -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <vcas> word, speech -- speech
  • m -- particle; <m> not, that not -- do not
  • ne -- noun; locative singular neuter of <na> lack, want -- in want
  • bhma -- verb; 1st person plural active aorist injunctive of of </bh, bhvati> be -- let us be
  • sryasya -- noun; genitive singular masculine of <srya> sun -- of the sun
  • samdri -- noun; locative singular feminine of <samdr> sight -- in the sight
  • bhadrm -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <bhadr> fortunate, happy -- happy
  • jvantas -- participle; nominative plural masculine present active participle of </jv, jvati> be alive -- living
  • jaranm -- noun; accusative singular feminine of <jaran> old age -- old age
  • amahi -- verb; 1st person plural middle optative of </am, anti> reach -- may we reach

vivh tv sumnasah sucksasah
prajvanto anamv ngasah
udyntam tv mitramaho div-dive
jiyg jvh prti payema sriya

  • vivh -- adverb; <vivh> always -- always
  • tv -- personal pronoun; accusative singular enclitic form of <tvm> you -- you
  • sumnasas -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <sumnas> good-minded, well-disposed -- with good minds
  • sucksasas -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <sucksas> well-sighted -- with good sight
  • prajvantas -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <prajvant> having progeny -- rich in projeny
  • anamvs -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <anamv> without sickness -- free from sickness # mv (f) 'sickness'.
  • ngasas -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <ngas> without guilt -- free from guilt # gas (n) 'guilt'.
  • udyntam -- participle; accusative singular masculine present active participle of </i, ti> go + preverb <t> up -- rising
  • tv -- personal pronoun; accusative singular enclitic form of <tvm> you -- you
  • mitramahas -- adjective; vocative singular masculine of <mitrmahas> friend-great, many-friended -- many-friended
  • div-dive -- iterative compound; <div-dive> day after day -- day after day
  • jyk -- adverb; <jyk> for a long time -- a long time
  • jvs -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <jv> alive, living -- living
  • prti payema -- verb; 1st person plural active optative of </pa, pyati> see + preverb <prti> against -- may we behold
  • srya -- noun; vocative singular masculine of <srya> sun -- O sun

mhi jytir bbhratam tv vicaksana
bhsvantam cksuse-caksuse myah
rhantam brhath pjasas pri
vaym jvh prti payema sriya

  • mhi -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <mh> great -- great
  • jytis -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <jytis> light -- light
  • bbhratam -- participle; accusative singular masculine present active participle of </bhr, bhrati> bring, bear -- bringing # From the alternative reduplicating form of the present tense.
  • tv -- personal pronoun; accusative singular enclitic form of <tvm> you -- you
  • vicaksana -- adjective; vocative singular masculine of <vicaksan> far-sighted, discerning -- O far-seeing one
  • bhsvantam -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <bhsvant> possessing light, brightness -- with brightness
  • cksuse-caksuse -- iterative compound; <cksuse-caksuse> to every eye -- to every eye # Like cksas 'seeing, sight' and vicaksan in the previous line, from the root /caks, cste 'see'.
  • myas -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <myas> happiness -- a joy
  • rhantam -- participle; accusative singular masculine present active participle of </ruh, rhati> rise up + preverb <> (intensifies or reverses meaning) -- rising up
  • brhats -- adjective; ablative singular neuter of <brhnt> high, lofty -- from the lofty
  • pjasas -- noun; ablative singular neuter of <pjas> radiance, lustre -- radiance
  • pri -- preposition; <pri> around, out of -- out of
  • vaym -- personal pronoun; nominative of <vaym> we -- we
  • jvs -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <jv> alive, living -- living
  • prti payema -- verb; 1st person plural active optative of </pa, pyati> see + preverb <prti> against -- may we look upon
  • srya -- noun; vocative singular masculine of <srya> sun -- O sun

ysya te vv bhvanni ketn
pr crate n ca vinte aktbhih
angstvna harikea sriya
hnhn no vsyas-vasyasd ihi

  • ysya -- relative pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <ys, y, yt> who, which -- whose
  • te -- personal pronoun; dative/genitive singular enclitic form of <tvm> you -- your
  • vv -- adjective; nominative plural neuter of <vva> all -- all
  • bhvanni -- noun; nominative plural neuter of <bhvana> being, existence -- beings
  • ketn -- noun; instrumental singular masculine of <ket> appearance, shining out, ray -- with the appearance
  • ca -- conjunction; <ca> and -- and
  • pr rate -- verb; 3rd person plural middle present of </r, yarti> go, send + preverb <pr> forth -- set out
  • ca -- conjunction; <ca> and -- and
  • n vinte -- verb; 3rd person plural middle present of </vi, vite> enter, come to rest + preverb <n> down -- come to rest
  • aktbhis -- noun; instrumental plural masculine of <akt> twilight ray -- with twilight rays
  • angstvna -- adjective; instrumental singular neuter of <angastv> guiltlessness, innocence -- with innocence # From ngas in the second verse with suffix -tv.
  • harikea -- adjective; vocative singular masculine of <hrikea> gold-tressed -- gold-tressed
  • srya -- noun; vocative singular masculine of <srya> sun -- O sun
  • hnhn -- iterative compound; <hn-ahn> with repeated daylight -- every day with light
  • nas -- personal pronoun; accusative/dative/genitive enclitic form of <vaym> we -- for us
  • vsyas-vasyas -- iterative compound; <vsyas-vasyas> with better and better -- better and better # From the comparative of vsu, vsyms (superlative vsistha).
  • t ihi -- verb; 2nd person singular active imperative of </i, ti> go + preverb <t> up -- rise up

m no bhava cksas m no hn
m bhnn m him m ghrnna
yth m dhva chm sad duron
tt sriya drvinam dhehi citrm

  • m -- indeclinable; <m> blessing, blessed -- blessing # Repeated through the verse.
  • nas -- personal pronoun; accusative/dative/genitive enclitic form of <vaym> we -- to us
  • bhava -- verb; 2nd person singular active imperative of </bh, bhvati> be -- be
  • cksas -- noun; instrumental singular neuter of <cksas> seeing, sight -- with sight
  • nas -- personal pronoun; accusative/dative/genitive enclitic form of <vaym> we -- to us
  • hn -- noun; instrumental singular neuter of <han> day, daylight -- with daylight
  • bhnn -- noun; instrumental singular masculine of <bhn> brightness, shining -- with brightness
  • him -- noun; instrumental singular masculine of <him> cold, frost -- with frost # Compare Latin hiems.
  • ghrnna -- noun; instrumental singular masculine of <ghrn> warmth -- with warmth
  • yth -- conjunction; <yth> as, so that -- that
  • dhvan -- noun; locative singular masculine of <dhvan> way -- on the way
  • sat -- verb; 3rd person singular active subjunctive of </as, sti> be -- there may be
  • duron -- noun; locative singular neuter of <duron> home -- at home
  • tt -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <ss, s, tt> that; he, she, it -- that
  • srya -- noun; vocative singular masculine of <srya> sun -- O sun
  • drvinam -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <drvina> provision -- provision
  • dhehi -- verb; 2nd person singular active imperative of </dh, ddhti> place, grant -- grant
  • citrm -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <citr> bright, radiant -- radiant

Lesson Text

vvasya h prsito rksasi vratm
helayann uccrasi svadh nu
yd ady tv srya upabrvmahai
tm no dev nu mamsrata krtum

tm no dyvprthiv tn no pa
ndrah rnvantu marto hvam vcah
m ne bhma sriyasya samdri
bhadrm jvanto jaranm amahi

vivh tv sumnasah sucksasah
prajvanto anamv ngasah
udyntam tv mitramaho div-dive
jiyg jvh prti payema sriya

mhi jytir bbhratam tv vicaksana
bhsvantam cksuse-caksuse myah
rhantam brhath pjasas pri
vaym jvh prti payema sriya

ysya te vv bhvanni ketn
pr crate n ca vinte aktbhih
angstvna harikea sriya
hnhn no vsyas-vasyasd ihi

m no bhava cksas m no hn
m bhnn m him m ghrnna
yth m dhva chm sad duron
tt sriya drvinam dhehi citrm

Translation

Since you, sent forth, protect the holy law of all,
And, not invidious, rise according to your own powers;
When we address you today, O sun,
May the gods commend that wisdom of ours.
That call of ours may Heaven and Earth and the waters, hear,
Indra and the storm gods hear that speech;
Let us not be in want in the sight of the sun,
May we, living, reach a happy old age.
Always with good minds, with good sight
Rich in progeny, free from sickness and from guilt,
May we behold you rising day after day,
Living a long time, O many-friended sun.
Bringing great light, O far-seeing one
With brightness, a joy to every eye,
Rising all around from out the lofty radiance,
May we, living, look upon you, O sun.
With whose appearance all living things set out,
And come to rest with your twilight rays;
With innocence, O gold-tressed sun,
Rise up for us every day with better and better light.
Bless us with sight, bless with daylight,
Bless us with brightness, with frost and with warmth;
That there may be blessing on the way, or at home,
Grant that radiant provision, O sun.

Grammar

31. Iteration.

Iterative compounds, where the same word -- regularly in inflected form -- is repeated, express succession in time or space or repetition, and are a common feature of the Rigveda. Of the four in this lesson text div-dive 'day after day' is ancient and occurs many times. Such compounds are however freely formed, and often appear only once. The dative cksuse-caksuse 'to every eye' from cksus 'eye, sight' (compare cksas 'seeing, sight', and its derivative sucksas in the third verse), and the instrumental hn-ahn 'with repeated daylight', together with adjectival vsyas-vasyas, 'better and better', are only found in this passage. Any part of speech is capable of being compounded in this way: ihha [ih-iha] '(here-here) here and there, everywhere'; yd-yat [yt-yat] 'whatever'.

  • jytismatm ditim dhraytksitim, svrvatm sacete div-dive, jgrvms div-dive (I, 136, 3) 'you accompany Aditi hither day after day, she who is made of light, sustaining the races of man, possessing sunlight, you two, watchful day after day' [205]
  • agnm nro v bharante grh-grhe [...] agnm vrnn vrnate kavkratum (V, 11, 4) 'men distribute fire in every house... choosing Agni they choose the sage-wise' [206] (second line = 80)
  • yd-yad ymi td bhara (VIII, 61, 6) 'whatever I solicit, bring that hither' [207]
  • samn dhv svsror anants, tm anyny [any-any] carato deviste (I, 113, 3) 'The sisters (Night and Dawn) have the same unending course, they move along it alternately (other-other), god-instructed' [208]
  • brhma-brahma y jujush (IX, 77, 3) 'those who delight in all prayers' [209]

The same word may also be repeated in the sentence in a different case to convey a superlative sense, as in English 'king of kings'. In the last verse of X, 112 skhe skhnm 'O friend of friends / best of friends' is addressed to Indra, and at VI, 61, 10 Sarasvati is described as priy priysu 'dear among the dear (f)/ dearest of all streams'. Filial piety is praised as vpuso vpustaram 'more marvellous than a marvel' in X, 32, 3, and the example svdh svdyah 'sweeter than the sweet', describing speech, was given in the last lesson (number 187).

32. Adjectives with pronominal declension.

Some adjectives displaying elements of the pronominal declension that ressemble comparatives and superlatives in form, like vara 'more recent' and avam 'most recent', were described in section 29.2 of the last lesson. Another, similarly temporal in meaning and exhibiting both pronominal and adjectival forms, is prva 'former, previous'. The adjectives vva 'every, all' and srva 'whole, all' (Latin salvus), like ka 'one', follow the pronominal declension with the exception of the nominative/accusative singular neuter forms, vvam and srvam. The usual Rigvedic word meaning 'all', vva, which is superseded in the later language by srva, has appeared four times in the lesson texts, twice here and twice in Lesson 1, in forms that could be either pronominal or adjectival. In a passage quoted in the Introduction to the Lesson 5 text however it shows its pronominal nature: ditir mt s pit s putrh, vve dev ditih (I, 89, 10) 'Aditi is mother, father, son; Aditi is all the gods'.

The adjective any 'other' in the feminine iterative compound any-any in example 208 above, like katar and katam described in the last section of Lesson 6, follows the pronominal declension throughout. Further pronominal forms are illustrated below. The last example is from the second verse of the lesson text poem.

  • y cid dh [cit h] tvm rsayah prva [prve] tye, juhr vase mahi, s na stmm abh grnhi rdhas (I, 48, 14) 'as all those seers of old invoked you for help, for aid, O great goddess, so reciprocate (lit. 'sing towards') our songs of praise with generosity' [210]
  • pr vryna devtti [devt ti] cekite, vvasm [vvasmai] ugrh krmane purhitah (I, 55, 3) 'among the gods (Indra) is pre-eminent for heroism, strong, placed in front for every deed' [211]
  • vvasmn [vvasmt] no mhaso ns pipartana (1, 106, 1-6) 'from all trouble deliver us' [212]
  • vay [vays] d agne agnyas te any, tv vve amrt [amrts] mdayante (I, 59, 1) 'other fires, Agni, are indeed your offshoots (vay, feminine), all the immortals delight in you' [213]
  • vvam anyn [anyt] n viate yd jati, vivhpo [vivh pas] vivhd [vivh t] eti sryah (X, 37, 2) 'all else that stirs comes to rest, always the waters, the sun always rises' [214]
33. Derivative verbs.

There are three derivative conjugations which give the verbal root an extended sense, forming tenses, moods and participles. By far the most common of these is the causative, which, by means of a suffix added to the root, turns 'he goes' into 'he causes to go'. Intensives and desideratives similarly extend the meaning of the root to something like 'he insists on going', and 'he wishes to go'. Allied to these is a class of verbs called denominatives which make verbs out of nouns, like English to holiday (to vacation), or to fish.

33.1. The causative.

Causatives are formed by adding -ya to the root, which is often in strengthened form. They are inflected like verbs of the thematic conjugation of the Present System. Several examples have already appeared in the lessons. Two masculine causative active participles described Savitar in the Lesson 2 text: from the root /prath 'spread' prathyan 'extending', and from /vi with preverb n, niveyan 'bringing to rest'. The feminine causative participle prabodhyant 'causing to wake', from /budh 'wake' with preverb pr, described dawn in example number 99. Causative forms of the imperfect tense occurred in example 113, aprathayas 'you caused to spread' from /prath again, and example 143, arocayan 'they caused to shine' from /ruc; both verbs have lost the accent as the main verb in the sentence. Another masculine causative active participle describes the sun in the first verse of this lesson text, helayan 'not causing hostility', where the causative element -ya has lost the accent to the privative prefix.

Some verbs which are causative in form however lack a causative sense, like mdayante 'they delight in' from /mad 'delight in' in example 213 in the last section. Two participles which are causative in appearance but have no causative sense have also occurred in the examples: the first element of the compound dhrayt-ksiti 'sustaining the races of man' in example 205 at the beginning of this lesson is from the root /dhr 'hold fast, sustain', and in example 192, mno jvistham patyatsu anth (VI, 9, 5) 'among flying things the understanding is swiftest', patyatsu is locative plural of patyant, from /pat 'fly, fall' (compare Greek petomai). The verse that follows this, VI, 9, 6, quoted below in section 34, gives another example of patya- without a causative sense, and /jan 'produce, create, bear', similarly uses the causative form without distinction of meaning, as in example 216.

  • ym vardhyanti d grah (VI, 44, 5) '(Indra,) whom songs indeed make grow (from /vrdh 'grow')' [215]
  • glhm jytih pitro nv [nu] avindan, satymantr [satymantrs] ajanayann [ajanayan] ussam (VII, 76, 4) 'the fathers found the hidden light, with true prayer (true-prayered) they brought forth (imperfect causative of /jan) the dawn' [216]
  • pr bodhay [bodhaya] pramdhim, jr sasatm iva, pr caksaya rdas vsayossah [vsaya ussas] (I, 134, 3) '(Wind,) wake up (causative imperative, from /budh) abundance, like a lover a sleeping girl (feminine participle, from sasnt 'sleeping'); make both worlds visible (from /caks 'see'), make the dawns light up (from /vas 'shine')' [217]
33.2. The intensive.

The intensive, like the subgroup of athematic verbs described in section 13.1 and most verbs of the Perfect System, is marked by reduplication of the root. The distinguishing feature of the reduplication of the intensive is that the reduplicating vowel is usually strong: i and u reduplicate as e and o, a generally reduplicates as , and r as ar. An example of an intensive participle occurred in the last lesson text, where Indra is described as vvisat 'indefatigable', from /vis 'be active'. The inflection of intensives follows that of the reduplicating athematic verbs. Some verbs add a connecting i or before the endings, as in the first example below.

  • kimyr vpro nadyo johavti (Lesson 3 text) 'the poet entreats (from /h, hvate 'call upon') the streams; what does he want?' [218]
  • pr y mahimn mahnsu ckite (VI, 61, 13) '(Sarasvati) who is pre-eminent for greatness among the great' (from /cit, ctati 'perceive'; mahimn mahnsu echoes priy priysu from the same poem quoted above in section 31) [219]
  • v pjas prthn ucno, bdhasva dvis raksso mvh (III, 15, 1) '(O fire,) with broad lustre burning (intensive middle participle from /uc 'be bright'), drive away hatreds, the afflictions of the fiend' (compare the perfect middle participle uucn in example 170) [220]
  • ev [ev] na indra vryasya prdhi, pr te mahm sumatm vevidma (VII, 24, 6; VII, 25, 6) 'so, Indra, fill us with bounty, may we ever find (intensive subjunctive of /vid, vindti 'find') great favour with you' [221]
33.3. The desiderative.

Desiderative forms are uncommon, and only one example, yaksantas 'desiring to worship' in the Lesson 6 text, has occurred so far. Like intensives they are marked by reduplication. The reduplicating syllable is in this case usually i, and carries the accent. Desiderative forms add the suffix -sa, often -sa, before the endings, which, as with causatives, are those of the thematic conjugation of the Present System.

  • pr ym ry nnsasi, mrto ys te vaso dat (VIII, 103, 4) 'the one whom you desire to lead forth to treasure (from /n with preverb pr), the mortal who will worship you, generous one' [222]
  • ddrksanta [ddrksante] usso yman aktr, vivsvaty [vivsvatys] mhi citrm nkam, vve jnanti mahin yd gd [ gt], ndrasya krma skrt purni (III, 30, 13) 'they long to see (from /dr), at the approach of the glimmering light of dawn, the great bright face of the radiant one; all know when she has come in her glory -- the many deeds of Indra are well done' [223]
33.4. The denominative.

Most nouns in Sanskrit are derived from verbal roots with the addition of suffixes: mnas, mnman, mans and mntra, from which the compound satya-mantr in example 216 above is formed, are all derivatives of the verbal root /man 'think'. Denominatives are formed the other way round; they are verbal formations made from nouns with the suffix -ya. Like causatives and desideratives, denominatives follow the inflection of thematic verbs of the Present System.

The first two examples below illustrate the chief functions of the twin horsemen, the Ashvins.

  • anrambhan td avrayethm, ansthn agrabhan samudr, yd avin hthur bhujym stam, atritrm nvam tasthivmsam (I, 116, 5) 'you performed that heroic deed (avrayethm, dual middle imperfect, from vr 'hero') in the unsteady, baseless, holdless sea, when, Ashvins, you brought Bhujyu home (stam) aboard a ship with a hundred oars' [224]
  • tbhir no maks tyam avin [avin ] gatam, bhisajytam yd turam (VIII, 22, 10) 'with these (aids), O Ashvins, come to us speedily, quickly, heal (dual active imperative, from bhisj 'healer') what is sick' [225]
  • kratynti krtavo hrts dhtyah (X, 64, 2) 'conceptual powers, thoughts, have power in our hearts (hrd (n) 'heart')' [226]
34. The Future System.

The future tense is rare in the Rigveda, as its function is usually supplied by the subjunctive. It is formed by adding the suffix -sy or -isy to the root, the inflection then again following the thematic conjugation of the Present System. Future participles, like karisynt 'going to do', and the feminine vaksynt 'being about to speak' at VI, 75, 3, are only slightly less rare. Only one modal form (the subjunctive karisys) is found in the Rigveda.

  • sadhanvan [sadhanvans] ydi ev karisytha, skm devar yajyso bhavisyatha (I, 161, 2) 'Sons of Sudhanvan, when you will do so, you will become worthy of worship together with the gods' [227]
  • v me krn patayato v cksur, vdm [v idm] jytir hrdaya [hrdaye] hitam yt, v me mna carati drdhh, km svid vaksymi km u n manisye (VI, 9, 6) 'away fly my ears, off goes my sight, away this light which is set deep in the heart (hrdaya (n), compare hrd in example 226); away goes my understanding with thoughts far away -- what pray shall I say (from /vac), what now then shall I think?' [228]
35. Further notes on the accent.
35.1. Finite verbs.

Verbs are accented if they begin the line or sentence, or if they are in subordinate clauses. In the first verse of the lesson text we know that the verb in the second line, 'you rise', is, like 'you protect' in the first line, dependent on h 'since' because it too is accented. In addition, as a sentence is regarded as only able to have one main verb, subsequent main verbs tend to be accented, as in the first two examples.

In the third example the verb is accented because it is preceded only by a vocative, which is not considered to be part of the sentence. The verb becomes the first true word in the sentence.

  • c [ca] ocistha ddih vi myah (VIII, 60, 6) 'be bright, O brightest one, shine happiness for the folk' [229] (=191)
  • pr pinvadhvam isyanth surdh, vaksnh prndhvam yt bham (III, 33, 12) 'swell forth, refreshing, bringing good gifts, fill full the fertile places, travel swiftly' [230] (=76)
  • vyo yh iv [iva ] divh (VIII, 26, 23) 'O friendly wind, come from heaven' [231]
35.2. Verbs and participles with preverbs.

When a verb in a subordinate clause is immediately preceded by a preverb the two words are compounded and the preverb loses its accent, as in uccrasi and upabrvmahai in the first verse of the lesson text. In the same way, when present participles and preverbs combine the preverb loses the accent, as illustrated by rhant and udynt in the lesson text, and the middle participle usns 'breathing deeply' in example 132. The same is true of perfect participles: compare tasthivms in example 224 above.

The opposite however is generally the case when past participles combine with preverbs or prefixes. The verbal form then loses the accent, as with prsita [pr-isita] in the first line of this lesson text, and nhitsas in the introduction to this lesson and hita in example 228, both of which are formed with the irregular past participle of /dh 'place', hit.

  • ysmin dev mnmani samcranti (X, 12, 8) 'in what thought the gods unite (we do not know)' [232] (=51)
  • yajna vch padavyam yan, tm nv avindann [avindan] rsisu prvistm (X, 71, 3) 'worshipfully they traced the footsteps of Speech; they found her entered (past participle of /vi 'enter' with preverb pr) among the seers' [233]
  • vve jnanti mahin yd gd [ gt], ndrasya krma skrt purni (III, 30, 13) 'all know when she has come in her glory -- the many deeds of Indra are well done (past participle of /kr 'do' with prefix su-)' [234] (=223)
  • agnm le purhitam (I, 1, 1) 'I praise Agni, placed at the head (past participle of /dh with prepositional prefix purs 'in front')' [235]
35.3. Compounds with irregular double accentuation.

Most words are singly accented, even when they are compounds formed by combining two accented words: so from examples in this lesson dharayt-ksiti (205), kav-kratu (206), dev-ista (208), saty-mantra (216), and candr-ms 'shining moon' in the lesson introduction. In such compounds the first word has the form of the uninflected stem. Iterative compounds, as described in section 31, always drop the accent from the second element: div-dive, any-anya.

The names of deities that are regularly addressed together are often combined into ancient dual compounds, like the vocative mitrvarun in the lesson introduction, and when these compounds show the dual ending on both elements, as dyv-prthiv in the lesson text also does, some retain both accents (but not all: see example 238). Similarly vnas-pti 'forest-lord, tree', where the first element has preserved the genitive ending, is doubly accented, as is brhas-pti, perhaps an earlier form of brhmanas pti 'lord of prayer', leading to the triply-accented dual compound ndr-brhaspt at IV, 49, 5.

  • tm no dyvprthiv tn no pa, ndrah rnvantu marto hvam vcah (lesson text) 'that call of ours may Heaven and Earth, the waters, hear, Indra and the storm gods hear that speech' [236]
  • ndra sadhr asanod hni, vnasptmr [vnasptn] asanod antriksam (III, 34, 10) 'Indra won the plants, the days, he won the trees, the atmosphere' (quoted in the introduction to Lesson 6) [237]
  • svast pnthm nu carema, srycandramsv [sry-candramsau] iva (V, 51, 15) 'with wellbeing may we follow the path, like the sun and shining moon' [238]