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Ancient Sanskrit Online

Lesson 7

Karen Thomson and Jonathan Slocum

The opening verse of this passage to the sun turns on two important words of complex meaning in the Rigvedic vocabulary, vratá and krátu. The word vratá (related to Greek ῥη̃μα, and English word) previously occurred in the Lesson 2 text, where Savitar, the driving force behind the solar cycle, both guarded the vratā́ni and protected us with them, a passage that gives an indication of the double sense of the word. On the one hand it describes the unfathomable system that regulates the universe: amī́ yá ŕ̥kṣā níhitāsa uccā́, náktaṃ dádr̥śre kúha cid díveyuḥ, ádabdhāni váruṇasya vratā́ni, vicā́kaśac candrámā náktam eti (I, 24, 10) 'that far off constellation set on high that shows itself at night, wherever does it go by day? Inviolate are the holy laws of Varuna; the shining moon goes keeping watch by night'. But the vratā́ni are also divine commandments, obeyed not only by the waters and the wind in II, 38, 2 (see the introduction to Lesson 2) but also by man if he is wise, as indicated in X, 2, 4, quoted in example 199 in the last lesson.

The second verse of VII, 61, the two halves of which have appeared as examples 56 and 184, describes how a poet can acquire krátu with the help of the gods: prá vāṃ sá mitrāvaruṇāv r̥tā́vā, vípro mánmāni dīrghaśrúd iyarti, yásya bráhmāṇi sukratū ávātha, ā́ yát krátvā ná śarádaḥ pr̥ṇaíthe 'to you, Mitra and Varuna, he, the far-famed holy poet, lifts up his thoughts; whose prayers, O very able pair, you may favour, so that you will fill his autumns with krátu, as it were'. The word is cognate with Greek κράτος 'strength', but significantly in the Rigveda has the sense of reasoning power or intellectual ability, not bodily strength. In another passage, X, 64, 2, the noun krátu is turned into a verb (see section 33.4 in this lesson), kratūyánti krátavo hr̥tsú dhītáyaḥ 'conceptual powers, thoughts, have power in our hearts'.

Reading and Textual Analysis

The lesson text forms the central section, verses 5-10, of X, 37 (863), a poem of 12 verses addressed to the sun. The name ́rya, from svàr 'sunlight', is related to Old English svegle and also to Homeric Greek ἠέλιος. The poem is in the jagatī metre with the exception of verse 10, the last verse here, which is in triṣṭubh. The sun, which is víśvasya sthātúr jágataś ca gopā́ 'guardian of all that stands and moves' in VII, 60, 2, in protecting víśvasya vratám in this passage merits the praise of men, praise which will, thanks to their krátu, be commendable to all the gods.

víśvasya hí préṣito rákṣasi vratám
áheḷayann uccárasi svadhā́ ánu
yád adyá tvā sūrya upabrávāmahai
táṃ no devā́ ánu maṃsīrata krátum

  • víśvasya -- adjective; genitive singular masculine of <víśva> all -- of all
  • -- particle; <> for, because -- since
  • préṣitas -- participle; nominative singular masculine past participle of <√iṣ, íṣyati> send + preverb <prá> forth -- sent forth # The past participle of √iṣ is iṣitá, and the initial i combines with the final a of the preverb to form e.
  • rákṣasi -- verb; 2nd person singular active present of <√rakṣ, rákṣati> protect -- you protect
  • vratám -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <vratá> holy law, divine commandment -- the holy law
  • áheḷayan -- participle; nominative singular masculine present active causative participle of <√hīḍ> be hostile + privative prefix <a-> (reverses meaning) -- not invidious
  • uccárasi -- verb; 2nd person singular active present of <√car, cárati> move + preverb <út> up -- you rise
  • svadhā́s -- noun; accusative plural feminine of <svadhā́> inherent power -- your own powers # Compare svadhā́vant in the last lesson text.
  • ánu -- preposition; <ánu> after -- according to
  • yát -- conjunction; <yát> that, when -- when
  • adyá -- adverb; <adyá> on this day, today -- today # a-dyá, compare Latin ho-die and English to-day.
  • tvā -- personal pronoun; accusative singular enclitic form of <tvám> you -- you
  • sūrya -- noun; vocative singular masculine of <́rya> sun -- O sun
  • upabrávāmahai -- verb; 1st person plural middle subjunctive of <√brū, brávīti> say + preverb <úpa> up to -- we address
  • tám -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <sás, sā́, tát> that; he, she, it -- that
  • nas -- personal pronoun; accusative/dative/genitive enclitic form of <vayám> we -- our
  • devā́s -- noun; nominative plural masculine of <devá> divine, god -- the gods
  • ánu maṃsīrata -- verb; 3rd person plural middle aorist optative of <√man, mányate> think + preverb <ánu> after -- may they commend
  • krátum -- noun; accusative singular masculine of <krátu> power, intellectual ability -- wisdom

táṃ no dyā́vāpr̥thivī́ tán no ā́pa
índraḥ śr̥ṇvantu marúto hávaṃ vácaḥ
́ śū́ne bhūma sū́riyasya saṃdŕ̥śi
bhadráṃ jī́vanto jaraṇā́m aśīmahi

  • tám -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <sás, sā́, tát> that; he, she, it -- that # Agrees with hávam in the second line.
  • nas -- personal pronoun; accusative/dative/genitive enclitic form of <vayám> we -- our
  • dyā́vāpr̥thivī́ -- noun; nominative dual feminine of <dyā́vāpr̥thivī́> Heaven and Earth -- Heaven and Earth
  • tát -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <sás, sā́, tát> that; he, she, it -- that # Agrees with vácas in the second line.
  • nas -- personal pronoun; accusative/dative/genitive enclitic form of <vayám> we -- our
  • ā́pas -- noun; nominative plural feminine of <áp> water -- the waters
  • índras -- noun; nominative singular masculine of <índra> Indra -- Indra
  • śr̥ṇvantu -- verb; 3rd person plural active imperative of <√śru, śr̥ṇóti> hear -- may they hear
  • marútas -- noun; nominative plural masculine of <marút> Marut, storm god -- the storm gods
  • hávam -- noun; accusative singular masculine of <háva> call -- call
  • vácas -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <vácas> word, speech -- speech
  • ́ -- particle; <́> not, that not -- do not
  • śū́ne -- noun; locative singular neuter of <śū́na> lack, want -- in want
  • bhūma -- verb; 1st person plural active aorist injunctive of of <√bhū, bhávati> be -- let us be
  • ́ryasya -- noun; genitive singular masculine of <́rya> sun -- of the sun
  • saṃdŕ̥śi -- noun; locative singular feminine of <saṃdŕ̥ś> sight -- in the sight
  • bhadrám -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <bhadrá> fortunate, happy -- happy
  • ́vantas -- participle; nominative plural masculine present active participle of <√jīv, jī́vati> be alive -- living
  • jaraṇā́m -- noun; accusative singular feminine of <jaraṇā́> old age -- old age
  • aśīmahi -- verb; 1st person plural middle optative of <√aṃś, aśnóti> reach -- may we reach

viśvā́hā tvā sumánasaḥ sucákṣasaḥ
prajā́vanto anamīvā́ ánāgasaḥ
udyántaṃ tvā mitramaho divé-dive
jiyóg jīvā́ḥ práti paśyema sūriya

  • viśvā́ -- adverb; <viśvā́> always -- always
  • tvā -- personal pronoun; accusative singular enclitic form of <tvám> you -- you
  • sumánasas -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <sumánas> good-minded, well-disposed -- with good minds
  • sucákṣasas -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <sucákṣas> well-sighted -- with good sight
  • prajā́vantas -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <prajā́vant> having progeny -- rich in projeny
  • anamīvā́s -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <anamīvá> without sickness -- free from sickness # ámīvā (f) 'sickness'.
  • ánāgasas -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <ánāgas> without guilt -- free from guilt # ā́gas (n) 'guilt'.
  • udyántam -- participle; accusative singular masculine present active participle of <√i, éti> go + preverb <út> up -- rising
  • tvā -- personal pronoun; accusative singular enclitic form of <tvám> you -- you
  • mitramahas -- adjective; vocative singular masculine of <mitrámahas> friend-great, many-friended -- many-friended
  • divé-dive -- iterative compound; <divé-dive> day after day -- day after day
  • jyók -- adverb; <jyók> for a long time -- a long time
  • jīvā́s -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <jīvá> alive, living -- living
  • práti paśyema -- verb; 1st person plural active optative of <√paś, páśyati> see + preverb <práti> against -- may we behold
  • sūrya -- noun; vocative singular masculine of <́rya> sun -- O sun

máhi jyótir bíbhrataṃ tvā vicakṣaṇa
bhā́svantaṃ cákṣuṣe-cakṣuṣe máyaḥ
āróhantam br̥hatáḥ pā́jasas pári
vayáṃ jīvā́ḥ práti paśyema sūriya

  • máhi -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <máh> great -- great
  • jyótis -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <jyótis> light -- light
  • bíbhratam -- participle; accusative singular masculine present active participle of <√bhr̥, bhárati> bring, bear -- bringing # From the alternative reduplicating form of the present tense.
  • tvā -- personal pronoun; accusative singular enclitic form of <tvám> you -- you
  • vicakṣaṇa -- adjective; vocative singular masculine of <vicakṣaṇá> far-sighted, discerning -- O far-seeing one
  • bhā́svantam -- adjective; accusative singular masculine of <bhā́svant> possessing light, brightness -- with brightness
  • cákṣuṣe-cakṣuṣe -- iterative compound; <cákṣuṣe-cakṣuṣe> to every eye -- to every eye # Like cákṣas 'seeing, sight' and vicakṣaṇá in the previous line, from the root √cakṣ, cáṣṭe 'see'.
  • máyas -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <máyas> happiness -- a joy
  • āróhantam -- participle; accusative singular masculine present active participle of <√ruh, róhati> rise up + preverb <ā́> (intensifies or reverses meaning) -- rising up
  • br̥hatás -- adjective; ablative singular neuter of <br̥hánt> high, lofty -- from the lofty
  • ́jasas -- noun; ablative singular neuter of <́jas> radiance, lustre -- radiance
  • pári -- preposition; <pári> around, out of -- out of
  • vayám -- personal pronoun; nominative of <vayám> we -- we
  • jīvā́s -- adjective; nominative plural masculine of <jīvá> alive, living -- living
  • práti paśyema -- verb; 1st person plural active optative of <√paś, páśyati> see + preverb <práti> against -- may we look upon
  • sūrya -- noun; vocative singular masculine of <́rya> sun -- O sun

yásya te víśvā bhúvanāni ketúnā
prá cérate ní ca viśánte aktúbhiḥ
anāgāstvéna harikeśa sūriya
áhnāhnā no vásyasā-vasyasód ihi

  • yásya -- relative pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <yás, yā́, yát> who, which -- whose
  • te -- personal pronoun; dative/genitive singular enclitic form of <tvám> you -- your
  • víśvā -- adjective; nominative plural neuter of <víśva> all -- all
  • bhúvanāni -- noun; nominative plural neuter of <bhúvana> being, existence -- beings
  • ketúnā -- noun; instrumental singular masculine of <ketú> appearance, shining out, ray -- with the appearance
  • ca -- conjunction; <ca> and -- and
  • prá ī́rate -- verb; 3rd person plural middle present of <√r̥, íyarti> go, send + preverb <prá> forth -- set out
  • ca -- conjunction; <ca> and -- and
  • ní viśánte -- verb; 3rd person plural middle present of <√viś, viśáte> enter, come to rest + preverb <> down -- come to rest
  • aktúbhis -- noun; instrumental plural masculine of <aktú> twilight ray -- with twilight rays
  • anāgāstvéna -- adjective; instrumental singular neuter of <anāgastvá> guiltlessness, innocence -- with innocence # From ánāgas in the second verse with suffix -tvá.
  • harikeśa -- adjective; vocative singular masculine of <hárikeśa> gold-tressed -- gold-tressed
  • sūrya -- noun; vocative singular masculine of <́rya> sun -- O sun
  • áhnāhnā -- iterative compound; <áhnā-ahnā> with repeated daylight -- every day with light
  • nas -- personal pronoun; accusative/dative/genitive enclitic form of <vayám> we -- for us
  • vásyasā-vasyasā -- iterative compound; <vásyasā-vasyasā> with better and better -- better and better # From the comparative of vásu, vásyāṃs (superlative vásiṣṭha).
  • út ihi -- verb; 2nd person singular active imperative of <√i, éti> go + preverb <út> up -- rise up

śáṃ no bhava cákṣasā śáṃ no áhnā
śám bhānúnā śáṃ himā́ śáṃ ghr̥ṇéna
yáthā śám ádhvañ chám ásad duroṇé
tát sūriya dráviṇaṃ dhehi citrám

  • śám -- indeclinable; <śám> blessing, blessed -- blessing # Repeated through the verse.
  • nas -- personal pronoun; accusative/dative/genitive enclitic form of <vayám> we -- to us
  • bhava -- verb; 2nd person singular active imperative of <√bhū, bhávati> be -- be
  • cákṣasā -- noun; instrumental singular neuter of <cákṣas> seeing, sight -- with sight
  • nas -- personal pronoun; accusative/dative/genitive enclitic form of <vayám> we -- to us
  • áhnā -- noun; instrumental singular neuter of <áhan> day, daylight -- with daylight
  • bhānúnā -- noun; instrumental singular masculine of <bhānú> brightness, shining -- with brightness
  • himā́ -- noun; instrumental singular masculine of <himá> cold, frost -- with frost # Compare Latin hiems.
  • ghr̥ṇéna -- noun; instrumental singular masculine of <ghr̥ṇá> warmth -- with warmth
  • yáthā -- conjunction; <yáthā> as, so that -- that
  • ádhvan -- noun; locative singular masculine of <ádhvan> way -- on the way
  • ásat -- verb; 3rd person singular active subjunctive of <√as, ásti> be -- there may be
  • duroṇé -- noun; locative singular neuter of <duroṇá> home -- at home
  • tát -- demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <sás, sā́, tát> that; he, she, it -- that
  • sūrya -- noun; vocative singular masculine of <́rya> sun -- O sun
  • dráviṇam -- noun; accusative singular neuter of <dráviṇa> provision -- provision
  • dhehi -- verb; 2nd person singular active imperative of <√dhā, dádhāti> place, grant -- grant
  • citrám -- adjective; accusative singular neuter of <citrá> bright, radiant -- radiant

Lesson Text

víśvasya hí préṣito rákṣasi vratám
áheḷayann uccárasi svadhā́ ánu
yád adyá tvā sūrya upabrávāmahai
táṃ no devā́ ánu maṃsīrata krátum

táṃ no dyā́vāpr̥thivī́ tán no ā́pa
índraḥ śr̥ṇvantu marúto hávaṃ vácaḥ
́ śū́ne bhūma sū́riyasya saṃdŕ̥śi
bhadráṃ jī́vanto jaraṇā́m aśīmahi

viśvā́hā tvā sumánasaḥ sucákṣasaḥ
prajā́vanto anamīvā́ ánāgasaḥ
udyántaṃ tvā mitramaho divé-dive
jiyóg jīvā́ḥ práti paśyema sūriya

máhi jyótir bíbhrataṃ tvā vicakṣaṇa
bhā́svantaṃ cákṣuṣe-cakṣuṣe máyaḥ
āróhantam br̥hatáḥ pā́jasas pári
vayáṃ jīvā́ḥ práti paśyema sūriya

yásya te víśvā bhúvanāni ketúnā
prá cérate ní ca viśánte aktúbhiḥ
anāgāstvéna harikeśa sūriya
áhnāhnā no vásyasā-vasyasód ihi

śáṃ no bhava cákṣasā śáṃ no áhnā
śám bhānúnā śáṃ himā́ śáṃ ghr̥ṇéna
yáthā śám ádhvañ chám ásad duroṇé
tát sūriya dráviṇaṃ dhehi citrám

Translation

Since you, sent forth, protect the holy law of all,
And, not invidious, rise according to your own powers;
When we address you today, O sun,
May the gods commend that wisdom of ours.
That call of ours may Heaven and Earth and the waters, hear,
Indra and the storm gods hear that speech;
Let us not be in want in the sight of the sun,
May we, living, reach a happy old age.
Always with good minds, with good sight
Rich in progeny, free from sickness and from guilt,
May we behold you rising day after day,
Living a long time, O many-friended sun.
Bringing great light, O far-seeing one
With brightness, a joy to every eye,
Rising all around from out the lofty radiance,
May we, living, look upon you, O sun.
With whose appearance all living things set out,
And come to rest with your twilight rays;
With innocence, O gold-tressed sun,
Rise up for us every day with better and better light.
Bless us with sight, bless with daylight,
Bless us with brightness, with frost and with warmth;
That there may be blessing on the way, or at home,
Grant that radiant provision, O sun.

Grammar

31. Iteration.

Iterative compounds, where the same word -- regularly in inflected form -- is repeated, express succession in time or space or repetition, and are a common feature of the Rigveda. Of the four in this lesson text divé-dive 'day after day' is ancient and occurs many times. Such compounds are however freely formed, and often appear only once. The dative cákṣuse-cakṣuse 'to every eye' from cákṣus 'eye, sight' (compare cákṣas 'seeing, sight', and its derivative sucákṣas in the third verse), and the instrumental áhnā-ahnā 'with repeated daylight', together with adjectival vásyasā-vasyasā, 'better and better', are only found in this passage. Any part of speech is capable of being compounded in this way: ihéha [ihá-iha] '(here-here) here and there, everywhere'; yád-yat [yát-yat] 'whatever'.

  • jyótiṣmatīm áditiṃ dhārayátkṣitiṃ, svàrvatīm ā́ sacete divé-dive, jāgr̥vā́ṃsā divé-dive (I, 136, 3) 'you accompany Aditi hither day after day, she who is made of light, sustaining the races of man, possessing sunlight, you two, watchful day after day' [205]
  • agníṃ náro ví bharante gr̥hé-gr̥he [...] agníṃ vr̥ṇānā́ vr̥ṇate kavíkratum (V, 11, 4) 'men distribute fire in every house... choosing Agni they choose the sage-wise' [206] (second line = 80)
  • yád-yad yā́mi tád ā́ bhara (VIII, 61, 6) 'whatever I solicit, bring that hither' [207]
  • samānó ádhvā svásror anantás, tám anyā́nyā [anyā́-anyā] carato deváśiṣṭe (I, 113, 3) 'The sisters (Night and Dawn) have the same unending course, they move along it alternately (other-other), god-instructed' [208]
  • bráhma-brahma yé jujuṣúḥ (IX, 77, 3) 'those who delight in all prayers' [209]

The same word may also be repeated in the sentence in a different case to convey a superlative sense, as in English 'king of kings'. In the last verse of X, 112 sákhe sákhīnām 'O friend of friends / best of friends' is addressed to Indra, and at VI, 61, 10 Sarasvati is described as priyā́ priyā́su 'dear among the dear (f)/ dearest of all streams'. Filial piety is praised as vápuṣo vápuṣṭaram 'more marvellous than a marvel' in X, 32, 3, and the example svādóḥ svā́dīyaḥ 'sweeter than the sweet', describing speech, was given in the last lesson (number 187).

32. Adjectives with pronominal declension.

Some adjectives displaying elements of the pronominal declension that ressemble comparatives and superlatives in form, like ávara 'more recent' and avamá 'most recent', were described in section 29.2 of the last lesson. Another, similarly temporal in meaning and exhibiting both pronominal and adjectival forms, is ́rva 'former, previous'. The adjectives víśva 'every, all' and sárva 'whole, all' (Latin salvus), like éka 'one', follow the pronominal declension with the exception of the nominative/accusative singular neuter forms, víśvam and sárvam. The usual Rigvedic word meaning 'all', víśva, which is superseded in the later language by sárva, has appeared four times in the lesson texts, twice here and twice in Lesson 1, in forms that could be either pronominal or adjectival. In a passage quoted in the Introduction to the Lesson 5 text however it shows its pronominal nature: áditir mātā́ sá pitā́ sá putráḥ, víśve devā́ áditiḥ (I, 89, 10) 'Aditi is mother, father, son; Aditi is all the gods'.

The adjective anyá 'other' in the feminine iterative compound anyā́-anyā in example 208 above, like katará and katamá described in the last section of Lesson 6, follows the pronominal declension throughout. Further pronominal forms are illustrated below. The last example is from the second verse of the lesson text poem.

  • yé cid dhí [cit hí] tvā́m ŕ̥ṣayaḥ pū́rva [pū́rve] ūtáye, juhūré ávase mahi, sā́ na stómām̐ abhí gr̥ṇīhi rā́dhasā (I, 48, 14) 'as all those seers of old invoked you for help, for aid, O great goddess, so reciprocate (lit. 'sing towards') our songs of praise with generosity' [210]
  • prá vīryèṇa devátā́ti [devátā áti] cekite, víśvasmā [víśvasmai] ugráḥ kármaṇe puróhitaḥ (I, 55, 3) 'among the gods (Indra) is pre-eminent for heroism, strong, placed in front for every deed' [211]
  • víśvasmān [víśvasmāt] no áṃhaso níṣ pipartana (1, 106, 1-6) 'from all trouble deliver us' [212]
  • vayā́ [vayā́s] íd agne agnáyas te anyé, tvé víśve amŕ̥tā [amŕ̥tās] mādayante (I, 59, 1) 'other fires, Agni, are indeed your offshoots (vayā́, feminine), all the immortals delight in you' [213]
  • víśvam anyán [anyát] ní viśate yád éjati, viśvā́́po [viśvā́hā ā́pas] viśvā́hód [viśvā́hā út] eti sū́ryaḥ (X, 37, 2) 'all else that stirs comes to rest, always the waters, the sun always rises' [214]
33. Derivative verbs.

There are three derivative conjugations which give the verbal root an extended sense, forming tenses, moods and participles. By far the most common of these is the causative, which, by means of a suffix added to the root, turns 'he goes' into 'he causes to go'. Intensives and desideratives similarly extend the meaning of the root to something like 'he insists on going', and 'he wishes to go'. Allied to these is a class of verbs called denominatives which make verbs out of nouns, like English to holiday (to vacation), or to fish.

33.1. The causative.

Causatives are formed by adding -áya to the root, which is often in strengthened form. They are inflected like verbs of the thematic conjugation of the Present System. Several examples have already appeared in the lessons. Two masculine causative active participles described Savitar in the Lesson 2 text: from the root √prath 'spread' pratháyan 'extending', and from √viś with preverb , niveśáyan 'bringing to rest'. The feminine causative participle prabodháyantī 'causing to wake', from √budh 'wake' with preverb prá, described dawn in example number 99. Causative forms of the imperfect tense occurred in example 113, aprathayas 'you caused to spread' from √prath again, and example 143, arocayan 'they caused to shine' from √ruc; both verbs have lost the accent as the main verb in the sentence. Another masculine causative active participle describes the sun in the first verse of this lesson text, áheḷayan 'not causing hostility', where the causative element -áya has lost the accent to the privative prefix.

Some verbs which are causative in form however lack a causative sense, like mādayante 'they delight in' from √mad 'delight in' in example 213 in the last section. Two participles which are causative in appearance but have no causative sense have also occurred in the examples: the first element of the compound dhārayát-kṣiti 'sustaining the races of man' in example 205 at the beginning of this lesson is from the root √dhr̥ 'hold fast, sustain', and in example 192, máno jáviṣṭham patáyatsu antáḥ (VI, 9, 5) 'among flying things the understanding is swiftest', patáyatsu is locative plural of patáyant, from √pat 'fly, fall' (compare Greek πέτομαι). The verse that follows this, VI, 9, 6, quoted below in section 34, gives another example of patáya- without a causative sense, and √jan 'produce, create, bear', similarly uses the causative form without distinction of meaning, as in example 216.

  • yám vardháyanti íd gíraḥ (VI, 44, 5) '(Indra,) whom songs indeed make grow (from √vr̥dh 'grow')' [215]
  • gūḷháṃ jyótiḥ pitáro ánv [ánu] avindan, satyámantrā [satyámantrās] ajanayann [ajanayan] uṣā́sam (VII, 76, 4) 'the fathers found the hidden light, with true prayer (true-prayered) they brought forth (imperfect causative of √jan) the dawn' [216]
  • prá bodhayā [bodhaya] púraṃdhiṃ, jārá ā́ sasatī́m iva, prá cakṣaya ródasī vāsayoṣásaḥ [vāsaya uṣásas] (I, 134, 3) '(Wind,) wake up (causative imperative, from √budh) abundance, like a lover a sleeping girl (feminine participle, from sasánt 'sleeping'); make both worlds visible (from √cakṣ 'see'), make the dawns light up (from √vas 'shine')' [217]
33.2. The intensive.

The intensive, like the subgroup of athematic verbs described in section 13.1 and most verbs of the Perfect System, is marked by reduplication of the root. The distinguishing feature of the reduplication of the intensive is that the reduplicating vowel is usually strong: i and u reduplicate as e and o, a generally reduplicates as ā, and as ar. An example of an intensive participle occurred in the last lesson text, where Indra is described as véviṣat 'indefatigable', from √viṣ 'be active'. The inflection of intensives follows that of the reduplicating athematic verbs. Some verbs add a connecting i or ī before the endings, as in the first example below.

  • kiṃyúr vípro nadíyo johavīti (Lesson 3 text) 'the poet entreats (from √hū, hávate 'call upon') the streams; what does he want?' [218]
  • prá yā́ mahimnā́ mahínāsu cékite (VI, 61, 13) '(Sarasvati) who is pre-eminent for greatness among the great' (from √cit, cétati 'perceive'; mahimnā́ mahínāsu echoes priyā́ priyā́su from the same poem quoted above in section 31) [219]
  • ví pā́jasā pr̥thúnā śóśucāno, bā́dhasva dviṣó rakṣáso ámīvāḥ (III, 15, 1) '(O fire,) with broad lustre burning (intensive middle participle from √śuc 'be bright'), drive away hatreds, the afflictions of the fiend' (compare the perfect middle participle śuśucāná in example 170) [220]
  • evā́ [evá] na indra vā́ryasya pūrdhi, prá te mahī́ṃ sumatíṃ vevidāma (VII, 24, 6; VII, 25, 6) 'so, Indra, fill us with bounty, may we ever find (intensive subjunctive of √vid, vindáti 'find') great favour with you' [221]
33.3. The desiderative.

Desiderative forms are uncommon, and only one example, íyakṣantas 'desiring to worship' in the Lesson 6 text, has occurred so far. Like intensives they are marked by reduplication. The reduplicating syllable is in this case usually i, and carries the accent. Desiderative forms add the suffix -sa, often -ṣa, before the endings, which, as with causatives, are those of the thematic conjugation of the Present System.

  • prá yáṃ rāyé nínīṣasi, márto yás te vaso dā́śat (VIII, 103, 4) 'the one whom you desire to lead forth to treasure (from √nī with preverb prá), the mortal who will worship you, generous one' [222]
  • dídr̥kṣanta [dídr̥kṣante] uṣáso yā́man aktór, vivásvatyā [vivásvatyās] máhi citrám ánīkam, víśve jānanti mahinā́ yád ā́gād [ā́ ágāt], índrasya kárma súkr̥tā purū́ṇi (III, 30, 13) 'they long to see (from √dr̥ś), at the approach of the glimmering light of dawn, the great bright face of the radiant one; all know when she has come in her glory -- the many deeds of Indra are well done' [223]
33.4. The denominative.

Most nouns in Sanskrit are derived from verbal roots with the addition of suffixes: mánas, mánman, manīṣā́ and mántra, from which the compound satya-mantrá in example 216 above is formed, are all derivatives of the verbal root √man 'think'. Denominatives are formed the other way round; they are verbal formations made from nouns with the suffix -ya. Like causatives and desideratives, denominatives follow the inflection of thematic verbs of the Present System.

The first two examples below illustrate the chief functions of the twin horsemen, the Ashvins.

  • anārambhaṇé tád avīrayethām, anāsthāné agrabhaṇé samudré, yád aśvinā ūháthur bhujyúm ástaṃ, śatā́ritrāṃ nā́vam ātasthivā́ṃsam (I, 116, 5) 'you performed that heroic deed (avīrayethām, dual middle imperfect, from vīrá 'hero') in the unsteady, baseless, holdless sea, when, Ashvins, you brought Bhujyu home (ástam) aboard a ship with a hundred oars' [224]
  • ́bhir no makṣū́́yam aśvinā́ [aśvinā ā́] gatam, bhiṣajyátaṃ yád ā́turam (VIII, 22, 10) 'with these (aids), O Ashvins, come to us speedily, quickly, heal (dual active imperative, from bhiṣáj 'healer') what is sick' [225]
  • kratūyánti krátavo hr̥tsú dhītáyaḥ (X, 64, 2) 'conceptual powers, thoughts, have power in our hearts (hŕ̥d (n) 'heart')' [226]
34. The Future System.

The future tense is rare in the Rigveda, as its function is usually supplied by the subjunctive. It is formed by adding the suffix -syá or -iṣyá to the root, the inflection then again following the thematic conjugation of the Present System. Future participles, like kariṣyánt 'going to do', and the feminine vakṣyántī 'being about to speak' at VI, 75, 3, are only slightly less rare. Only one modal form (the subjunctive kariṣyā́s) is found in the Rigveda.

  • saúdhanvanā [saúdhanvanās] yádi evā́ kariṣyátha, sākáṃ devaír yajñíyāso bhaviṣyatha (I, 161, 2) 'Sons of Sudhanvan, when you will do so, you will become worthy of worship together with the gods' [227]
  • ví me kárṇā patayato ví cákṣur, vī́dáṃ [ví idám] jyótir hŕ̥daya [hŕ̥daye] ā́hitaṃ yát, ví me mánaś carati dūráādhīḥ, kíṃ svid vakṣyā́mi kím u nū́ maniṣye (VI, 9, 6) 'away fly my ears, off goes my sight, away this light which is set deep in the heart (hŕ̥daya (n), compare hŕ̥d in example 226); away goes my understanding with thoughts far away -- what pray shall I say (from √vac), what now then shall I think?' [228]
35. Further notes on the accent.
35.1. Finite verbs.

Verbs are accented if they begin the line or sentence, or if they are in subordinate clauses. In the first verse of the lesson text we know that the verb in the second line, 'you rise', is, like 'you protect' in the first line, dependent on 'since' because it too is accented. In addition, as a sentence is regarded as only able to have one main verb, subsequent main verbs tend to be accented, as in the first two examples.

In the third example the verb is accented because it is preceded only by a vocative, which is not considered to be part of the sentence. The verb becomes the first true word in the sentence.

  • śócā [śóca] śociṣṭha dīdihí viśé máyaḥ (VIII, 60, 6) 'be bright, O brightest one, shine happiness for the folk' [229] (=191)
  • prá pinvadhvam iṣáyantīḥ surā́dhā, ā́ vakṣáṇāḥ pr̥ṇádhvaṃ yātá śī́bham (III, 33, 12) 'swell forth, refreshing, bringing good gifts, fill full the fertile places, travel swiftly' [230] (=76)
  • ́yo yāhí śivā́ [śiva ā́] diváḥ (VIII, 26, 23) 'O friendly wind, come from heaven' [231]
35.2. Verbs and participles with preverbs.

When a verb in a subordinate clause is immediately preceded by a preverb the two words are compounded and the preverb loses its accent, as in uccárasi and upabrávāmahai in the first verse of the lesson text. In the same way, when present participles and preverbs combine the preverb loses the accent, as illustrated by āróhant and udyánt in the lesson text, and the middle participle āśuṣānás 'breathing deeply' in example 132. The same is true of perfect participles: compare ātasthivā́ṃs in example 224 above.

The opposite however is generally the case when past participles combine with preverbs or prefixes. The verbal form then loses the accent, as with préṣita [prá-iṣita] in the first line of this lesson text, and níhitāsas in the introduction to this lesson and ā́hita in example 228, both of which are formed with the irregular past participle of √dhā 'place', hitá.

  • yásmin devā́ mánmani saṃcáranti (X, 12, 8) 'in what thought the gods unite (we do not know)' [232] (=51)
  • yajñéna vācáḥ padavī́yam āyan, tā́m ánv avindann [avindan] ŕ̥ṣiṣu práviṣṭām (X, 71, 3) 'worshipfully they traced the footsteps of Speech; they found her entered (past participle of √viś 'enter' with preverb prá) among the seers' [233]
  • víśve jānanti mahinā́ yád ā́gād [ā́ ágāt], índrasya kárma súkr̥tā purū́ṇi (III, 30, 13) 'all know when she has come in her glory -- the many deeds of Indra are well done (past participle of √kr̥ 'do' with prefix su-)' [234] (=223)
  • agníṃ īḷe puróhitam (I, 1, 1) 'I praise Agni, placed at the head (past participle of √dhā with prepositional prefix purás 'in front')' [235]
35.3. Compounds with irregular double accentuation.

Most words are singly accented, even when they are compounds formed by combining two accented words: so from examples in this lesson dharayát-kṣiti (205), kaví-kratu (206), devá-śiṣṭa (208), satyá-mantra (216), and candrá-mās 'shining moon' in the lesson introduction. In such compounds the first word has the form of the uninflected stem. Iterative compounds, as described in section 31, always drop the accent from the second element: divé-dive, anyá-anya.

The names of deities that are regularly addressed together are often combined into ancient dual compounds, like the vocative mitrāvaruṇā in the lesson introduction, and when these compounds show the dual ending on both elements, as dyā́vā-pr̥thivī́ in the lesson text also does, some retain both accents (but not all: see example 238). Similarly vánas-páti 'forest-lord, tree', where the first element has preserved the genitive ending, is doubly accented, as is bŕ̥has-páti, perhaps an earlier form of bráhmaṇas páti 'lord of prayer', leading to the triply-accented dual compound índrā-bŕ̥haspátī at IV, 49, 5.

  • táṃ no dyā́vāpr̥thivī́ tán no ā́pa, índraḥ śr̥ṇvantu marúto hávaṃ vácaḥ (lesson text) 'that call of ours may Heaven and Earth, the waters, hear, Indra and the storm gods hear that speech' [236]
  • índra óṣadhīr asanod áhāni, vánaspátīm̐r [vánaspátīn] asanod antárikṣam (III, 34, 10) 'Indra won the plants, the days, he won the trees, the atmosphere' (quoted in the introduction to Lesson 6) [237]
  • svastí pánthām ánu carema, sūryācandramásāv [sūryā-candramásau] iva (V, 51, 15) 'with wellbeing may we follow the path, like the sun and shining moon' [238]