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Ancient Sanskrit Online

Table of Contents

Karen Thomson and Jonathan Slocum

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to (Romanized) Sanskrit. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (Romanized and Unicode 2) in the left margin.
Lessons

0. Introduction to Ancient Sanskrit
1. Rigveda I, 98
2. Rigveda IV, 53, 1-6
3. Rigveda III, 33, 4-8
4. Rigveda VII, 81
5. Rigveda VIII, 18, 4-12
6. Rigveda VI, 21, 2-6
7. Rigveda X, 37, 5-10
8. Rigveda V, 42, 13-18
9. Rigveda II, 42 and X, 58
10. Rigveda VIII, 27, 10-20
11. Appendix 1: Sandhi
12. Appendix 2: Index of examples

Grammar Points

1. An introduction to the verb √as 'be'.
2. The personal pronoun.
3. Nominal stems in -i and -u.
4. Verb inflection: active and middle forms of the present tense.
5. The Rigvedic accent.
6. Nominal stems in -a.
7. Present active participles in -ant.
     7.1. Adjectives participial in form: mahánt and br̥hánt.
8. Nominal stems in -tr̥.
     8.1. Agent nouns.
     8.2. Nouns of relationship.
9. Prepositions and preverbs.
10. Simple nominal compounds.
11. The relative pronoun .
     11.1. Use of yát as conjunction.
12. The demonstrative pronouns.
     12.1. sás, sā́, tát 'that', eṣás, eṣā́, etát 'this'.
     12.2. ayám, iyám, idám 'this'.
13. The verb.
     13.1. Present System: thematic and athematic conjugations.
     13.2. General rules of reduplication.
14. The imperative mood.
15. Present middle participles, past participles, and future passive participles.
     15.1. Present middle participles.
     15.2. Past participles.
     15.3. Future passive participles.
16. Stems in -as, -is, and -us.
     16.1. Stems in -as.
     16.2. Stems in -is and -us.
17. Secondary nominal formation.
     17.1. Secondary stems in -a, -ya, and -tvá.
     17.2. Secondary stems in -vant and -mant.
     17.3. Secondary feminine stems in -ī.
18. The imperfect.
19. The subjunctive mood.
20. Word order in the sentence.
21. Prefixes a-, su- and dus-.
22. Nouns in -man, -an and -van.
23. The verb: primary and secondary endings.
24. The optative mood.
25. Numerals.
26. The Perfect System: the perfect tense.
     26.1. Moods of the Perfect System.
27. Perfect participles.
     27.1. Perfect active participles in -vāṃs.
     27.2. Perfect middle participles.
28. Nouns of one syllable ending in consonants.
29. Comparative and Superlative.
     29.1. Primary formation.
     29.2. Secondary formation.
30. Interrogatives.
31. Iteration.
32. Adjectives with pronominal declension.
33. Derivative verbs.
     33.1. The causative.
     33.2. The intensive.
     33.3. The desiderative.
     33.4. The denominative.
34. The Future System.
35. Further notes on the accent.
     35.1. Finite verbs.
     35.2. Verbs and participles with preverbs.
     35.3. Compounds with irregular double accentuation.
36. Secondary stems in -ín.
37. Introduction to the Aorist System: the aorist tense.
     37.1. The simple aorist.
     37.2. The reduplicating aorist.
     37.3. The sigmatic aorist.
38. Omission of the verb.
39. Three nouns with mixed stems.
40. Formulaic cadences and repetitions.
41. Similes introduced by iva and .
     41.1. iva, va.
     41.2. 'like'.
42. yáthā and yathā.
43. Injunctives.
     43.1. Unaugmented past forms.
     43.2. Modal forms.
     43.3. Negative modal forms with ́.
44. Infinitives.
45. Metre.
     45.1. The importance of the metrical evidence.
46. Primary stems in long vowels.
     46.1. Primary stems in and .
     46.2. Primary stems in .
47. Aorist System: participles and moods.
     47.1. Aorist participles.
     47.2. The aorist imperative.
     47.3. The aorist subjunctive.
     47.4. The aorist optative.
48. The passive.
     48.1. The aorist passive.
49. Primary nominal formation.
50. The indological tradition: interpretation of verbal roots and their derivatives in the Rigveda.
     50.1. Abstract, not concrete: the example of √grabh.
     50.2. Later specialization of meaning: the example of √pī.
     50.3. The assumption of ritual meaning: the example of √añj.