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A. Richard Diebold Center for Indo-European Language and Culture

Indo-European Linguistics

Proto-Indo-European Roots

PIE */H/

Laryngeal */H1, H2, H3/

Entries in the table below show Proto-Indo-European (PIE) roots, rendered as etyma where a reconstructed laryngeal phoneme */H/ appears in initial or final position with a contiguous vowel (before > after "coloring"). Each root is linked to a page showing the PIE etymon (spelled, per Pokorny, without laryngeals using the vowels E A O) and Indo-European reflexes thereof.

Note: etyma as spelled on this page have been rendered in ISO-8859-1, but PIE links lead to pages rendered in Unicode 3 -- with other renderings available via links there. [Unicode pages generally render Pokorny's etyma and non-English text more faithfully than is possible in ISO-8859-1, so they are much preferred.]
    Initial Position   Final Position
    PIE *H1ed- > *H1ed- 'to eat'   PIE *dheH1- > *dheH1- 'to put, place'
    PIE *H2ep- > *H2ap- 'water, river'   PIE *steH2- > *staH2- 'to stand'
    PIE *H3ewi-s > *H3owi-s 'sheep'   PIE *deH3- > *doH3- 'to give, donate'