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A. Richard Diebold Center for Indo-European Language and Culture

Indo-European Linguistics

Proto-Indo-European Roots

PIE */a/

Laryngeal */H2e/, */eH2/

Entries in the table below show Proto-Indo-European (PIE) roots, rendered as Pokorny etyma where the reconstructed phoneme */a/ appears in initial (via laryngeal */H2e/) or final (via laryngeal */eH2/) position. Each root is linked to a page showing the PIE etymon and Indo-European reflexes thereof.

Note: Pokorny's etyma as spelled on this page have been rendered in ISO-8859-1, but links lead to pages rendered in Unicode 3 -- with other renderings available via links there. [Unicode pages generally render Pokorny's etyma and non-English text more faithfully than is possible in ISO-8859-1, so they are much preferred.]
    Initial Position   Final Position
    PIE *ayos- 'metal'   PIE *akwa- 'river, water'
    PIE *awes- 'to shine'   PIE *bha- 'to speak'
    PIE *anut- 'duck'   PIE *da 'to share, divide'