The University of Texas at Austin; College of Liberal Arts
Hans C. Boas, Director :: PCL 5.556, 1 University Station S5490 :: Austin, TX 78712 :: 512-471-4566
LRC Links: Home | About | Books Online | EIEOL | IE Doc. Center | IE Lexicon | IE Maps | IE Texts | Pub. Indices | SiteMap

A. Richard Diebold Center for Indo-European Language and Culture

Indo-European Linguistics

Proto-Indo-European Roots

PIE */b/

Glottalic */p'/

Entries in the table below show Proto-Indo-European (PIE) roots, rendered as Pokorny etyma where the reconstructed phoneme */b/ (glottalic */p'/) appears in final position. Each root is linked to a page showing the PIE etymon and Indo-European (IE) reflexes thereof.

Note: Pokorny's etyma as spelled on this page have been rendered in ISO-8859-1, but links lead to pages rendered in Unicode 3 -- with other renderings available via links there. [Unicode pages generally render Pokorny's etyma and non-English text more faithfully than is possible in ISO-8859-1, so they are much preferred.]
    Final Position
    PIE *lab- 'to lick, smack (the lips), etc.'
    PIE *leb- 'lip; to hang down slackly'
    PIE *ghreib- 'to grab, grip'

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) words beginning with *b (glottalic *p') are missing from the lexical inventory. In addition, PIE roots lack the consonant combinations dVb and gVb -- suggesting a constraint on roots with two voiced stops. If voiced stops were originally [pronounced as] glottalics, these apparent oddities would have a typological explanation: glottalized labials tend to be anomalous in human languages, and two glottalized stops seem not to co-occur in the same root.

Re: "Glottalic Theory," see the section on phonology in Thomas V. Gamkrelidze & Vjaceslav V. Ivanov, Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans (1984 Russian original translated by Johanna Nichols; Berlin: de Gruyter, 1995, 2 vol's).