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A. Richard Diebold Center for Indo-European Language and Culture

Indo-European Linguistics

Proto-Indo-European Roots

PIE */kw/

Glottalic */kw(h)/

Entries in the table below show Proto-Indo-European (PIE) roots, rendered as Pokorny etyma where the reconstructed phoneme */kw/ (glottalic */kw(h)/) appears in initial or final position. Each root is linked to a page showing the PIE etymon and Indo-European (IE) reflexes thereof.

Note: Pokorny's etyma as spelled on this page have been rendered in ISO-8859-1, but links lead to pages rendered in Unicode 3 -- with other renderings available via links there. [Unicode pages generally render Pokorny's etyma and non-English text more faithfully than is possible in ISO-8859-1, so they are much preferred.]
    Initial Position   Final Position
    PIE *kwel- 'to turn; wheel'   PIE *leikw- 'to leave'
    PIE *kwat- 'to sour, ferment'   PIE *sekw- 'to follow'
    PIE *kwed- 'to bore, stab'   PIE *pekw- 'to cook'