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A. Richard Diebold Center for Indo-European Language and Culture

Indo-European Linguistics

Proto-Indo-European Roots

PIE */o/

Laryngeal */H3e/, */eH3/

Entries in the table below show Proto-Indo-European (PIE) roots, rendered as Pokorny etyma where the reconstructed phoneme */o/ appears in initial (via laryngeal */H3e/) or final (via laryngeal */eH3/) position. Each root is linked to a page showing the PIE etymon and Indo-European reflexes thereof.

Note: Pokorny's etyma as spelled on this page have been rendered in ISO-8859-1, but links lead to pages rendered in Unicode 3 -- with other renderings available via links there. [Unicode pages generally render Pokorny's etyma and non-English text more faithfully than is possible in ISO-8859-1, so they are much preferred.]
    Initial Position   Final Position
    PIE *og- 'to grow; fruit'   PIE *do- 'to give, donate'
    PIE *okw- 'to see; eye'   PIE *ghesto- 'arm, hand'
    PIE *owi-s 'sheep'   PIE *kapro- 'he-goat'