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A. Richard Diebold Center for Indo-European Language and Culture

Indo-European Texts

Hittite

Jonathan Slocum and Carol Justus

Great Sun Hymn

KUB XXXI 128: I, 1-21 & 39-51

We transcribe, gloss, and translate lines 1-21 & 39-51 in the 1st column of the Hittite tablet catalogued as KUB XXXI 128, this section being the Great Sun Hymn to Istanu. Our transcription follows that in Hans G. Güterbock, "The Composition of Hittite Prayers to the Sun," Journal of the American Oriental Society 78 (1958), pp. 237-245, with some exceptions; see also Güterbock's article in Anatolian Studies 30 (1980), pp. 41-50. Text, glosses, and translation originally prepared by Carol Justus; edited by Jonathan Slocum.

N.B. Square brackets [ ] indicate a restoration where the tablet was broken; angle brackets < > denote an editor's judgment as to what should have been present, but is absent (scribal error?). Parentheses surround numbers referring to lines in [column I of] the tablet; these, of course, are not present in Hittite text. Equal signs ('=') are used to signal enclitic boundaries; for glossing purposes, we treat these as if they were word boundaries. See also notes about Hittite and the cuneiform script.

Column I, lines 1-13:
(1) Istanue isha=mi handanza hannesnas (2) ishas
(1) Istanu voc; lord voc; my; just nom; judgment gen; (2) lord nom
 
nepisas daganzipas=a hassue (3) utne zik dudduskisi
heaven gen; earth gen; and; king voc; (3) land(s) nom/acc; you; rule 2.sg. it-dur.
 
'O Istanu, my lord, just lord of judgment, king of heaven and earth! You alone rule the lands.'
 
irhus=a=kan zik=pat zi[kkisi]
borders acc; and; ptc; you nom; ptc; set 2.sg. it-dur.
 
tarhuilatar (4) zik=pat peskisi [utne ?] anda huisnuskisi
strength nom/acc; (4) you; ptc; give 2.sg. it-dur; [land ?] in; make-live 2.sg. it-dur.
 
'And the boundaries you alone set; you alone give strength, to [the land] you give life.'
 
zik=pat handanza (5) anda genzu daskisi zik=pat
you; ptc; just nom; (5) in; mercy nom/acc; take 2.sg. it-dur; you; ptc.
 
(6) mugauwar zik=pat essatti
(6) prayer nom/acc; you; ptc; fulfill 2.sg. it-dur
 
'You alone are just, you alone have mercy, you alone fulfill prayers.'
 
(7) zik=pat genzuwalas Istanus (8) nu genzu zik=pat daskisi
(7) you; ptc; one-of-mercy nom; Istanu nom; (8) ptc; mercy nom/acc; you; ptc; take 2.sg. it-dur
 
'You are a Sun-god of mercy, you always have mercy.'
 
handanza=kan (9) antuhsas tuk=pat assus
just nom; ptc; (9) man nom; to-you; ptc; good nom
 
n=an zik=pat (10) sarliskisi
ptc; him; you; ptc; (10) promote 2.sg. it-dur
 
'The just person is dear to you alone, and you alone value him.'
 
Istanus suwaru mayanza (11) DUMU dNingal
Istanu nom; fully; grown nom; (11) son; Ningal
 
zamakur=tet SHA NA4.ZA.GÌN-as
beard; your; of; lapis-lazuli gen
 
'Istanu, fully grown son (of) Ningal, your beard (is) of lapis lazuli.'
 
(12) kasa=ta DUMU LÚ.ULÙ.LU-as ÌR=KA (13) aruwa[it]
(12) see; to-you; child; mankind gen; servant; your; (13) bowed 3.sg.
 
nu=ta memiskizzi
ptc; to-you; says 3.sg. it-dur.
 
'Behold! The child of mankind, your servant, has bowed to you, is speaking to you:'

(A scribal line separates 1-13 from 14-21 in column I.)
Column I, lines 14-21:
(14) nepisas taknas=a hulalesni zik=pat (15) Istanus lalukimas
(14) heaven gen; earth gen; and; circumference dat/loc; you; ptc; (15) Istanu nom; light nom
 
'In the circumference of heaven and earth, Istanu, you alone (are) the source of light.'
 
Istanue sarku(e) hassue (16) DUMU dNingal
Istanu voc; strong voc; king voc; (16) son; Ningal
 
utniyandas saklain (17) ishiul zik=pat hanteskisi
lands gen; law acc; (17) contract nom/acc; you; ptc; establish 2.sg. it-dur
 
'O Istanu, mighty king, son (of) Ningal, you alone establish custom and law in the lands.'
 
Istanue (18) sarku hassue siunas=kan istarna zik=pat (19) asnuanza
Istanu voc; (18) mighty; king voc; gods gen; ptc; among; you; ptc; (19) fixing nom
 
'O Istanu, mighty king, among the gods you alone are established.'
 
dassu ishissa tuk=pat piyan
strong; lordship; to-you; ptc; give 3.sg. mid.
 
'Strong lordship is given to you.'
 
(20) handanza maniyahhiyas ishas zik
(20) just nom; government gen; lord nom; you nom
 
(21) dankuwayas utneas attas annas zik
(21) dark gen.pl; lands gen.pl; father nom; mother nom; you nom
 
'You (are) the just lord of government, you (are) father and mother of the lands!'

(...omitting lines 22-38 of column I...)
Column I, lines 39-51:
(39) man=asta karuwarwar Istanus nepisaz (40) sara upzi nu=san sarazziyas utneas
(39) when; ptc; early; Istanu nom; sky abl; (40) up; rises; ptc; ptc; upper dat/loc; lands dat/loc.
 
(41) katteras=a utneyas humandas tuel=pat (42) Istanuwas < lalukkimas > tiyari
(41) lower dat/loc; and; lands dat/loc; all dat/loc; of-you; ptc; (42) Istanu gen; < light nom > enters 3.sg. mid.
 
'When Istanu rises up early through the sky, your light alone, Istanu's, enters all the upper and lower lands,'
 
nu UR.TÚG-as SHAH-as=a hannessar (43) hannatta(ri)
ptc; dog gen; pig gen; and; case nom/acc; (43) decides 3.sg. mid.
 
'(and) decides the case of the dog and the pig.'
 
suppalan=a hannessar issit (44) kues natta memiskanzi
animals acc.pl; and; case nom/acc; mouth inst; (44) who nom.pl; not; speak 3.pl. it-dur.
 
apat=a hannattari
that nom/acc; and; decides 3.sg. mid.
 
'And the case of animals who do not speak with their mouth, that too he (Istanu) decides.'
 
(45) idalauwas=a huwappas=a antuhsas hannessar (46) zik=pat hannatta(ri)
(45) bad gen; and; evil gen; and; man gen; case nom/acc; (46) you; ptc; decide 3.sg. mid.
 
'The case of the bad and evil man you alone decide,'
 
antuhsan=a=z kuin (47) siunes sanzi n=an=san arha paskuwanzi
man acc; and; ptc; whom; (47) gods nom.pl; scorn 3.pl; ptc; him; ptc; away; reject 3.pl.
 
(48) n=an appa zik kappuwasi n=an genzuwasi
(48) ptc; him; again; you; count 2.sg; ptc; him; show-mercy 2.sg.
 
'and the man whom the gods scorn, (whom) they reject, him you reconsider and show mercy.'
 
(49) kun=a LÚ.NAM.ULÙ.LU-as ÌR=KA Istanus luluwai
(49) this (one) acc; and; mankind gen; servant; your; Istanu nom; sustain 2.sg.
 
'And this your mortal servant, Istanu, sustain,'
 
(50) nu Istanui zuwan sessar sipazakiuwan tiyazi
(50) ptc; Istanu dat/loc; bread acc; beer acc; offer supine; take/set 3.sg.
 
(51) n=an hantantan ÌR=KA Istanus kisarta ep
(51) ptc; him; just acc; servant; your; Istanu nom; hand-by; seize 2.sg. imp.
 
'(and when) he begins offering bread and beer to Istanu; him, your just servant, Istanu, take by the hand.'

Key to gloss abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
2.=2nd (person)
3.=3rd (person)
abl.=ablative (case)
acc.=accusative (case)
dat.=dative (case)
gen.=genitive (case)
imp.=imperative (mood)
inst.=instrumental (case)
it-dur.=iterative-durative (action type)
loc.=locative (case)
mid.=middle (voice)
nom.=nominative (case)
pl.=plural (number)
sg.=singular (number)
voc.=vocative (case)