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A. Richard Diebold Center for Indo-European Language and Culture

Indo-European Texts

Old Irish

Douglas Simms and Jonathan Slocum

An Anonymous Old Irish Lyric: 'Summer has gone'

From the Finn-Cycle

Text from Gerard Murphy, ed. & trans., Early Irish Lyrics, Eighth to Twelfth Century (Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, 1956, pp. 160-61). Originally prepared by Douglas Simms; edited by Jonathan Slocum.

Glosses for each line appear to the right. Each bold word/phrase in a gloss corresponds to a single word in the source; non-bold terms indicate grammatical information. The perfect-indicating particle ro is glossed merely as 'ptc'.

Ut dixit Finn úa Baíscni:    Thus spoke Finn of Baíscni:
Scél lem dúib:    tidings neut,; by-me; to-you pl.
    dordaid dam;    bellows pres; stag masc,
snigid gaim;    snows pres; winter masc,
    ro fáith sam;    ptc; has-gone perf; summer masc,
Gáeth ard úar;    wind fem,; high fem,; cold fem,
    ísel grían;    low fem,; sun fem,
gair a rrith;    short masc,; her; run masc,
    ruirthech rían;    strong-running masc,; sea masc,
Rorúad rath;    very-red masc,; bracken masc,
    ro cleth cruth;    ptc; concealed perf. pass; form masc,
ro gab gnáth    ptc; seized perf; usualness masc,
    giugrann guth.    goose masc,; voice masc,
Ro gab úacht    ptc; seized perf; cold masc,
    etti én;    wings fem,; birds masc,
aigre ré;    ice neut,; season fem,
    é mo scél.    these neut,; my neut,; tidings neut,

Key to gloss abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3.=3rd (person)
acc.=accusative (case)
fem.=feminine (gender)
gen.=genitive (case)
masc.=masculine (gender)
neut.=neuter (gender)
nom.=nominative (case)
pass.=passive (voice)
perf.=perfect (aspect)
pl.=plural (number)
pres.=present (tense)
sg.=singular (number)

We have three translations of this Old Irish poem: