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A. Richard Diebold Center for Indo-European Language and Culture

Indo-European Texts

Old Irish

Douglas Simms and Jonathan Slocum

An Anonymous Old Irish Lyric: 'Summer has gone'

From the Finn-Cycle

Text from Gerard Murphy, ed. & trans., Early Irish Lyrics, Eighth to Twelfth Century (Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, 1956, pp. 160-61). Originally prepared by Douglas Simms; edited by Jonathan Slocum.

Glosses for each line appear to the right. Each bold word/phrase in a gloss corresponds to a single word in the source; non-bold terms indicate grammatical information. The perfect-indicating particle ro is glossed merely as 'ptc'.

Ut dixit Finn úa Baíscni:    Thus spoke Finn of Baíscni:
 
Scél lem dúib:    tidings neut, nom.pl; by-me; to-you pl.
    dordaid dam;    bellows 3.sg. pres; stag masc, nom.sg.
snigid gaim;    snows 3.sg. pres; winter masc, nom.sg.
    ro fáith sam;    ptc; has-gone 3.sg. perf; summer masc, nom.sg.
 
Gáeth ard úar;    wind fem, nom.sg; high fem, nom.sg; cold fem, nom.sg.
    ísel grían;    low fem, nom.sg; sun fem, nom.sg.
gair a rrith;    short masc, nom.sg; her; run masc, nom.sg.
    ruirthech rían;    strong-running masc, nom.sg; sea masc, nom.sg.
 
Rorúad rath;    very-red masc, nom.sg; bracken masc, nom.sg.
    ro cleth cruth;    ptc; concealed 3.sg. perf. pass; form masc, nom.sg.
ro gab gnáth    ptc; seized 3.sg. perf; usualness masc, nom.sg.
    giugrann guth.    goose masc, gen.sg; voice masc, acc.sg.
 
Ro gab úacht    ptc; seized 3.sg. perf; cold masc, nom.sg.
    etti én;    wings fem, acc.pl; birds masc, gen.pl.
aigre ré;    ice neut, gen.sg; season fem, nom.sg.
    é mo scél.    these neut, nom.pl; my neut, nom.pl; tidings neut, nom.pl.

Key to gloss abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3.=3rd (person)
acc.=accusative (case)
fem.=feminine (gender)
gen.=genitive (case)
masc.=masculine (gender)
neut.=neuter (gender)
nom.=nominative (case)
pass.=passive (voice)
perf.=perfect (aspect)
pl.=plural (number)
pres.=present (tense)
ptc.=particle
sg.=singular (number)

We have three translations of this Old Irish poem: