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A. Richard Diebold Center for Indo-European Language and Culture

Indo-European Texts

Sanskrit

Jonathan Slocum et al.

Rig Veda: 1.1.1 - 1.1.5

Hymn to Agni

Text from Barend A. van Nooten and Gary B. Holland, eds., Rig Veda: a Metrically Restored Text (Boston: Harvard University Press, 1994), as revised by Karen Thomson and Jonathan Slocum (see online: Metrically Restored Text). Originally prepared by Carol Justus and Douglas Simms, with comments from William Malandra; edited by Jonathan Slocum.

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1.1.1.
agním īḷe puróhitaṃ Agni masc, acc.sg; praise 1.sg. pres. mid; first-placed* masc, acc.sg.
yajñásya devám r̥tvíjam sacrifice masc, gen.sg; divine masc, acc.sg; ministrant masc, acc.sg.
hótāraṃ ratnadhā́tamam invoker masc, acc.sg; treasure-bestower masc, acc.sg, sup.
 
'I magnify Agni the one placed in front*,
the divine ministrant of the sacrifice,
the invoker, best bestower of treasure.'

*Macdonnell's 'domestic-priest' replaced here on analogy with puro-yá:van 'going in front'; see Su:rya Ka:nta Śa:stri:, Vya:karan.ati:rtha, 1953, A Grammatical Dictionary of Sanskrit (Vedic). I - Phonetics (with a complete index to Wackernagel's Altindische Grammatik), and also Macdonell's Vedic Grammar (Delhi: Moolchnd Khira:ti: Ra:m Trust, p. 174).
1.1.2.
agníḥ pū́rvebhir ŕ̥ṣibhir Agni masc, nom.sg; previous masc, inst.pl; seers masc, inst.pl.
ī́ḍiyo nū́tanair utá praise ger, masc, nom.sg; present masc, inst.pl; and ptc.
sá devā́m̐ éhá vakṣati he dem.pron, masc, nom.sg; gods masc, acc.pl; to-here adv; carry 3.sg. aor.subj.
 
'Agni, to be magnified by past and
present seers, may he conduct
the gods to here.'
1.1.3.
agnínā rayím aśnavat Agni masc, inst.sg; wealth masc, acc.sg; attain 3.sg. pres.subj.
póṣam evá divé-dive prosperity masc, acc.sg; thus adv; day-by-day masc, loc, iter.
yaśásaṃ vīrávattamam glorious masc, acc.sg; hero-having masc, acc.sg, sup.
 
'Through Agni may one attain wealth
day by day (and) prosperity, glorious,
(and) most abounding with heroes.'
1.1.4.
ágne yáṃ yajñám adhvaráṃ Agni masc, voc.sg; that masc, acc.sg; worship/sacrifice masc, acc.sg; sacrifice masc, acc.sg.
viśvátaḥ paribhū́r ási on-every-side pron.adj, masc, nom.sg; being-around masc, nom.sg; are 2.sg. pres.ind.
sá íd devéṣu gachati that dem.pron, masc, nom.sg; emph-pcl; gods masc, loc.pl; goes 3.sg. pres.ind.
 
'O Agni, the worship and sacrifice
that thou encompassest on every side,
that same goes among the gods.'
1.1.5.
agnír hótā kavíkratuḥ Agni masc, nom.sg; invoker masc, nom.sg; having-sage-intelligence masc, nom.sg.
satyáś citráśravastamaḥ true masc, nom.sg; brilliant-fame-having masc, nom.sg, sup.
devó devébhir ā́ gamat god masc, nom.sg; gods masc, inst.pl; ptc; come 3.sg. aor.inj.
 
'May Agni the invoker, of wise
intelligence, the true, of most brilliant fame,
the god come with the gods.'

Key to gloss abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
1.=1st (person)
2.=2nd (person)
3.=3rd (person)
acc.=accusative (case)
adj.=adjective
adv.=adverb
aor.=aorist (tense)
dem.=demonstrative
gen.=genitive (case)
ger.=gerund(ive)
ind.=indicative (mood)
inj.=injunctive (mood)
inst.=instrumental (case)
iter.=iterative
loc.=locative (case)
masc.=masculine (gender)
mid.=middle (voice)
nom.=nominative (case)
pl.=plural (number)
pres.=present (tense)
pron.=pronoun
ptc.=particle
sg.=singular (number)
subj.=subjunctive (mood)
sup.=superlative (adj.)
voc.=vocative (case)