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Indo-European Lexicon

Language Indices

Below we list Indo-European languages by family, from west to east. Families are divided into groups, by age and/or geographic area (again, generally from west to east). Each language is listed via a standard abbreviation followed by its full-form name; "a.k.a." comments may indicate synonymous language/dialect names.

If we have prepared an alphabetic index to a particular language's reflexes -- words & affixes therein, derived from ancient Proto-Indo-European etyma -- a link is provided to a page (available in 3 character-set versions) listing those reflexes. This work is in progress: reflex indices are being added on a language-by-language basis, as time goes on, for languages with 10 or more reflexes.

Because our IE Lexicon currently emphasizes Germanic languages, especially English, we have split the Germanic family into four convenient but partly imaginary sub-families:

  1. English (technically part of Anglo-Frisian Low German);
  2. West Germanic (minus all English dialects, per above);
  3. North Germanic (the Norse/Scandinavian languages); and
  4. East Germanic (of which only Gothic is well-attested).

In addition, our Paleo-Balkan "family" lists languages in four groups, of which only Albanian is well-attested and that only recently; the languages in the other groups do not necessarily form a family with Albanian (or each other), but are listed with it mainly for geographic reasons and because there is no other place to put them. No hard conclusions should be drawn from our Paleo-Balkan "family" structure: it is, at best, speculative!

While the Nuristani languages are now considered a third branch of the Indo-Iranian family, the status of the Dardic languages is less clear. Traditionally, Dardic was assigned to the Indic branch; but this was less than certain and, indeed, the languages in our Dardic "family" do not necessarily form a single genetic tree. We have tentatively listed Dardic alongside Indic, next to the Nuristani languages by which Dardic tongues are known to be influenced. Again, no hard conclusions should be drawn from this structural detail.

          Insular (Goidelic)
                    OIr. Old Irish  
                    MIr. Middle Irish  
                    Ir. Irish a.k.a. Irish Gaelic
                    Gael. Gaelic a.k.a. Scots Gaelic
                    ScotG Scots Gaelic  
                    Manx Manx a.k.a. Manx Gaelic
                    Shel. Shelta  
          Insular (Brythonic)
                    OBret. Old Breton  
                    MBret. Middle Breton  
                    Bret. Breton 
                    OCorn. Old Cornish  
                    MCorn. Middle Cornish  
                    Corn. Cornish  
                    Cumb. Cumbric  
                    OW Old Welsh  
                    MW Middle Welsh  
                    W Welsh  
                    Celt. Celtiberian  
                    Gaul. Gaulish  
                    TGaul. Transalpine Gaulish  
                    CGaul. Cisalpine Gaulish  
                    Lep. Lepontic  
                    Noric Noric  
                    Gal. Galatian  

                    OE Old English a.k.a. Anglo-Saxon
                    AS Anglo-Saxon  
                    WSax. West Saxon  
                    Angl. Anglian  
                    NUmb. Northumbrian  
                    Merc. Mercian  
                    Kent. Kentish  
                    ME Middle English 
                    E English a.k.a. New English
                    NE New English  
                    AmEng American English 
                    BritE British English 
                    ScotE Scots English 

West Germanic
          Low German (Anglo-Frisian)
                    OFris. Old Frisian  
                    OWFris. Old West Frisian 
                    MFris. Middle Frisian  
                    Fris. Frisian 
                    WFris. West Frisian a.k.a. Dutch/Netherlands Frisian
                    NFris. North Frisian  
                    EFris. East Frisian  
                    Sater. Saterfriesisch  
          Low German (Dutch, Saxon, etc.)
                    OF Old Frankish a.k.a. Old Franconian
                    ODu. Old Dutch a.k.a. Old Low Franconian
                    OLF Old Low Franconian  
                    MDu. Middle Dutch  
                    Du. Dutch 
                    Afrik. Afrikaans 
                    F Franconian a.k.a. Mainfränkisch
                    OFlem. Old Flemish  
                    MFlem. Middle Flemish  
                    Flem. Flemish 
                    WFlem. West Flemish 
                    Limb. Limburgish a.k.a. Limburger, Limburgan
                    PaG Pennsylvania German a.k.a. Pennsylvania Dutch
                    OS Old Saxon a.k.a. Old Low German
                    OLG Old Low German  
                    MLG Middle Low German  
                    LG Low German a.k.a. Low Saxon
                    LS Low Saxon a.k.a. Low Franconian
                    Thur. Thuringian 
          High German
                    OHG Old High German  
                    MHG Middle High German  
                    MG Middle German a.k.a. Frankish
                    ENHG Early New High German  
                    NHG New High German a.k.a. (Standard) German
                    G German a.k.a. Standard German
                    Bav. Bavarian a.k.a. Austro-Bavarian
                    Alm. Alemannic  
                    Swab. Swabian  
                    Swiss Swiss German a.k.a. Alsatian, Schwyzerdütsch
                    Wals. Walser  
                    Yid. Yiddish  
                    Lux. Luxembourgish 
                    Lang. Langobardic a.k.a. Lombardic

North Germanic
                    Run. Runic  
                    ON Old Norse  
          West Norse
                    OWN Old West Norse  
                    OIce. Old Icelandic  
                    Ice. Icelandic 
                    Faer. Faeroese a.k.a. Faroese
                    Norn Norn  
                    ONorw. Old Norwegian  
                    MNorw. Middle Norwegian  
                    Norw. Norwegian  
                    NBok. Norwegian Bokmål  
                    NNorw. New Norwegian a.k.a. Nynorsk
                    Jamt. Jamtska  
          East Norse
                    OEN Old East Norse  
                    ODan. Old Danish  
                    MDan. Middle Danish 
                    Dan. Danish  
                    OSw. Old Swedish  
                    MSw. Middle Swedish 
                    Sw. Swedish 
                    OGut. Old Gutnish  
                    Gut. Gutnish  

East Germanic
                    Go. Gothic  
                    VisGo. Visigoth  
                    OstGo. Ostrogoth  
                    CrGo. Crimean Gothic  
          other (all marginally attested)
                    Vand. Vandalic  
                    Burg. Burgundian  

                    Ven. Venetic  
                    Aeq. Aequian  
                    Vest. Vestinian  
                    Osc. Oscan  
                    Hern. Hernican  
                    Marr. Marrucinian  
                    Pael. Paelignian  
                    Umb. Umbrian  
                    Mars. Marsian  
                    Sab. Sabine  
                    SPic. South Picene  
                    Vol. Volscian  
                    Fal. Faliscan  
                    OLat. Old Latin  
                    Lat. Latin  
                    VLat. Vulgar Latin  
                    LLat. Late Latin  
                    MLat. Middle Latin  
                    MELat. Medieval Latin a.k.a. Low Latin
                    NLat. New Latin  
          Western Romance
                    OPort. Old Portuguese a.k.a. Medieval Galician, Galician-Portuguese
                    Port. Portuguese  
                    Gali. Galician a.k.a. Galego
                    OSp. Old Spanish  
                    MSp. Middle Spanish  
                    ClSp. Classical Spanish  
                    Lad. Ladino a.k.a. Sefardi, Judaeo-Spanish
                    Sp. Spanish  
                    AmSp. American Spanish a.k.a. New World Spanish
                    MexSp. Mexican Spanish  
                    Arag. Aragonese  
                    OCat. Old Catalan 
                    Cat. Catalan  
                    OFr. Old French  
                    ONFr. Old North French 
                    AngFr. Anglo-French a.k.a. Anglo-Norman
                    Wall. Walloon  
                    MFr. Middle French  
                    Fr. French  
                    AmFr. American French 
                    CanFr. Canadian French a.k.a. Quebec French
                    AcadFr. Acadian French  
                    LaFr. Cajun French  
                    OProv. Old Provençal a.k.a. Old Occitan
                    OOcc. Old Occitan  
                    Occ. Occitan a.k.a. Occitanian
                    Prov. Provençal  
                    OIt. Old Italian  
                    It. Italian 
                    Neap. Neapolitan 
                    Rom. Romansh a.k.a. Romansch, Rhaeto-Romance
          Insular Romance
                    Cors. Corsican  
                    Sard. Sardinian  
                    Sic. Sicilian  
          Eastern Romance
                    Dalm. Dalmatian  
                    Rum. Rumanian a.k.a. Romanian
                    Mold. Moldavian a.k.a. Moldovan
                    Arom. Aromanian a.k.a. Arumanian, Macedo-Romanian
                    Istr. Istro Romanian 
                    Megl. Megleno Romanian 

                    Nadr. Nadruvian  
                    Skal. Skalvian  
                    Galin. Galindan  
                    Sudo. Sudovian a.k.a. Yotvingian
                    OPrus. Old Prussian a.k.a. Prussian
                    Curo. Curonian  
                    Sel. Selonian  
                    Zem. Zemgalian a.k.a. Semigallian
                    OLith. Old Lithuanian  
                    LLith. Low Lithuanian 
                    Lith. Lithuanian  
                    Latv. Latvian a.k.a. Lettish
                    OSlav. Old Slavic 
                    OPol. Old Polish 
                    Pol. Polish 
                    OPom. Old Pomeranian  
                    Kashub. Kashubian 
                    Polab. Polabian  
                    OCz. Old Czech 
                    Cz. Czech 
                    Knaan. Knaanic a.k.a. Canaanic, Judeo-Slavic, Leshon Knaan
                    Slovak Slovak 
                    OSorb. Old Sorbian 
                    Wend. Wendish a.k.a. Sorbian
                    Sorb. Sorbian  
                    USorb. Upper Sorbian 
                    LSorb. Lower Sorbian 
                    Lusat. Lusatian  
                    OSerb. Old Serbian 
                    SCr. Serbo-Croatian  
                    Serb. Serbian  
                    Croat. Croatian  
                    Bosn. Bosnian  
                    Slovene Slovenian 
                    OCS Old Church Slavonic a.k.a. Old Bulgarian
                    LCS Late Church Slavic  
                    Bulg. Bulgarian 
                    MacSl. Macedonian Slavic 
                    ORuss. Old Russian  
                    RCS Russian Church Slavic 
                    Russ. Russian 
                    Ruth. Ruthenian a.k.a. West Russian, Chancery Slavonic
                    Belo. Belorussian 
                    Ukr. Ukrainian  

                    Alb. Albanian  
                    Gheg Gheg  
                    Tosk Tosk  
                    Arv. Arvanitika  
                    Arb. Arbëreshë  
                    Illyr. Illyrian  
                    Mess. Messapic a.k.a. Messapian
                    Thrac. Thracian  
                    Dac. Dacian  
                    Phryg. Phrygian  

                    Myc. Mycenaean  
                    Arcad. Arcadian a.k.a. Arcadocypriot
                    Cyp. Cyprian a.k.a. Arcadocypriot
                    MacGk. Macedonian Greek  
                    Hesy. Hesychius' Greek Lexicon  
                    Ach. Achaean  
                    Dor. Doric a.k.a. Dorian
                    Elean Elean 
                    Lac. Laconian a.k.a. Spartan
                    Aeol. Aeolic a.k.a. Aeolian
                    Boeot. Boeotian 
                    Lesb. Lesbian 
                    Thess. Thessalian 
                    Ion. Ionic a.k.a. Ionian
                    Hom. Homeric Greek a.k.a. Epic Greek
                    Pamph. Pamphylian  
                    Att. Attic  
                    Gk. Greek a.k.a. Classical Greek
                    LGk. Late Greek a.k.a. Koine
                    MGk. Medieval Greek a.k.a. Byzantine Greek
                    NGk. New Greek a.k.a. Modern Greek
                    Cap. Cappadocian  
                    Pont. Pontic  
                    Tsak. Tsakonian  

                    Luw. Luwian  
                    CLuw. Cuneiform Luwian  
                    HLuw. Hieroglyphic Luwian  
                    Lyc. Lycian a.k.a. Lycian A
                    Mil. Milyan a.k.a. Lycian B
                    Car. Carian  
                    Side. Sidetic  
                    Pisid. Pisidic a.k.a. Pisidian
                    Hitt. Hittite  
                    OHitt. Old Hittite  
                    MHitt. Middle Hittite  
                    NHitt. Neo-Hittite  
                    Pala. Palaic  
                    Lyd. Lydian  

                    OArm. Classical Armenian a.k.a. Grabar
                    MArm. Middle Armenian  
                    Arm. Armenian  

                    OIran. Old Iranian  
                    MIran. Middle Iranian  
                    Yas. Yassic  
                    Iran. Iranian  
                    OPers. Old Persian  
                    Med. Median  
                    Pahl. Pahlavi a.k.a. Pehlevi, Middle Persian
                    MPers. Middle Persian  
                    Mani. Manichaean  
                    Parth. Parthian  
                    NPers. New Persian a.k.a. Persian
                    Pers. Persian a.k.a. Farsi, Parsi
                    Farsi Farsi  
                    Balu. Baluchi  
                    Kurd. Kurdish  
                    Par. Parachi 
                    Dari Dari  
                    Taj. Tajik  
                    OAv. Old Avestan 
                    Av. Avestan 
                    YAv. Young Avestan 
                    OScyth. Old Scythian  
                    Scyth. Scythian  
                    Sogd. Sogdian  
                    Bact. Bactrian  
                    Chor. Chorasmian  
                    Alan. Alanic  
                    OOss. Old Ossetic  
                    Khot. Khotanese  
                    Sac. Sacian a.k.a. Sakan
                    Saka. Sakan a.k.a. Sacian
                    Tums. Tumshuqese  
                    Oss. Ossetic a.k.a. Osetin, Ossetian
                    Push. Pushto a.k.a. Pashto
                    Yagn. Yagnobi a.k.a. Yaghnobi
                    Pamir Pamir  
                    Shug. Shughni a.k.a. Shugnan, Shugni
                    Sari. Sarikoli a.k.a. Sarykoly, Salikur
                    Yazg. Yazgulyam  
                    Munj. Munji a.k.a. Munjani
                    Ishk. Ishkashimi  
                    Sang. Sanglechi  
                    Wakh. Wakhi a.k.a. Wakhani
                    Yidg. Yidgha a.k.a. Yidga
                    Wane. Waneci a.k.a. Wanechi, Vanechi
                    Pras. Prasuni a.k.a. Vasi-vari
                    Bash. Bashgali a.k.a. Kati, Kamkata-viri
                    Ashk. Ashkunu  
                    Treg. Tregami a.k.a. Gambiri
                    Waig. Waigali a.k.a. Kalasha-ala
                    Khow. Khowar 
                    Kals. Kalasha a.k.a. Kalasha-mun
                    Kash. Kashmiri  
                    Kish. Kishtwari  
                    Pogu. Poguli  
                    Bat. Bateri 
                    Chil. Chilisso 
                    Gow. Gowro 
                    Kalk. Kalkoti 
                    Kalm. Kalami 
                    Koh. Kohistani  
                    Tira. Tirahi  
                    Torw. Torwali 
                    Wota. Wotapuri-Katarqalai  
                    Dam. Dameli  
                    Gawar Gawar-Bati 
                    Nang. Nangalami  
                    Shum. Shumashti 
                    Pash. Pashayi a.k.a. Pashai
                    PashNW Pashayi-NW a.k.a. NW Pashai
                    PashSW Pashayi-SW a.k.a. SW Pashai
                    PashNE Pashayi-NE a.k.a. NE Pashai
                    PashSE Pashayi-SE a.k.a. SE Pashai
                    Brok. Brokskad a.k.a. Brokskat (?)
                    Domk. Domaaki 
                    Phal. Phalura a.k.a. Palola/Palula/Phalulo
                    ShinKo Shina-Kohistani  
                    Shina Shina 
                    Savi Savi  
                    Ush. Ushojo 
                    RV Rigvedic a.k.a. Rgvedic, Ancient Sanskrit
                    Ved. Vedic  
                    Skt. Sanskrit  
                    Prak. Prakrit  
                    Gand. Gandhari  
                    Pali Pali  
                    Saur. Sauraseni  
                    OMart. Old Marathi  
                    Assm. Assamese 
                    Beng. Bengali 
                    Bhil. Bhili  
                    Bih. Bihari  
                    Domr. Domari a.k.a. Luti, Mehtar, Tsigene, Middle Eastern Romani
                    Guj. Gujarati  
                    Hin. Hindi a.k.a. Hindi-Urdu
                    Khan. Khandeshi  
                    Konk. Konkani  
                    Kum. Kumauni 
                    Lahn. Lahnda  
                    Mald. Maldivian 
                    Mart. Marathi 
                    Nep. Nepali 
                    Ori. Oriya  
                    Pnj. Panjabi a.k.a. Punjabi
                    Raj. Rajasthani  
                    Rmy. Romani a.k.a. Romany, Gypsy
                    Sind. Sindhi  
                    Sinh. Sinhalese a.k.a. Sinhala
                    Thar. Tharu  
                    Urdu Urdu a.k.a. Hindi-Urdu

                    Toch. Tocharian a.k.a. Common Tokharian
                    TochB Tocharian B a.k.a. Kuchean, Tokharian B
                    TochA Tocharian A a.k.a. Turfanian, Tokharian A