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Indo-European Lexicon

Old Frisian Reflex Index

Below we list 1093 unique Old Frisian reflex spellings (words and affixes) in an alphabetic order suitable for the language family. Every spelling is linked to one or more pages, each showing a Proto-Indo-European etymon from which the reflex is derived along with other reflexes (in Old Frisian or other languages) derived from the same PIE etymon. A multi-morpheme reflex may, like English werewolf, be derived from multiple PIE etyma; or a single spelling may, like English bear or lie, represent multiple reflexes derived from different PIE etyma.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

W-Germanic: A | B | C | D | Ð | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | W

ReflexEtyma
aaiu-, akua-
achoku-
achtokto(u)
achtaokto(u)
achteokto(u)
ademaet-mén-
aestaaues-
a-etuek-ti-
æted-
agoku-
agaeik-
ageoku-
aineik-
ak4. au-
akenaueg-
al1. al-
ald2. al-
alsa1. al-
amma3. an(u)-
an4. an-
ana4. an-
andant-s
andaant-s
ander2. an-
andlova1. leip-, oi-no-
aneeneu
appelabel-
ar2. ous-
arbedorbho-
arbeidorbho-
are2. ous-
arm1. ar-, orbho-
arnes-en-
as1. al-
asa1. al-
aschia1. ais-
ase1. al-
askia1. ais-
astaaues-
at1. ad-
ávendepi
a-wetuek-ti-
axeleag-
axleag-
baken1. bha-
balde3. bhel-
balgabhelgh-
balka5. bhel-
balubheleu-
bambheu-
ban2. bha-
bandbhendh-
banna2. bha-
barm-bracco1. bher-
barnabh(e)reu-
beambhi
bed1. bhedh-
bedeambhi
bede2. bhedh-
be-hofkap-
beil2. b(e)u-
beken1. bha-
bel2. b(e)u-
bembheu-
bendebhendh-
berbhares-
bera1. bher-
berchbheregh-
berdbhardha, 1. bher-
berde1. bher-
bere1. bher-
bergbheregh-
bern1. bher-
bernabh(e)reu-
berstabhres-
berth1. bher-
berthe1. bher-
bestebhad-
beterebhad-
betheambhi
betrebhad-
biambhi
biadabheudh-
bida1. bheidh-
bidda2. bhedh-
bidia1. bheidh-
bi-fella3b. pel-
bindabhendh-
binna1. en
binnia1. en
birgbheregh-
bitbheid-
bitabheid-
bitabheid-
bitebheid-
bitibheid-
blæm4. bhel-
blam4. bhel-
blat2. bhleu-
blau3. bhel-
blawbhle-uo-s
bled4. bhel-
bleda4. bhel-
blendabhlendh-
bli1. bhlei-
blid-1. bhlei-
*blide1. bhlei-
blie1. bhlei-
blikabheleg-
blika1. bhlei-
blindbhlendh-
blindabhlendh-
blod4. bhel-
blod-rene3. er-
bloia4. bhel-
bodenbhudh-m(e)n
bodiabheudh-
boga3. bheug-
bogiabheu-
bokbhagó-s
bolla3. bhel-
bon2. bha-
bonabhen-
bonna2. bha-
bordbheredh-
borgabhergh-
botebhad-
botebhad-
boteraguou-
bouwjebheu-
bowabheu-
bradbh(e)reu-
brandbh(e)reu-
brangabhrenk-
bredabh(e)reu-
bregge2. bhru-
breid-gomaghðem-
breinmregh-m(n)o-
breka1. bhreg-
breke1. bhreg-
brengabhrenk-
bridabheruk-
brigge2. bhru-
brinmregh-m(n)o-
bringabhrenk-
brochtebhrenk-
broderbhrater-
brondbh(e)reu-
brotherbhrater-
brukabhrug-
brun5. bher-
brust1. bhreu-s-
bulen2. b(e)u-
burchbheregh-
burichbheregh-
burnabh(e)reu-
butaud-
buteraguou-
buwabheu-
crumb3. ger-
dachagher-
dad2. dheu-
dad2. dheu-
daf4. dheu-
dath2. dheu-
dath2. dheu-
daw1. dheu-
ded2. dhe-
deda2. dheu-
dede2. dhe-
deiagher-
deil1. dhel-
del1. dhel-
deladhelbh-
delvadhelbh-
dema2. dhe-
dern2. dher-
diagher-
diapdheu-b-
diar4. dheu-
dier4. dheu-
dikdheigu-
dimdhem-
diopdheu-b-
diovel2. guel-
diunkdhem-
divel2. guel-
dochterdhug(h)uter-
dom2. dhe-
doredhuer-
dracht2. dher-
dragadheragh-
dram2. dhreugh-
drecht2. dher-
dregadheragh-
dren2. dher-
drenkadhreg-
drinkadhreg-
drinsadhreg-
drivadhreibh-
drochten2. dher-
droptadhreu-
dua2. dhe-
duan2. dhe-
durdhers-
duredhuer-
dwela4. dheu-
dwila4. dheu-
dwirgdhuergh-
ðer1. to-
eaiu-, akua-
ebbaapo-
ed5. ai-
eddereeter-
eddreeter-
edelatos
edlingatos
eftapo-
eftaapo-
efterapo-
eg2. ak-
egeneik-
egineik-
eigeneik-
eineik-
einant-s
eindant-s
eindeant-s
ek2. aig-
ekkeragro-s, 1. al-
elker1. al-
elkes1. al-
elles1. al-
elleva1. leip-, oi-no-
ellis1. al-
elne8. el-
emauo-s
endaant-s
enochenek-
eraier-
eraar(u)-
ere2. ais-
erkeareq-
erm1. ar-, orbho-
ersers-
esnaes-en-
espeapsa
espenapsa
et-eti
eted-
et1. ad-
etaed-
eth5. ai-
ethelatos
ethelatos
ethmaet-mén-
ettaed-
eþelingatos
evelupo
ewaaiu-
ewchaiu-
eweaiu-
ewigaiu-
fapak-
faderputé(r)
faka2. ped-
fal1. pel-
-fald3a. pel-
fallaphol-
fanapan-
fara2b. per-
fare2b. per-
fatpei(u)-
fax2. pek-
fepou-
fedapa-
federputé(r)
feiderputé(r)
fel1. pel-, 3b. pel-
fela3a. pel-
feldpelu-
fella1. pel-
fene2. pen-
fenne2. pen-
fer2a. per-, 2b. per-
fera2b. per-
fere2b. per-
festpasto-, pnksti-
festiapasto-
festigiapasto-
fia2. pek-
fia-ern2. eru-
fiandpe(i)-
fieldpelu-
fifpenkue
fingerpenkue
fingrpenkue
finnapent-
fiorkuetuer-, peuor
fiortigdekm, kuetuer-
fiowerkuetuer-
fir2a. per-
fiskpeisk-
fiuchta2. pek-
fiundpe(i)-
fiurpeuor
fiuwerkuetuer-
fiuwertichdekm, kuetuer-
fiuwertinedekm, kuetuer-
flaskplek-
flaxplek-
flechtpleu-
fleskplek-
fletplat-, pleu-
fliapleu-
fliagapleu-
fliatapleu-
flodpleu-
floedpleu-
fodapa-
fol1. pel-
folk1. pel-
folla1. pel-, pou-
fonapan-
ford2a. per-
forda2b. per-
for-jetaghend-
forma2a. per-
forstpreus-
forth2a. per-
fot2. ped-
fraiaprai-
fregia4. perk-
friprai-
friaprai-
friaiaprai-
friendeiprai-
frigendeiprai-
friondprai-
friundprai-
frodpret-
frostpreus-
fruchta2. perg-
fugelpleu-
ful1. pel-, 2. pu-
fullia1. pel-
furdur2a. per-
furthor2a. per-
fya2. pek-
gad1. ghe-
gaderiaghedh-
gadiaghedh-
gadriaghedh-
gadurghedh-
gaduriaghedh-
gan1. ghe-
gardagherdh-
gariaghedh-
gastgheis-
gatghed-
ge3. e-
geie2. ghe-
ge-lernaleis-
ge-lirnaleis-
ge-mene2. mei-
ger1. ei-
gerdagherdh-
gerdelgherdh-
gevaghabh-
geveghabh-
giata1. gheu-
gled1. ghel-
glisa1. ghel-
godghedh-
godghau-
gold1. ghel-
gomaghðem-
gongghengh-
gongaghengh-
grat2. ghreu-
gre3. gher-
greb2. ghrebh-
gref2. ghrebh-
greneghre-
greva2. ghrebh-
grim2. ghrem-
grimm2. ghrem-
gripaghreib-
groiaghre-
grova1. ghrebh-, 2. ghrebh-
growaghre-
grundghren-
gryslikghrei-
gungghengh-
gungaghengh-
habbakap-
hach2. keu-
hadkap-ut
hæstkei-bh-
hag2. keu-
hakkiakeg-
halda5. kel-
half1. (s)kel-
halt3. kel-
halve1. (s)kel-
hama3. kem-
hangiakenk-
hastkei-bh-
hatiakad-
havedkap-ut
hawakau-
hebbakap-
hebigkap-
-hed(s)kai-
hed2. (s)keu-
-hede(s)kai-
heid(s)kai-
heila3. kenk-
helkai-lo-
helakai-lo-, 3. kenk-
hela4. kel-
helichkai-lo-
hella4. kel-
helm4. kel-
helpakelb-
hemethe3. kem-
hemma1. kem-
henakau-
hengst1. kak-
her1. ker(s)-
hera1. keu-
herd3. kar-, 3. ker(u)-
herekoro-s
herne1. ker-
hertekered-
herth3. ker(u)-
het3. kai-
hetakei-
hete3. kai-
hethenkaito-
hevakap-
himel3. kem-
himel-rik3. kem-
himul3. kem-
hirko-
hirikoro-s
hirtekered-
hirth3. ker(u)-
hladakla-
hladderklei-
hlapa1. kuelp-
hlederklei-
hlestkla-
hli1. kel-
hlud1. kleu-
hnecka1. ken-
hokuo-
hof2. keu-
holkau-l-
hold2. kel-
holt3. kel-
hongkenukó-
honger2. kenk-
horn1. ker-
ho-sene3. kenk-
hotha2. (s)keu-
howakau-
href1. krep-
hrif1. krep-
hrofkrapo-
hukuo-
huakenk-
hud2. (s)keu-
hunddekm, kuon-
hunderd1. ar-, dekm
hund-red1. ar-
hundreddekm
hunger2. kenk-
hunigkenukó-
hus2. (s)keu-
hwakuo-
hwarfkuerp-
hwederkuo-
hwerkuo-
hwervakuerp-
hwetkuo-
hwilekueiu-
hwit3. kuei-
iar1. ei-
iata1. gheu-
ie3. e-
ielne8. el-
ier1. ei-
iestgheis-
ietghed-
ieta3. e-
ig2. ak-
ikeg-
in1. en
ina1. en
inc1. aig-
inna1. en
inne1. en
innere1. en
inra1. en
iowichaiu-
iowighaiu-
irre2. ere-s-
is2. ei-s-
isern1. eis-
it1. ad-
itaed-
jef3. e-
jeldghel-to
jeneno-
jetghed-
jevaghabh-
jof3. e-
jong3. ieu-
jung3. ieu-
kald3. gel(u)-
kanna1. gen-
kela3. gel(u)-
ken2. genu-
keneng1. gen-
kening1. gen-
kenn1. gen-
kenna1. gen-
kervagerebh-
kessaku-
ketha2. gen-
kiasageus-
kin2. genu-
kinig1. gen-
kining1. gen-
kinn1. gen-, 2. genu-
kisekuat(h)-
klad1. gel-
klai1. gel-
klath1. gel-
kleth1. gel-
knapgen-
kne1. genu-
kni1. genu-
kniu1. genu-
knopgen-
koleg(e)u-lo-
komagua-
koning1. gen-
koppgeu-
kornger-
kreft3. ger-
kriapa3. ger-
krocha3. ger-
kuguou-
kud2. gen-
kumagua-
kund2. gen-
kunna2. gen-
kuth2. gen-
lam1. lem-
lanlau-
lareleis-
las2. leu-
lastaleis-
lava1. leip-
leda2. leit(h)-
leð1. leit-
legorlegh-
leialegh-
leischaleg-
lenleiku-
lenaleiku-
leraleiku-
les2. lei-
lesales-
lessa2. lei-
lestaleis-
let3. le(i)-
leta3. le(i)-
letzaleg-
leva1. leip-
lezaleg-
lialeiku-
liachtleuk-
liafleubh-
liaga1. leugh-
libba1. leip-
lichtleguh-
licma2. leig-
liefleubh-
lif1. leip-
ligalegh-
lik2. leig-
likia2. leig-
likkoma2. leig-
liode1. leudh-
lippaleb-
liude1. leudh-
lom1. lem-
luka1. leug-
lustlas-
ma4. me-
machtmagh-
makiamag-
markmereg-
me1. me-
mea2. am-
méchmegh-
medemizdhó-
megithmaghos
mehtmagh-
meidemizdhó-
melkamelg-
melokmelg-
mengiamen(u)k-
mergmoz-g-o-
merkmereg-
merkemereg-
merkiamereg-
metamod-
meta1. med-
metemad-
mi1. me-
middelmedhi-
midemizdhó-
mid-ref1. krep-
milde1. mel-
milte1. mel-
min1. me-
mis-2. mei-t(h)-
missa2. mei-t(h)-
mith2. me-
mod5. me-
modermatér-
monamenot
monadeiagher-
monandeiagher-
monathmenot
monia3. men-
monichmen(e)gh-
morn2. mer-
morth4. mer-
mot1. med-
muganmagh-
mund2. menth-, mu-r
muth2. menth-
nachtneku-(t-)
nakadnogu-
natneu-d-
navla1. enebh-
na-wet1. ne, uek-ti-
ne1. ne
ned2. nau-
nedle(s)ne-
neienek-
neilonogh-
nelde(s)ne-
nema1. nem-
nevanepot-
nienek-
niataneu-d-
nieneuos
nigune-neuen
nima1. nem-
nith2. nei-
nither1. en
nochenek-
nogiaenek-
nomaen(o)mn-
north2. ner-
nosenas-
nosterle5. ter-
nunu-
nunu-
oder2. an-
ofapo-
offria1. bher-
ogeoku-
oke4. au-
ol1. al-
onieneu
opupo
or2. an-
ordelda
oseupo
other2. an-
ovenauqu(h)-
overupér
ovir-bulgenbhelgh-
paedpent-
pathpent-
plichtdhlgh-
prestere2a. per-
pundbend-, 1. (s)pen(-d)-
quan2. guet-
queda2. guet-
quern2. guer-
quetha2. guet-
quik3. guei-
radreudh-
raf2. reu-
ravia2. reu-
red1. ar-
reda1. ar-
rein2. reg-
rekreu-b-
rekareig-
rekenia2. rek-
reknia2. rek-
remareuu-
rendarendh-
rene4. (s)ker-
renna3. er-
resta2. eru-
rethret(h)-
rethe1. ar-
ridareidh-
rike1. reg-
rim1. ar-
rinna3. er-
risa3. er-
riucht1. reg-
roderet-
rumreuu-
run3. er-
sase-
sakesag-
salt1. sal-
samsiu-
saterdeiagher-
savenseptm
schere4. (s)ker-
schild2. (s)kel-
schuld2. (s)kel-
sciata2. (s)keud-
sco2. (s)keu-
scot2. (s)keud-
scowia1. keu-
scriva4. (s)ker-
sesai-
sea2. se(i)-
sed2. se(i)-
sedelsed-
sedsa2. seku-
sega2. seku-
sekseug-
sekasag-
sekesag-
selfse-
se-likse-
selkse-
sella3. sel-
sendasent-
sendees-
sene3. se(i)-
sengasenk-
sersai-
settased-
sia2. seku-, siu-
siakseug-
siatha4. seu-
sibbesed-
side2. se(i)-
siekseug-
sigunseptm
sin3. se(i)-
singasenguh-
sini3. se(i)-
sinie3. se(i)-
sinnasent-
sittased-
skal2. (s)kel-
skall1. (s)kel-
skame3. kem-
skawia1. keu-
skawia2. (s)keu-
skedaskei-
skela2. (s)kel-
skeld1. (s)kel-
skelde2. (s)kel-
skene1. keu-
sker4. (s)ker-
skera4. (s)ker-
skere4. (s)ker-
skerp4. (s)ker-
sket2. (s)keud-
skethaskei-
sketta2. (s)keud-
skiata2. (s)keud-
skila2. (s)kel-
skilun2. (s)kel-
skinaskai-
-skip2. (s)kep-
skipskei-
-skipe2. (s)kep-
skoch2. (s)keu-
skofskeub-
skolde2. (s)kel-
skome3. kem-
skowia2. (s)keu-
skuvaskeub-
slaslak-
slachteslak-
slepleb-
slepasleub(h)-
slita1. (s)kel-
sliucht3. lei-
smeksmeg(h)-
smekksmeg(h)-
smelmelo-
snithasneit-
snoresnusós
somer3. sem-
son2. seu-
songsenguh-
sper1. (s)per-
spia(s)p(h)ieu-
spiga(s)p(h)ieu-
sponsp(h)e-
spreka*(s)p(h)ereg-
spreke*(s)p(h)ereg-
springaspergh-
spruta2. (s)p(h)er-
stac2. (s)teg-
stace2. (s)teg-
staka2. (s)teg-
stal3. stel-
stall3. stel-
stansta-
standasta-
stap1. (s)teu-
stapsteb(h)-
stapelsteb(h)-
stapulsteb(h)-
stedsta-
stefsteb(h)-
steithsta-
steka(s)teig-
steke(s)teig-
stela3. ster-
stenstai-
stera2. ster-
sterk1. (s)ter-
stet1. (s)teu-
steta1. (s)teu-
stethsta-
stevnesta-
stidsta-
stigasteigh-
stigesteigh-
stith2. sten-
stosta-
stoðsta-
stokk1. (s)teu-
stolsta-
stondasta-
stramsreu-
stre5. ster-
strete5. ster-
strewa5. ster-
strid1. (s)ter-
strida1. (s)ter-
stundesta-
suckse-
sulchse-
sulkse-
sum2. sem-
sumur3. sem-
sun2. seu-
sunu2. seu-
sustersuesor-
suthernsauel-
swara1. suer-
swartsuordo-s
swer1. uer-
swera1. suer-
swere1. uer-
sweria1. uer-
sweria1. suer-
swervasuerbh-
swestersuesor-
swet2. sueid-
swetesuad-
swinsu-s
swingasueng-
tamdeuk-
tamdemu-
tardakru-
tella1. del-
temademu-
tera4. der-
tha1. to-
thach1. to-
thank1. tong-
thanka1. tong-
thekka1. (s)teg-
thenkia1. tong-
ther1. to-
therptreb-
therveterp-
thet1. to-
thiachteu-
thiadeteu-
thiafteup-
thikketegu-
thintu
thing1. tenk-
this1. to-
thisse1. to-
thit1. to-
thius1. to-
tholia1. tel-
thonk1. tong-
thorn7. (s)ter-n-
thornen7. (s)ter-n-
thorptreb-
thorstedhers-
thretrei-
thred3. ter-
threddatrei-
thriatrei-
thriiatrei-
thritichtrei-
thriutrei-
thruch5. ter-
thutu
thumateu-
thuner1. (s)ten-
Thunres-dei1. (s)ten-
thurdhers-
thuradhers-
thurondhers-
thusendteu-
tiadeuk-
tiandekm
tiandadekm
tidda
til2. ad-
timberdem-
timbradem-
timbriadem-
timmeradem-
timmeriadem-
-tinedekm
tode-
to-gaderaghedh-
tolefduo(u)
tonded-
tonger1. (s)ten-
topda
tornig4. der-
tothed-
trastderu-
trederu-
treda3. der-
treppe3. der-
treuwederu-
triuwederu-
trouwaderu-
tun4. dheu-
tungednghu
turfderbh-
tusked-
twaduo(u)
twelefduo(u)
twenduo(u)
tweneduo(u)
twi-duo(u)
twifilduo(u)
twilifduo(u)
twineduo(u)
twintegeduo(u)
twintichduo(u)
twi-raduo(u)
twiskaduo(u)
twiskaaduo(u)
twistduo(u)
tzerleger-
tziesageus-
tzirleger-
tzisekuat(h)-
umbeambhi
undant-s
underndhos
upupo
urdelda
ur-jetaghend-
us3. ne-
user3. ne-
uta-werdud-
uteraud-
wach4. ueik-
wadauadh-
waia10. au(e)-
wainuegh-
wal7. uel-
wald4. uel-
walla7. uel-
wan1. eu-
wania1. eu-
wardia8. uer-
ware8. uer-
waria8. uer-
warld2. al-, uiro-s
wase3. ueis-
waxuokso-
waxaaueg-
wed5. au-
weduadh-
weddiauadh-
wede5. au-
weder10. au(e)-
weer11. uer-
wegauegh-
weiuegh-
weiauegh-
weinuegh-
weit9. au(e)-
wel2. uel-
wella2. uel-
wena1. uen-
wenda1. uendh-
wepauab-
wer11. uer-
weruiro-s
wera8. uer-
werð3h. uer-
were8. uer-
werfkuerp-
wergia3e. uer-
werk2. uerg-
werka2. uerg-
werpa3b. uer-
werth3h. uer-
wertha3h. uer-
werusdeiagher-
wesaueidh-
wesa1. ues-
wet9. au(e)-
weter9. au(e)-
wi1. ue-
wich2. ueik-
wid1. ui-
widweueidh-
wifueip-
wikueik-
wika4. ueik-
wike4. ueik-
wilde4. uel-
willa2. uel-
wind10. au(e)-
winna1. uen-
winter9. au(e)-
wirrauers-
wis2. u(e)id-
wis2. u(e)id-
wis-do2. u(e)id-
wita2. u(e)id-
wite2. u(e)id-
with1. ui-
withir1. ui-
wiþþe1. uei-
wokeraueg-
wolken2. uelk-
won1. eu-
wona1. uen-
wonia1. eu-
word6. uer-
wrald2. al-, uiro-s
wrekaureg-
wuna1. uen-
wundeuen-